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Rhizobial Lipo-Chitooligosaccharides and Gibberellins Enhance Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seed Germination
M. Miransari,D. Smith
Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Gibberellins are plant hormones, enhancing seed germination. The bacterium-to-plant signal, lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) or Nod factors, are of great importance for roots organogenesis and hence, nodule formation and N fixation. Hence, we hypothesized that LCOs like gibberellins may also enhance barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germination. The objectives were to test the effects of gibberellins on barley germination and to test the hypothesis that LCOs may increase seed germination in barley. The concentrations, tested were 10-5 M for gibberellins and 10-6 M and 10-7 and 10-8 M LCOs. Although, gibberellins were able to numerically increase barley germination (up to 18%), the LCOs seemed to be more effective on barley germination as they significantly increased seed germination (up to 44%). Hence, the novel finding indicates that for LCOs may also be very effective on barley seed germination, through inducing morphogenesis and physiological changes in seeds. This finding can have very important agricultural implications.
Effect of Salt Stress on Germination and Seedling Growth of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  [PDF]
Shazia Naseer,A. Nisar,M. Ashraf
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effect of salt stress on germination and seedling growth of two barley varieties, Jow-83 and Jow-87, during winter 1996-97. The results showed that the germination percentage, root and shoot lengths, and fresh and dry weights decreased in both barley varieties with increase in salt level. However, variety Jow-83 showed better response at all salinity levels.
Comparative Germination of Barley Seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) Soaked in Alkaline Media and Effects on Starch and Soluble Proteins
A Perveen, IM Naqvi, R Shah, A Hasnain
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2008,
Abstract: Barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) were germinated after soaking in different alkaline solutions of varied concentrations and pH, at room temperature of 25oC. The rate of germination after 48 hours of soaking of the seeds in distilled water was found to be 35% and the rate for the seeds soaked in the solutions of Ca (OH)2 , KOH and Mg(OH)2 was observed as 60, 66 and 62% respectively. Where-as the rate of germination for the solutions of NaOH and NaHCO3 remained the same as that of the water. The influence in length of rootlets was also examined as a function of the nature of the soaking solutions. Sharp increase in the length was observed in case of Mg (OH)2 and KOH while in NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and NaHCO3 increase in rootlets length was found insignificant . Variation of starch and soluble protein contents in soaked solutions were also examined. Starch and soluble protein contents were found to be the highest in NaOH soaked seeds as 57.7 and 5.95% respectively, compared to 45.07 and 2.50 % for the seeds soaked in water
The Heterotoxicity of Hordeum vulgare L. Extracts in Four Growth Stages on Germination and Seedlings Growth of Avena ludoviciana
M. Kolahi,B. Peivastegan,I. Hadizade,A. Abdali
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Phytotoxicity of barley extracts (Hordeum vulgare L.) on wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu) was investigated. Water extracts five varieties of barley were bioassayed on germination and seedling growth of wild-oat to test the heterotoxicity of barley on wild-oat, study the dynamics of allelopathic potential over four growth stages and identify the most allelopathic plant part of barley in each stage. Whole barley plants were extracted at growth stage 4 (stems not developed enough), whilst for the following growth stages roots, stems, panicles and leaves were extracted separately. Seedling growth bioassays demonstrated that the wild-oat responded differently to the allelopathic potential of barley. For wild-oat radical growth and coleoptile growth were more depressed than germination, though. The allelopathic potential of barley plant parts was not stable over its life cycle for wild-oat. Leaves and stems were the most phytotoxic barley plant parts for wild-oat in the all stages. Among the varieties Eizeh appeared as the best one showing toxicity to seed germination of wild oat at its stage 4 and 8. Results suggested that the response by wild-oat varied depending on the source of allelochemicals (plant part) and the growth stage of the barley plant and kind of variety. The results leaded to conclude that Eizeh variety of barley was good to grow as it has good check on seed germination of wild oat plants as well as it also retarded the growth of root and shoot length of oat.
Seed Hydropriming Effect on Triticum durum and Hordeum vulgare Germination, Seedling Growth and Resistance to Fusarium culmorum
Naceur Djebali
Plant Pathology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of seed hydropriming on germination and seedling growth of Triticum durum (durum wheat: cultivar Karim) and Hordeum vulgare (barley: cultivar Souihli), along with its effect on T. durum resistance to Fusarium culmorum seed infection. Seeds of Karim and Souihli were hydroprimed in distilled water at various time intervals till 9.5 h at 25 and 35°C in the dark. The results showed that the pace of water uptake and seedling growth depends on the soaking time and temperature; however the germination percentage depends only on the soaking time. Karim and Souihli seeds absorbed water very fast for up to 30 min with a higher rate at 35°C in comparison to 25°C. Thereafter, a little change was observed in the speed of water uptake for up to 9.5, with a little higher rate at 35°C. The speed of emergence of radicle, coleoptile and side roots and the seedling fresh weight were enhanced in comparison to the control at 5.5-6.5 h and at 3.5 h of seed hydration in Karim and Souihli, respectively. Hydropriming at 25°C gives better seedling fresh weight in both cereals in comparison to 35°C. The water pre-treatment did not affect the level of seed contamination by saprophytic fungi during germination. The hydroprimed Karim seeds inoculated with F. culmorum showed an increase in seedling growth and a reduction in the percentage of infection in comparison to non-hydroprimed seeds. This difference can be attributed in part to the enhanced germination rate and seedling vigour of the hydroprimed seeds.
Effect of salinity stress on chlorophyll content, proline, water soluble carbohydrate, germination, growth and dry weight of three seedling barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars  [PDF]
Movafegh S.,Razeghi Jadid R.,Kiabi S.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2012,
Abstract: Salinity is a serious environmental constraint to crop production in many parts of the world and the development of crops with improved salt tolerance is proposed as part of solution to this problem. This research was performed out in order to study the effects of different salinity levels on germination, growth, dry weight, proline, water soluble carbohydrate and chlorophyll content of three barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars named Jonoob (INC-54), Reyhan (INC-45) & Nosrat (INC -47).The experiment was carried out using factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications.Seven old seedlings after germination were transferred to Hoagland nutrient solution under the effect of salinity levels (0, 50, 150 and 250 mM NaCl)in during seven days. Data variance analysis showed that seed germination of three barley cultivars was significantly (P<0.01) affected by salinity levels. Minimum germination percentage was obtained in highest salinity (250mM NaCl).The sequence of reduction in germination was Jonoob>Reyhan>Nosrat. The results showed that, increasing in salinity decreased all growth parameters. Salinity stress decreased shoot and root length, root dry weight and chlorophyll contents in every three cultivars. But decreasing of chlorophyll was less in Nosrat compared to two other items. Proline content and soluble carbohydrate were increased in all of the three cultivars with enhance of NaCl concentration. By increasing of salinity stress accumulation of proline and soluble sugar content in leaves of Nosrat cultivar was more than other cultivars.As saltiness increases resistance natural responses in this plant gets better considering less decrease in chlorophyll amount and strategy of more production about praline and sugar solution compared to two other items.
Osmolytes-antioxidant Behaviour in Phaseolus vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare with Brassinosteroid under Salt Stress  [PDF]
Akram A. Ali,Ragab I. Abdel-Fattah
Journal of Agronomy , 2006,
Abstract: The relationship between compatible solutes (osmolytes) and antioxidants are the strategies that plants have developed to tolerate salt stress. Pre-treatment of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. and Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings with brassinosteroids (BRs) could be enhance their tolerance to saline stress during germination. During the germination period, a considerable increase was observed in proline levels (up to 340%) in the seedlings subjected to saline stress (S), whereas in the BRS group, the proline increment was not significantly. Starting from the fourth day of germination, betaine levels in seedlings pretreated with brassinosteroids and then with water (BRW group) and in BRS showed a significant increase versus C and S seedlings, possibly because such a precursor promotes betaine biosynthesis. This could be responsible for the enhanced growth observed in BRS versus S seedlings, as well as for preventing the decrease in chlorophyll content in the BRS group. The accumulation of betaine seems to correlate with the greater tolerance of these seedlings against saline stress. A relationship between antioxidant glutathione and salt tolerance was observed in both plants, under the effect of brassinosteroid. An index of halophytism was proposed to express tolerances of Phaseolus vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare by brassinosteroid treatment.
An investigation of gamma-radiation sensitivity on in vitro study of Hordeum vulgare L.
Pinaki Chaudhuri,Rupak K. Sengupta,Partha D. Ghosh
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1995, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1995.022
Abstract: Gamma-radiation sensitivity was studied on in vitro condition in Hordeum vulgare L. The variation of callusing response assessed with the increasing level of gamma-radiation treatment and regeneration delayed at higher dose level.
Nature of Gene Action in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  [PDF]
M.M. Rohman,R. Sultana,R. Podder,A.T.M. Tanjimul Islam
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: A 6 x 6 diallel cross (excluding reciprocal) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) dictated both additive and non-additive components were important but dominance components were more predominant than additive components in controlling the inheritance of all the characters under study. The asymmetric distribution of dominant and recessive alleles at loci was found for all the characters. At least 3 groups of genes were found in controlling the dominance in yield. The highest heritability (89%) in narrow sense was observed in 1000 grain weight. Vr-Wr graph indicated over dominance and genetic diversity among the parents.
Relative efficacy of organic manures in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) production  [PDF]
Ofosu-Anim J,Leitch M
Australian Journal of Crop Science , 2009,
Abstract: The effect of organic sources of nutrients on the growth of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was studied in a pot experiment in a heated glasshouse at the University of Wales, Aberyswyth from November 2006 to March 2007. Spring barley seeds were sown in 120 pots containing a mixture of peat and 180g dry weight of poultry manure, cowdung, chicken manure pellet, sheep manure and horse manure. Chicken manure pellet was applied at 3.0 g pot-1 as top dressing. Mineralization pattern of the organic manures was monitored in a parallel experiment with 24 pots containing only the growth media. In this study, organic manures significantly increased plant height and chlorophyll content of leaves over the control plants. The application of inorganic fertilizer increased plant height over chicken manure and compost. In addition chlorophyll content was higher with inorganic fertilizer than cowdung at six weeks after germination. N mineralization significantly varied among organic manure sources with compost having the highest mineralized N and sheep manure the least. Plant tissue analysis revealed significant differences in plant tissue nutrient composition under organic manure treatment. Growing plants in organic manure resulted in 1.2 to1.6-folds, 1.1 to 4-fold and 1.1 to 4.1-fold increases in total N content of plant tissue at four weeks, eight weeks and twelve weeks after germination, respectively. Dry matter production by plants was also significantly increased under organic manure treatments. Organic manure application had the potential of increasing spring barley yield by 1.5 to 4-fold. Cowdung appeared to be the best source of organic manure for spring barley production.
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