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Dietary Fats and Oils: Some Evolutionary and Historical Perspectives Concerning Edible Lipids for Human Consumption  [PDF]
Dante Roccisano, Jaliya Kumaratilake, Arthur Saniotis, Maciej Henneberg
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.78070
Abstract: Consumption of fats and oils in the ancient world was examined as a window to human nutritional needs and compared with lipid usage in the modern world, post-1900. In earlier periods, the natural and only source of edible fats and oils came from both animals and plants. These fats and oils played a vital role in the evolution of the human body structure, supporting many biochemical functions. Artifacts from prehistoric periods and the ancient world had indicated that humans were evolutionarily adapted to consume saturated lipids. They also consumed unsaturated fats and oils extracted from animals and plants, now identified as omega-3 to omega-6 in the fatty acid ratio of 1:1, commonly derived from naturally consumed unprocessed products and food sources. These fats and oils assisted in providing the ingredients for the building up of cells and maintaining their structural integrity in tissues, including the brain and other important internal organs, as well as providing energy for many biochemical processes in the body. The double bonds distributed throughout fatty acid carbon chains are a characteristic of unsaturated vegetable oils. They are more structurally diverse in polyunsaturated fats and oils with the greater preponderance for carbon-to-carbon double bonds distributed in the carbon chains. These double bonds are susceptible to generating free radicals. This article considers potential problems that proponents of the prevailing diet-heart cholesterol paradigm of the past 60 years may have neglected. It also presents the possible consequences of abandoning the evolutionarily inherited foods containing extracted natural saturated and monounsaturated fats and oils. Furthermore, the article addresses the contribution of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids to immunity and the possible connection of excess consumption of omega-6 fatty acid to the marked rise in obesity and other non-communicable diseases in modern civilization.
Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products  [PDF]
Alfonso Totosaus
Nacameh , 2011,
Abstract: Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10%) they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.
Estimation of Sterols in Edible Fats and Oils  [PDF]
Syed Mubbasher Sabir,Imran Hayat,Syed Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2003,
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out for the estimation of sterol in edible fats and oils. Ten samples of vanaspati ghee which were most commonly available in the market were subjected to sterol estimation. The samples included Dalda, Tullo, Habib, Fauji, Kissan, ACP, Latif, Family, Zaiqa and Handi vanaspati. Dalda, Tullo and Habib vanaspati contained relatively less amount of cholesterol (10, 14 and 15 mg/g respectively) While, Fauji, Kissan, ACP and Latif vanaspati had the intermediate values of cholesterol (24, 25, 29 and 30 mg/g respectively). Family, Zaiqa and Handi vanaspati contained maximum amount of cholesterol (33, 37 and 40 mg/g respectively). Dalda vanaspati had the least (10 mg/g) while, Handi vanaspati had the highest (40 mg/g) amount of cholesterol. Among other samples butter and Haleeb Desi ghee contained the high amount of cholesterol (27, 7 mg/g respectively), while milk fat, beef tallow and fish fat were low in cholesterol content (3.5, 1 and 4 mg/g respectively). Bear fat had the immense quantity of cholesterol (80 mg/g). The sterol content of edible oils i.e. Corn (23 mg/g), Soybean (9 mg/g), Rapeseed (5 mg/g) and Coconut (0.8 mg/g) were reported less as compared to the sterol content of mustard oil (64 mg/g).
Nutritional and Health Effects of Dietary Fats  [PDF]
W.M. Nimal Ratnayake,G. Sarwar Gilani
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: In the 80`s and early 90`s, nutrition recommendations for the prevention of developing coronary heart disease called for a reduction of total fat in the diet through the substitution of carbohydrate for fat. However, the current scientific evidence does not support a position that a reduction in total fat has a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease, or risk factors for coronary heart disease. The cumulative evidence from recent scientific literature suggests that unless there is a concomitant reduction in saturated fat and trans fatty acids, a reduction in total fat will not lower the risk of developing coronary heart disease. It was also established during the last decade that increased intakes of dietary monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, in particular those fats containing moderate amounts of n-3 fatty acids, might play a role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The fatty acid composition of canola oil is consistent with current nutrition recommendations aimed at reducing the dietary amount of saturated fat and increasing the amounts of monounsaturated and n-3 fats. Canola is characterized by a low level of saturated fatty acids. It is also characterized by high level of monounsaturated fatty acids (viz. oleic acid) and moderate level of n-3 fatty acids, in the form of alpha-linolenic acid. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that canola oil is one of the most desirable source of dietary fat in terms of human health.
The functional properties of fats and oils - A richness of diversity
Belton, Peter
Grasas y Aceites , 2000,
Abstract: A part of the importance of fats and oils derives from the functional properties that they confer to the foods. This is a consequence of their chemical nature and structural features. Lipids are relatively insoluble in water because their large non-polar region. However, they also contain groups with some degree of polarity. The combination of these polar and non-polar groups and their variations is what gives the range of functional properties observed and what made them so valuable. This issue of Grasas y Aceites reviews some of the functional properties of fats and oils. The Editors hope that the studies included will provide an state of the art reference volume of present knowledge and applications in these areas. La importancia de los aceites y grasas se deriva de la funcionalidad que los mismos pueden conferir, debido a sus características químicas y estructurales. Una propiedad clave de los lípidos es su relativa insolubilidad en agua, gracias a su larga región no polar. Sin embargo, los lípidos también contienen grupos con una cierta polaridad. La combinación de estas características de compuestos simultáneamente polares y no polares, así como los diferentes grados de las mismas que pueden encontrarse, son las que les confieren el amplio rango de propiedades funcionales que poseen y su extraordinario valor. En este volumen de Grasas y Aceites se revisan algunas de estas propiedades funcionales. Los Editores esperan que esta edición especial de la Revista constituya una referencia obligada en relación con el estado actual de los conocimientos y las aplicaciones de los temas que se han incluido.
Frying temperatures and minor constituents of oils and fats
Boskou, Dimitrios
Grasas y Aceites , 1998,
Abstract: Two important classes of minor constituents of oils and fats are tocopherols and sterols. Both these classes are biologically active and they also affect the stability and performance of an oil at elevated temperatures. Tocopherols are phenolic antioxidants that react with free radicals and their concentration is reduced signifantly when the oil is heated. α-TocopheroI is lost faster during deep-fat frying than the beta, gamma and delta homologues. In the presence of stronger antioxidants, natural or synthetic, losses of α-tocopherol can be eliminated. Unchanged phytosterols naturally present in vegetable oils are believed to be beneficial for the health. Depending on the chemical structure, phytosterols may act as prooxidants or antioxidants. Sterols with an ethylidene group in the side chain have been found effective in retarding polymerisation at temperatures similar to those of deep-fat frying. Under unfavourable conditions (high temperature, presence of air) oxidation products are formed from sterols and a marked increase in the oxidation rate of the fat is observed. Oxidation products of the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are: hydrocarbons (3,5-diene and 3,5,22-triene), mono-, di- and triunsaturated ketosteroids (4-en-3-one, 3,5-dien-7-one, 3,5,22-trien-7-one), 5,6-epoxy derivatives, 3,7-diols and pregnane derivatives. Other minor constituents which may affect the rate of degradation of unsaturated triacylglycerols at high temperatures are squalene, pigments and phospholipids. Squalene and phospholipids have both been reported to retard the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids under simulated frying conditions. High chlorophyll levels were found to increase the rate of tocopherol decomposition and formation of polymers in rape seed oil heated at 180°C.
Intake of Calcium and Phosphorus and Levels of Bone Mineralization (BMC) and Mineral Bone Density (BMD) of Female Swimmers in the Pubescence Period
Jan Czeczelewski, Barbara D ugo cka, Barbara Raczyńska
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10222-011-0014-8
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineralization (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the osseous tissue in girls training swimming an being in the period of reaching the peak bone mass, as compared to girls being at a similar age and non-practicing sport, taking into account dietary allowances for calcium and phosphorus and dietary ratios of these elements. Both the swimmers and their non-training colleagues were found to meet nutritional demands to the same extent and their diets did not differ in the intakes of energy nor nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorus), which is incorrect in the case of the non-training girls. An alarmingly low intake of calcium at a, simultaneously, excessive intake of protein and phosphorus, as well as incorrect ratios between calcium and phosphorus and between calcium and protein observed especially in the case of the swimmers, might have an adverse effect on the mineralization of osseous tissue in the period of reaching peak bone mass.
Solid Waste Characterization, Fats and Oils in Two Tourist Resorts Cartagena Colombia  [PDF]
Claudia Diaz Mendoza, Juan Carlos Valdelamar, Jhon Jairo Jimenez, Gilma Rosa Avila
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A2001
Abstract:

The objective of the proposed work was collecting samples continuously, once a month, for a period of two years, it was conducted to determine the types of solid waste generated and deposited in the sand of the tourist beaches, finding that there is predominance waste plastics, cigarette butts and organic debris, other parameter analyzed was determination of fats and oils in sand whose results indicate that the levels found are above the detection limit. In conclusion we have that solid waste types commonly arranged in the sand are plastic, the presence of fats and oils in the sand affect the environmental quality of the beach.

Fatty Acid Effect on Carcass The Influence of Various Blends of Dietary Fats Added to Corn-Soybean Meal Based Diets on the Fatty Acid Composition of Broilers  [PDF]
P.W. Waldroup,A.L. Waldroup
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the fatty acid composition of the dietary fat supplement on the fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of broilers. Samples of lard, tallow, poultry oil, and soybean oil, representative of the major source of fats and oils in poultry diets in the United States, were blended in various combinations and fed at 6.34% of the diet in corn-soybean meal broiler finisher diets fed 35 to 56 d of age. Samples of adipose tissue were subjected to fatty acid analysis and regression analysis was used to develop equations for predicting carcass fatty acid composition from the composition of the dietary fat supplement. Highly significant R2 values were observed, indicating that these equations can be used to predict the influence that a particular blend of dietary fatty acids will have upon changes in the fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of broilers fed diets supplemented with these fats. If sources with markedly different fatty acid structures such as coconut oil, linseed oil, or fish oil are used in constructing the fat blends, these equations may not be applicable.
Effects of educational intervention on women’s behaviors in utilization of oils and fats
Batool Karimi,Raheb Ghorbani,Saeed Haghighi,Golamreza Irajian
Koomesh , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Studying the practice of families on fats and oils consumption has an essential role indetermination of health status in a community. Here, we invesyigated the effect of educationalintervention on women’s behavior about oils and fats consumption in Tadayon and Family health centersin Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study, 250 and 255 families were selected by the coincidental clustersampling, before and after intervention, respectively. Data were collected by questionnaire via ofinterview. The intervention consisted of speeches, installation mentioned in the leaflet, leaflet distributionand printing educational materials in the local newspaper.Results: In the majority of families, the first preference of oil for preparation of non fried foods (56.4vs. 36.8, before and after intervention, respectively) and fried foods (60.8 vs. 32.7, before and afterintervention, respectively) was solid hydrogenated vegetable oil. After training, the use of conventionalliquid oil and frying oil for the preparation of fried and non-fired foods was increased significantly(p<0.001). After intervention the percent of subjects who removed the visible fat from red meats wasincreased from 52% to 62.5 % ( p<0.01). In addition, after intervention the percent of people believed tobe harmful usage of hydrogenated oil was increased (p<0.028).Conclusion: The results of this study showed that educational interventions can increase knowledgeand correct behaviors of families in the field of oils and fats consumption. Therefore, implementation andcontinuation of these programs should be regarded in the health system.
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