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Physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content of water sources in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria
EA Oluyemi, AS Adekunle, AA Adenuga, WO Makinde
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The water quality examination in Ife–North Local Government of Osun State Nigeria was conducted by determining the physico–chemical parameters of 40 samples. Surface water, bore holes, wells and pipe borne water samples were collected from major towns in the Local Government Area and analyzed. Results showed temperature range of 26.5 to 33.0°C, pH (6.53 to 8.90), conductivity (63.0 to 1039.0 μS/cm), resistivity (0.00 to 0.02mΩ.cm), salinity (300.00 to 700.00 mg/L), total solids (90.00 to 1175.00 mg/L), total dissolved solids (37.80–622.50mg/l), suspended solids (34.50 to 794.00 mg/L),dissolved oxygen (4.48 to 9.48 mg/L), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) (0.69 to 6.74 mg/L), chloride (3.64 to 184.04mg/L), Nitrate (1.08 to 53.03 mg/L), phosphate (4.99 to 23.07 mg/L) and sulphate (6.02 to 28.95 mg/L). Results of Atomic Absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) of samples for dissolved trace metals; (Cd, Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr and Fe), showed mean metal concentration to vary widely depending on the source of the water sample as follows: Pb (0.29 ± 0.05 to 6.69 ± 0.53 mg/L), Cd (0.77 ± 0.06 to 2.24 ± 0.08 mg/L), Zn (0.03 ± 2.15 to 0.22 ± 4.64 mg/L), Cu ( 0.18 ± 16.34 to 0.41 ± 5.00 mg/L), Fe (6.00 ± 0.21 to 31.75 ± 0.80mg/L) and Mn (0.14 ± 6.12 to 0.23 ± 99.11 mg/L). The results obtained for the physical parameters agreed with the limits set by both national and international bodies for drinking and domestic water with few exceptions.
Adebowale Odeyemi,Emmanuel Fagbohun,Oluwakemi Akindolapo
Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences , 2011, DOI: 13385178
Abstract: The potability and qualities of Olumirin waterfall, Erin-Ijesa were investigated by determining the total bacteria and coliform count with antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria and physico-chemical qualities of the water samples. Total bacteria and coliform enumeration were determined using pour plating and multiple tube techniques, the antibiotic susceptibility were carried out using disc diffusion method, while physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using standard methods. The mean total viable count of the water samples ranged 14.8 x 102 CFU.ml-1 - 21.3 x 103 CFU.ml-1 while the coliform count ranged 13 -175 MPN/100ml. The identified bacteria isolates and their percentage distribution were E.coli (43.1%), Klebsiella spp (20.7%), Proteus spp (12.1%), Salmonella spp (6.99%), Pseudomonas spp (5.17%), Shigella spp (6.9%), and Enterococcus spp (5.17 %). Antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria isolates were exhibited as follow; Nalixidic acid (31%), Ampicilin (76%), Cotrimoxazole (60%), Gentamicin (19%), Nitrofurantoin (24%), Colitin (48%), Streptomycin (34%) and tetracycline (52%). 82.8% of the isolate exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance. The physico-chemical analysis also revealed the presence of some mineral elements in the water samples. The mineral value of the water samples include; magnesium (84.8 - 93.4) mg.L-1, phosphate (12.6 - 17.1) mg.L-1, sodium (47.8 - 87.6) mg.L-1, potassium (76.6 - 104.5) mg.L-1, chloride (59.0 - 90.2) mg.L-1, zinc (0.75 - 1.82) mg.L-1, lead (0.12 - 0.33) mg.L-1, iron (0.52 - 0.60) mg.L-1, copper (0.12 - 0.27) mg.L-1 while nickel and arsenic were not detected in any of the water samples. Comparing the experimental results with the international water standard for natural water, the waterfall is not fit for consumption or for any domestic purpose unless being treated. Also, problems that may arise from the resistance bacteria strains can be tackled while the new antibiotics can also be developed.
Analysis of Default Risk of Agricultural Loan by Some Selected Commercial Banks in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
KD Adedapo
International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research , 2007,
Abstract: This study examines the default risk involved in agricultural loan and determines the effect it has on the level of loan given to farmers in Osogbo agricultural zone of Osun State. Relevant data were collected from selected commercial banks in the study area through the use of questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression as well as risk analytical techniques (default risk and default rate). It was discovered that both the default rate and default risk were high with an average of more than 50% and 1.3 respectively. This has led to the unwillingness of the banks to grant loan for agricultural purposes. It was therefore recommended that banks should give revolving loan to farmers cooperative societies to reduce default rate and loan diversions since members can serve as watch dog to each other. Banks should also prevent unnecessary delay in loan disbursement to allow for timely use of the loan. Banks should also explore the Agricultural credit guarantee scheme (ACGS) to offset part of the risk in case of default.
Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Turmeric Genotypes Cultivated in Nigeria as Potential Sources of Commercial Colourants
U.J. Ukpabi,N.J. Ogbogu,H.A. Etudaiye,A.O. Olojede
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Powdered dried rhizomes of the major turmeric genotypes (Cl-1, Cl-2) cultivated in Nigeria were physico-chemically analysed (with the aid of laboratory methods and local consumers) for their potential as sources of commercial colourants. Results showed that the colour of the dilute (0.5%) liquid extracts of the dried (at 50, 60 and 70 C) turmeric samples was generally yellow, yellow-orange, lemon-yellow and orange with cold water, hot water, acetone and ethanol, respectively. The organoleptic analysis with local food consumers showed that the experimental turmeric powder samples were generally liked. At the ratio of 1:2000 (turmeric powder: rice w/w), the yellowish cooked rice, coloured by the pigments in some turmeric powder samples was liked much by these local consumers. Furthermore, the commercial oleoresin content of the dehydrated curcuminoid rich turmeric rhizome samples was found to be 14.80 and 14.00% for NCl-1 and NCl-2 genotypes, respectively.
Investigation into the physico-chemical properties and hydrochemical processes of groundwater from commercial boreholes In Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
OE Agbalagba, OH Agbalagba, CP Ononugbo, AA Alao
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The physico-chemical and hydrochemical study of commercial borehole waters in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State have been carried out. Eight commercial borehole water samples were analyze for various physico-chemical parameters using standard methods. The results obtained shows that the water samples quality examined compared favourably with WHO (1998) standard for drinking water. Although the values for pH (5.20±0.14, 6.10±0.10, 6.20±0.10, 6.20±0.20 in well 2, 5, 6, and 7 respectively), electrical conductivity (EC) of 520.00±5.50 mS/cm in well 7, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 9.55±0.26 mg/L in well 3, Ca (9.25±0.10, 8.25±0.03 and 7.90±0.10 mg/L in well 2, 3, and 7 respectively) and all values obtained for Fe exceeded the WHO permissible limits for safe drinking water. The concentration of heavy metals; lead, copper, chromium, cadmium and arsenic (major sources of ground water pollution) were below detectable limit except at well 5, 6, and 7 where lead values of 0.03±0.001, 0.008±0.00, 0.04±0.00 mg/L respectively were obtained. The hydrochemical analysis shows that ion exchange and silicate weathering are the major prevailing hydrochemical processes in the groundwater. All the results obtained were however not significantly different from other reported values within the Niger Delta region. The higher concentrations of some of the parameters (pH, Ec, BOD, Fe, Ca2+) and the present of lead in some samples is an indication of some levels of pollution in the boreholes/ground water. This therefore calls for appropriate treatment measures before the consumption of these waters by the populace to avoid long term accumulative health problems of these pollutants. Recommendations on the strategies to reduce/eliminate some of these pollutants were made.
Distribution Pattern of Healthcare Facilities in Osun State, Nigeria
L Sanni
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2010,
Abstract: Accessibility to healthcare facilities has generally been identified as a major indicator of development, and the existing spatial pattern of distribution of healthcare facilities play very prominent role in gauging the level of efficiency or otherwise of the existing level of provision of these facilities within any region. In this paper we employed the use of locational quotient, which is a measure of spatial pattern of services, to examine the distribution pattern of healthcare facilities in the thirty local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve indices, representing the totality of healthcare delivery by State and local governments in the state were used for the analysis. Our findings indicated existence of gaps in access to healthcare facilities between local government areas in the state, though the observed gap could not easily be attributed to rural-urban dichotomy. We concluded that there was an urgent need for serious intervention on the part of the government in the provision of healthcare facilities in the state, focused on equitable distribution and accessibility to enhance regional development. KEY WORDS: Healthcare facilities; location pattern; location quotient; development gap; Osun state.
Development Inequalities in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria
O A Ajala, A S Aguda
African Research Review , 2007,
Abstract: This paper examined the spatial inequality of development among thirty Local Government Areas of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Based on the results of Principal Component Analysis and Logistic Regression applied to 45 indices of development in all the LGAs for year 2001, the paper identified four major components and six predictor variables as determinants of development inequalities among the LGAs in the State. It revealed regional inequalities of development in the state. Many development indicators are concentrated in a few Local Government Areas that are urban based. Majority of the LGAs are lagging behind on the components of development. This portends serious implications for development planning in the state. It can be concluded that the economy of the entire state is largely underdeveloped. African Research Review Vol. 1 (1) 2007: pp. 25-46
Microbiological and Physico-chemical Evaluation of Some Non-alcoholic Beverages
Bola Osuntogun,O.O. Aboaba
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: The microbial and physico-chemical quality of our commercially produced non-alcoholic beverages-Ginger beer, Soya milk, Soborodo drink and kunun-zaki-were investigated. The organisms isolated included lactic acid bacteria like Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Leuconostoc. Other bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas while the fungi were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Candida and Saccharomyces. Studies were also carried out on the sensory evaluation and shelf-stability during storage. A combination of pasteurization and refrigeration was found most suitable for prolonged shelf life and consumer acceptability. Chemical analysis showed that the major food components were retained, though some toxic elements were detected like Cadmium and-Chromium even above the permissible levels.
Radiometric Survey of River Osun-Osogbo in Osun State of Nigeria
O.O. Alabi,O.O. Adewole
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Survey for radiometric minerals has become important over the last few decades because of the demand for alternative to present common source of energy. Radiometric survey is one of the geophysical techniques in use in exploration for geothermal energy, which is generated mainly from the decay of long-lived radioactive isotopes. Ten fresh rock samples were collected from Osun-Osogbo river. This is to determine their radioactive heat production and the contribution of each radionuclide content. The radiogenic heat production was determined in the laboratory using NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The results shows that the contribution and rate of heat production of 40K, 238U and 232Th in the samples vary significantly with lithology. (rock type) and rock samples OS4 (mica) is associated with high heat production uranium.
Street Mapping of Ife Metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Idowu Sunday Kolawole, Taofik Abayomi Alaga, Samson Akintunde Ogunyemi, Oladimeji Samuel Popoola, Mustapha Olayemi Oloko-Oba
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2016.83033
Abstract: The importance of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in map making cannot be overemphasized because of its ability to integrate spatial data with non-spatial data and also communicate the resulting information in a way that everyone would understand. Several works have taken advantage of the abilities of these technologies to produce street maps using High Resolution Images. The increase in development in Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, has brought about navigation challenge and associated difficulties. This work intends to produce a street map that will ease navigation within the study area and help in road network analysis, site suitability analysis etc. Aerial Photographs, captured in the year 2009 and GeoEye1 Satellite Image of 2011 were used to extract the road network of Ife Metropolis. The image was imported into ArcGIS environment, where the database was created having feature datasets such as roads and special features. To have all the elements in vector format, the image was digitized. The street names collected from the field work was inputted into the database and then subjected to cartographical processes. 512 Roads were captured within four classes of Road Network namely Express road (5), Secondary Road (25), Primary Roads (22) and Street Road (460). This field work revealed that a larger percentage of the roads were not paved, while most of the paved ones have deteriorated and the newly constructed ones were not documented. It also showed that some of the roads were not named according to the standard and some were not named at all. From this study, we recommend that the naming system should be standardized across the study area. It is also recommended that provision should be made for street map revision on a yearly basis so as to account for changes.
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