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Correlation and Path Coefficient Analyses of Grain Yield and Yield Components in Two-Rowed of Barley (Hordeum vulgare convar. distichon) Varieties  [cached]
Emine BUDAKLI CARPICI,Necmettin CELIK
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2012,
Abstract: This research sought to determine the correlations between grain yield and yield components and to measure the direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield in barley by using correlation coefficient and path analysis methods, respectively. This research was conducted with ten varieties of two-rowed barley under the ecological conditions of the coastal zone of northwest Turkey during the years 2003-2004. Agronomic traits such as grain yield, plant height, spike length, kernel number per spike, kernel weight per spike, spike number per m2, harvest index and 1000-kernel weight were determined. The data from two years were combined. Correlation analyses indicated that the grain yield was positively and significantly associated with all the yield components except 1000-kernel weight. The highest correlation coefficients were found between grain yield and kernel number per spike (r = +0.406), and between grain yield and harvest index (r = +0.474). Results of path analyses indicated that harvest index had the greatest direct effect (+0.7716) on grain yield followed by spike number per m2 (+0.3359) and kernel number per spike (+0.2081). Percentages of their direct effect were 71.97%, 48.47% and 28.22%, respectively. On the other hand, most of the indirect effects of yield components on grain yield were found to be significant and positive. Because of the significant effects of the harvest index, spike number per m2 and kernel number per spike on grain yield, they may be regarded as criteria for barley improvement and breeding programs.
Spring barley performances in the Pannonian zone  [PDF]
Pr?ulj Novo,Mom?ilovi? Vojislava
Genetika , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/gensr1203499p
Abstract: Environmental conditions in the Pannonian zone can be characterized with moderate high temperature and partially water deficit during grain filling of spring barley, although low temperature and water deficit are possible also in period till anthesis. This study was conducted to evaluate the variation of the duration of the period from emergence to anthesis (VP), duration of grain filling period (GFP), plant height (PH), spikes number m-2 (SN), grains number spike-1 (GN), thousand grains weight (GW) and yield (YIL) in spring two-rowed barley in conditions of the Pannonian zone. All three factors; genotype, environment and the interaction GxY affected the studied traits. Average VP was 777 GDD, GFP 782 GDD, PH 78 cm, SN 523, GN 28.2, GW 43.2 g and YIL 6.26 t ha-1. Variation across varieties was higher than across growing seasons. Heritability varied from 0.66 for YIL to 0.94 for VP and GFP. This study confirmed that a sufficiently large genetic variability must be base for selecting appropriate varieties for the Pannonian zone conditions. In order to determine high yielding and quality barley extensive research in relation to breeding, variety choice for production and growing practice must be done.
EVALUACIóN DEL RENDIMIENTO Y SUS COMPONENTES EN GENOTIPOS DE CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare L.) DIFERENCIADOS POR SU TIPO DE ESPIGA Y GRANO EVALUATION OF YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.) GENOTYPES DIFFERENTIATED FOR SPIKE AND KERNEL TYPES  [cached]
Diana Katherinne Rios,Rodrigo Britto,Hernando Delgado
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica , 2011,
Abstract: Con el objeto de poder determinar en el futuro los cruzamientos más deseables al combinar cuatro tipos de cebada, se estudió en Duitama y en Samacá (Boyacá, Colombia), el efecto diferencial del tipo de espiga y de grano en el rendimiento final y sus componentes, de doce genotipos, en un dise o de parcelas divididas, con cuatro repeticiones. Se efectuó análisis de varianza para cada una de las localidades y características evaluadas, tomando el promedio del grupo de los genotipos involucrados. La comparación de medias de tratamientos, se realizó por el método de Diferencia Mínima Significativa. Los genotipos con espigas de dos carreras produjeron mayor número de macollas efectivas (Samacá) y granos más pesados (Duitama, Samacá), mientras que los de seis carreras tuvieron un mayor número de granos por espiga (Duitama, Samacá). Adicionalmente, en Duitama, los genotipos con granos desnudos produjeron mayor número de granos, pero los de granos cubiertos dieron granos más pesados. La interacción entre el número de carreras y el tipo de grano solo presentó significancia para el número de granos por espiga, en la localidad de Duitama. En cuanto al rendimiento de grano seco en Duitama, ninguna de las fuentes de variación mostró efectos significativos. Respecto al número de carreras, se pudo deber a compensación entre los componentes del rendimiento, algunos mayores y otros menores en uno u otro tipo, entre las cebadas de dos y seis carreras evaluadas. In order to avoid no desired crosses to combine four types of barley, the differential effect of spike type and grain on final yield and its components was studied in twelve genotypes at Duitama and Samacá (Boyacá, Colombia) in a split-plot design with four replications. An analysis of variance was practiced, locally, for each variable taking the mean genotype groups as a treatment and not an individual genotype. Differences among treatments were determined by a Least Significance Difference. Two-rowed barley genotypes gave a higher number of effective tillers (Samacá) and heavier kernels (Duitama, Samacá); while, six-rowed barley genotypes had a greater number of kernels/spike (Duitama, Samacá). Additionally, in Duitama, hull absent kernel barley genotypes produced a greater number of kernels/spike; but, hulled kernel barley genotypes gave heavier kernels. The row number x hull prevalence interaction only affected the kernels/spike number (Duitama). As for the yield of dry grain in Duitama, none of the sources of variation presented significant effects. With regard to the row number, this may be due to compensatio
The analysis of gene effect in the inheritance of kernel number per spike in barley hybrid  [PDF]
Madi? Milomirka,Paunovi? Aleksandar,?urovi? Dragan,Kraljevi?-Balali? Marija
Genetika , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0503261m
Abstract: In diallel crossing, excluding reciprocal ones, five divergent genotypes of barley (Vada, erdap, NS-293, Jagodinac and Sladoran) were included with the mode of inheritance and gene effect studied using the regression analysis of variance and co-variance for the number of kernels per spike. The absence of inter-allele interaction established using the regression analysis VrWr and WrW resulted from the use of the mode selected. In the inheritance of the number of kernels per spike, the regression pointed at dominant gene effect as well as at the unevenly distributed dominant and recessive genes in the genotypes selected. While Jagodinac, Vada and NS-293 had the highest number of dominant, erdap and Sladoran had the highest one of the recessive genes for the number of kernels per spike. Therefore, in the two-rowed genotypes, the higher number of dominant genes was, the higher number of kernels per spike was, and conversely, the higher number of the recessive genes was, the lower number of kernels per spike was.
TILLING in the two-rowed barley cultivar 'Barke' reveals preferred sites of functional diversity in the gene HvHox1
Sven Gottwald, Petra Bauer, Takao Komatsuda, Udda Lundqvist, Nils Stein
BMC Research Notes , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-2-258
Abstract: In barley, we generated a new TILLING (Targeting Local Lesions IN Genomes) resource comprising 10,279 M2 mutants in the two-rowed malting cultivar 'Barke,' which has been used in the generation of other genomic resources in barley (~150,000 ESTs, DH mapping population). The value of this new resource was tested using selected candidate genes. An average frequency of approximately one mutation per 0.5 Mb was determined by screening ten fragments of six different genes. The ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS)mutagenesis efficiency was studied by recording and relating the mutagenesis-dependent effects found in the three mutant generations (M1-M3). A detailed analysis was performed for the homeodomain-leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP) gene HvHox1. Thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270-bp fragment in 7,348 M2 lines. Three of the newly identified mutants exhibited either a six-rowed or an intermedium-spike phenotype, and one mutant displayed a significantly altered spikelet morphology compared to that of the 'Barke' wild type. Our results indicate a bias in the frequency of independent functional mutations at specific base pair (bp) positions within the gene HvHox1.A new TILLING population was developed as a resource for high-throughput gene discovery in an alternative barley germplasm. Pilot screening demonstrated a similar or even slightly higher mutation frequency when compared to previously published barley TILLING populations that should allow for the identification of diverse allelic variation. Partial phenotypic evaluation of the M2 and M3 generations has revealed the presence of a wide spectrum of morphological diversity that highlights the great potential of this resource for use in forward genetic screens. Altogether, our study shows the efficiency of screening and the applicability of the new TILLING population for genetic studies in the barley crop model system.Barley has a long history as a model plant in mutation research and breeding [1]. One year afte
QTL Analysis of Morphologic Traits in Doubled Haploid Population of Barley  [cached]
M. Mohammadi,M. Baum
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: Improving the drought tolerance of barley varieties through the integrated efforts of plant biotechnology and conventional breeding is an important objective in barley breeding. One hundred and fifty eight doubled haploid lines of barley were mapped with 50 SSR and 93 AFLP markers. Agronomic traits such as early growth vigor, plant height, peduncle length, extrude of spike from flag leaf, spike length and kernel per spike were evaluated at ICARDA research stations, Tel Hadya and Breda, during 1382-1383. Genetic correlation between grain yield and considered traits suggested that important traits for high yield in both stations were rapid early growth, short plant height, more extrude of spike from flag leaf, and more kernel per spike. But peduncle length exhibited a different roles in both environments. For plant height, eight Atlas on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were identified in Tel Hadya and Breda. Two of these QTLs were shown co-located with peduncle length QTLs. The QTLs which is linked with Bmag13 marker on chromosome 2, explained 42 percent of phenotypic variation for kernel per spike in Tel Hadya. Identification of these QTLs for agronomic traits is the first step to analyse and dissect more complex characters for barley adaptation to drought stress conditions.
Study of Genetic Diversity among Rainfed Barley Genotypes Using ISJ Markers and Morphological Traits  [cached]
Reza Drikvand,Elham Salahvarzi,Aram Salahvarzi,Tahmaseb Hossinpour
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n9p137
Abstract: Barley ranks below wheat, corn and rice in total world production. Barley is one of the most important crops in Iran. In this study, genetic diversity of 20 rainfed barley genotypes were assessed using morphological traits as well as 20 primers of ISJ semi-random markers. There were significant differences among genotypes for the all traits, indicating high genetic variation among barley germplasm. Based on molecular data, 133 bands were detected and 89 bands were polymorph. The mean number of bands was 6.65 per primer. According to cluster analysis of similarity matrix of molecular and Euclidean distances of morphological data, similarities ranged between 0.42-0.85 and 1.44-43.22, respectively. Based on molecular data and morphological traits, the highest similarities were belonged to genotypes number 2, 8 (0.85), and 5, 8 (1.44) respectively. The results showed that intron-exon splice junction (ISJ) markers and morphological traits rather could distinct two and six-rowed and also hulless and hulled barley genotypes. Distinction of two clusters did not follow the same pattern. Key Words: Rainfed barley, Morphological traits, Genetic diversity, ISJ.
EVALUACIóN DEL RENDIMIENTO Y SUS COMPONENTES EN GENOTIPOS DE CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare L.) DIFERENCIADOS POR SU TIPO DE ESPIGA Y GRANO
Rios,Diana Katherinne; Britto,Rodrigo; Delgado,Hernando;
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica , 2011,
Abstract: in order to avoid no desired crosses to combine four types of barley, the differential effect of spike type and grain on final yield and its components was studied in twelve genotypes at duitama and samacá (boyacá, colombia) in a split-plot design with four replications. an analysis of variance was practiced, locally, for each variable taking the mean genotype groups as a treatment and not an individual genotype. differences among treatments were determined by a least significance difference. two-rowed barley genotypes gave a higher number of effective tillers (samacá) and heavier kernels (duitama, samacá); while, six-rowed barley genotypes had a greater number of kernels/spike (duitama, samacá). additionally, in duitama, hull absent kernel barley genotypes produced a greater number of kernels/spike; but, hulled kernel barley genotypes gave heavier kernels. the row number x hull prevalence interaction only affected the kernels/spike number (duitama). as for the yield of dry grain in duitama, none of the sources of variation presented significant effects. with regard to the row number, this may be due to compensation between the yield components, some higher than others in one or another type, between the two-rowed and six-rowed barleys evaluated.
Identification of AFLP Molecular Markers Linked to Row-Type Gene in Barley  [cached]
B. E. Sayed-Tabatabaei
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2005,
Abstract: Formation of the two- and six-rowed types in barley is predominantly controlled by alleles at a single locus (vrs1) which is located in long arm of chromosome 2H. This gene is a key character on the study of barley domestication and yield. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) of barley were produced from crosses between Kanto Nakate Gold (tow-rowed) and Azumamugi (six-rowed). The selected lines were used for screening of AFLP polymorphic bands which are linked to vrs1 locus. After screening of a total of 1792 primer combination, five polymorphic bands were identified. A construction of high resolution map around the vrs1 locus was made using recombinant inbred lines. These markers can be used for a map-based cloning of the genes at the vrs1 locus.
Genetic analysis of morphological and physical stem characteristics determining lodging resistance in two- and six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines
S. Je?…??owski,M. Surma,T. Adamski,P. Krajewski
International Agrophysics , 2005,
Abstract: The study presents the results of genetic analysis of selected morphological and physical stem characteristics determining lodging resistance in doubled haploid (DH) lines of spring barley produced from F1 hybrids of the six-rowed variety Klimek with the two-rowed variety Maresi. The DH lines, the initial forms, and F1 and F2 hybrids were tested in three-year field trials. Stem length, outside diameter and the thickness of stem walls were analyzed. Lodging rate was observed and stem material elasticity was examined using the ultrasound method. Analysis of variance was conducted for the obtained data and 6-rowed lines were compared with 2-rowed lines in terms of the investigated characteristics. Moreover, on the basis of DH lines and F1 and F2 hybrids, genetic parameters determining additive gene effects [d], dominance effects [h] and the effects of non-allelic interaction of loci in the homozygous [i] and heterozygous state [l] were estimated. For the investigated characteristics significant values of parameter [d] were found. Dominance effects turned out to be significant for stem length, stem tissue elasticity and lodging rate. Non-allelic interaction of homo- and heterozygous loci was significant for stem tissue elasticity and lodging rate. A comparison of 6-rowed and 2-rowed lines in terms of the investigated characteristics showed that 6-rowed forms exhibited smaller length and lower elasticity of stems, thinner stem walls and higher lodging rate than 2-rowed lines. It was also found that environmental factors (years) had an effect on both the mean values of the analyzed characteristics and on the difference between the 2- and 6-rowed barley lines.
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