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Sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs  [cached]
Alberto Brugiapaglia,Gianluigi Destefanis
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.480
Abstract: Five m. longissimus thoracis steaks from different breeds, purchased at retail, were cut into samples and simultaneously photographed under standard shooting conditions. The first photo was taken on samples just arrived at the laboratory, the second one on a freshly cut surface after blooming. Two consumer panels evaluated beef colour using respectively photo 1 and photo 2. Each consumer was asked to rank samples in order of preference. Rank sums were evaluated with Fridman’s test. Immediately after taking the photos, colour was measured with a colorimeter. Regarding photo 1, consumers were able to discriminate one sample, the worst, from all the others. Concerning photo 2, consumers discriminated the worst sample, as in photo 1, but also the best one. Therefore a more accurate colour evaluation can be obtained if the assessment is carried out on a fresh cut surface after blooming. In general consumers preferred samples with high lightness and a relatively high yellowness. The sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs is a promising tool to overcome the difficulties when the meat is directly evaluated. But it is very important to standardize the shooting conditions to obtain a true reproduction of the meat. For this purpose the use of a colour target is useful to check the validity of the adopted parameters.
Water-holding capacity, colour stability and sensory characteristics in meat (M. longissimus dorsi) from reindeer fed two different commercial feeds
Eva Wiklund,Lisbeth Johansson
Rangifer , 2011,
Abstract: Twenty reindeer calves (age 10 months) were included in the study. They were all fed one of two different pelleted feed mixtures ad libitum for two months before slaughter. Ten calves were fed a control diet of conventional pellets (CPD) (Renfor Bas, Lantm nnen, Holmsund, Sweden) and ten calves received pellets enriched with linseed cake (LPD). The reindeer were slaughtered according to standard procedure at Arvidsjaur Renslakt AB, a reindeer slaughter plant in Arvidsjaur, Sweden. At 1 day post mortem, both longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles from each carcass were excised. The left LD was used for sensory evaluation and the right LD for colour and water-holding capacity measurements. The right LD was cut in 4 pieces that were randomly allocated to storage times of 1 day, 1, 2, or 3 weeks at + 4 °C. Samples allocated for storage were vacuum packaged. Evaluation of meat colour was carried out after each of the four storage times while drip loss/purge was registered after 1, 2, and 3 weeks storage at + 4 °C. The left LD muscles were vacuum packaged, frozen at -20 °C and kept frozen until preparation for sensory evaluation. No significant differences were found in carcass quality (carcass weight, EUROP carcass conformation and fat scores), meat colour stability and water-holding capacity of LD samples when comparing the two treatment groups LPD and CPD. However, sensory panellists judged samples from LPD fed reindeer to have a tendency (not significant) to be more tender (P= 0.06) and juicy (P=0.07) than the meat samples from CPD fed reindeer. No flavour differences were found when comparing meat samples from the two treatment groups.
Oxidation Level of Vacuum-Packaged Shredded Meat Treated with Different Concentrations of Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Diacetate and Nisin
Juyang Zhao,Peijun Li,Baohua Kong,Mingcheng Zhang
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The preservatives have been common used in food product, drugs and cosmetics to prevent their aging and decay. Shredded meat has been frequently used in Chinese traditional dishes. However, there is little information available for the corrosion protection of preservatives in commercial shredded meat products. The effect of different concentrations of potassium sorbate, sodium diacetate and nisin on the inhibition of oxidation process of shredded meat was studied. Results showed that potassium sorbate (0.05 g/kg) and nisin (0.2 g/kg) showed the greatest antioxidation activity by determining the Aerobic Plate Count (APC), Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS) and Peroxide Value (PV). It could help to provide theoretical basis for developing convenience shredded meat products with long shelf life.
Nutritional Evaluation of a Dehydrated Shredded Meat Product, (Danbunama)  [PDF]
O.O. Ogunsola,A.B. Omojola
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: The qualitative effects of different oil types used in processing of danbunama, a dehydrated shredded meat product in relation to its palatability, physical, chemical and nutritional attributes are the focus of this study. The effect of different oil types on the sensory qualities of the product was carried out using semitendinosus part of beef. The three different oil types used, decolorized palm oleic oil (T1) local bleached palm oil (T2) and pure groundnut-oil (T3) were subjected to lipid oxidation analysis to determine the Thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) peroxide and acid values at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 9th weeks of storage. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant differences amongst the oil types used on the parameters tested for. The proximate analysis of danbunama determined showed its moisture range to be 4.22-4.50%, crude protein% range of 38.9-43.5%, T1 differed significantly from that of T2 and T3, the crude fat% differed significantly for all oil types. Lipid oxidation in T3 (0.70±0.01) was significantly higher at week 6 while T1 (0.81±0.01) recorded a significantly higher value at week 9. Danbunama can be prepared from any of the oil types and with proper packaging, the nutritional status of the product at week 1 does not significantly differ from that at week 9. The product is a nutritive meal or snack, easy to carry requiring no sophisticated packaging and is quite stable at room temperature. Rancidity will not pose a treat if good quality raw materials are utilized during processing.
Lamb meat colour stability as affected by dietary tannins  [cached]
Giuseppe Luciano,Frank J. Monahan,Valentina Vasta,Luisa Biondi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.507
Abstract: Twenty-one male Comisana lambs were divided into three groups at 45 days of age and were individually penned for 60 days. Seven lambs were fed a concentrate-based diet (C), seven lambs received the same concentrate with the addiction of tannins from quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii; T), whereas the remaining animals were fed exclusively fresh vetch (Vicia sativa; H). Colour descriptors (a*, b* and H*) and metmyoglobin (MMb) percentages were measured on minced semimembranosus muscle over 14 days of refrigerated storage in a high oxygen atmosphere. Regardless of dietary treatment, meat redness decreased, while yellowness and hue angle increased (P < 0.001) over storage duration. However, higher a* values, lower b* values and lower H* values were observed in meat from both H- and T-fed animals as compared to meat from C-fed lambs (P = 0.012; P = 0.02; P = 0.003, respectively). Metmyoglobin formation increased over time (P < 0.001), but H diet resulted in lower metmyoglobin percentages than C diet (P = 0.007). We conclude that the inclusion of tannins into the concentrate improved meat colour stability compared to a tannin-free concentrate. Moreover, the protective effect of tannins against meat discolouration was comparable to that obtained by feeding lambs fresh herbage.
Sensory analysis of hydrolysed meat preparations
Silva, Maria Elisabeth Machado Pinto E;Atzingen, Maria Carolina von;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612010000200010
Abstract: the use of hydrolysed meat in diets contributes to the improvement of protein, vitamin and mineral supply. this work aims at checking the acceptance pattern in meat hydrolysates. four preparations have been developed with three types of hydrolysates in domestic-like conditions. acceptance was verified by means of sensory analysis using the nine-point hedonic scale. sensory tests have been carried out in three sessions (according to the kind of hydrolysates). in the evaluation file, information on age groups has been included. the statistical analysis has been made by anova and tukey test. the best accepted preparation have been the turkey and chicken hydrolysed balls. hydrolysates can be used in many different kinds of preparations, but it is necessary to know both the age group it will be used to and its sensory and chemical-physical features to ensure the taste and the original appearance of the final product.
Effect of ageing period and exposure time on colour traits of vacuum packaged beef meat  [cached]
S. Segato,D. Andreoli,A. Dalle Zotte,G. Fregolent
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2003.s1.331
Abstract: Beef meat colour is an important appearance factor for consumers preference. The bright red colour of bloomed fresh meat increases its desirability and leads to a reduction of economic losses due to discolouration. Visible colour changes occur in the muscle surface in relation to amount and redox state of (deoxy)myoglobin. Exposure to air allows its progressively oxygenation and oxidation in the bright red oxymyoglobin and/or in metmyoglobin which confers a dark red colour to meat (Feldhusen et al., 1995)....
Effect of Breed and Sex on Pork Meat Sensory Evaluation  [PDF]
Sandra Rodrigues, Alfredo Teixeira
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.57070

This work had an objective to evaluate the sensory quality of two categories of pork meat from a commercial pork meat and a selected meat from the Portuguese black pork (Preto Alentejano breed). Sixteen animals were used, 8 females and 8 males from each breed. Animals had 80 - 100 kg of live weight. The longissimus muscle between the 5th thoracic vertebra and the 10th lumbar vertebra was used in the analysis. Sensory analysis was performed by a trained taste panel of 10 elements, in 5 sessions. All evaluation conditions were standardized, and the attributes studied were odor intensity, toughness, juiciness and flavor intensity. The taste panel found differences mainly between breeds. The panellists scored Preto Alentejano meat as being juicier, tenderer, and with richer taste than Commercial meat. The higher juiciness score of Preto Alentejano meat was probably attributable to the higher intramuscular fat content compared with Commercial meat. The Commercial pork was characterized mainly by high toughness.

Processing, physicochemical, and sensory analyses of ostrich meat hamburger
Souza, Vera Lúcia Ferreira de;Sasaki, Jaqueline Yumi;Franco, Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza;Barbosa, Maria José Baptista;Cardozo, Rejane Machado;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612012005000062
Abstract: the objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein. physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories were performed. the formulations underwent sensory analysis by 52 potential ostrich meat consumers, who evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and purchase intent. the formulations containing textured soybean protein showed the highest yield, lowest shrinkage percentage, and highest water retention capacity. lipid content varied from 0.58 to 4.99%; protein from 17.08 to 21.37%; ash from 3.00 to 3.62%; moisture from 73.87 to 76.27%; cholesterol from 22.54 to 32.11 mg.100 g-1; and calorie from 87.22 to 163.42 kcal.100 g-1. all formulations showed low cholesterol and calorie levels, even that containing 10% bacon and 3.5% textured soybean protein, which achieved the best scores and acceptance by the panelists.
Colour variation during processing and quality traits of broiler breast meat  [cached]
M. Petracci,M. Betti,M. Bianchi,M. Cavani
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2003.s1.447
Abstract: A number of scientific papers has recently suggested the possibility of using objective colour measurements to predict functional properties of poultry. Some researches have indicated that lightness (L*) may be able to discriminate the pale, soft, exudative (PSE) condition in poultry (Barbut, 1997; Owens et al., 2000). It has also been suggested that each commercial processing plant would have to determine its own lightness values for sorting meat depending on type of birds, processing factors, and product specifications (Woelfel et al., 2002)...
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