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Psychotic Disorders : An Overview  [cached]
Shrivastava S,Dubey D,Dubey P.K.,Kapoor S
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Psychotic disorders are a serious condition where a person experiences a short period of losing contact with reality. It involves the number of psychotic illness. Risks associated with psychotic disorders are significant but with prompt care and treatment they can be prevented.Treatment of psychotic disorders involves the availability of number of medication, psychosocial treatment, complementary therapies and the pace of treatment. There is no medical test which can diagnose psychotic disorders, for this reason it is very important for health professional to get a full picture of the various patients suffering from psychotic disorders. This review covers the number of psychotic disorders with their brief explanation and treatment, which can be fruitful for health professional to treat psychiatric patients.
Oral Health Status of Patients with Mental Disorders in Southwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Biruktawit Kebede, Temam Kemal, Solomon Abera
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039142
Abstract: Background Psychiatric disorders are known to be a risk factor for the development of different oral health problems especially for dental caries and periodontal diseases. In spite of this fact, no study has been conducted to reveal its magnitude in Ethiopia. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the oral health status of psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Psychiatric Clinic. Methods A hospital based cross- sectional study was used from January to May 2011. A total of 240 participants were included in the study. Dental examination was done to measure indices of oral health: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and community periodontal index (CPI). Oral examination was performed using mirror, probe and explorer by experienced dental doctors. A simple random sampling technique was implemented to collect data. ANOVA test, binary logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were done using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Results The mean DMFT score among the psychiatric patients was 1.94±2.12 (mean±SD) with 1.28±1.69, 0.51±1.19 and 0.14±0.48 (mean±SD) for decayed, missed and filled teeth respectively. Only about 24% of the psychiatric patients had a healthy CPI score. Incorrect tooth brushing technique was significantly associated with a DMFT score greater than 2 (AOR = 3.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 7.79). The habit of sweet intake was also associated with dental caries (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.43, 5.95). Similarly, patients with a smoking habit also demonstrated statistically significant association with dental caries (AOR = 18.98; 95% CI: 5.06, 71.24). Conclusion The oral health status of the psychiatric patients was poor. Thus, health education about oral hygiene should be given for psychiatric patients so they can avoid the frequent intake of sweets, smoking and learn correct tooth brushing technique.
Sleep, Fatigue, and Functional Health in Psychotic Patients  [PDF]
Flavie Waters,Neepa Naik,Daniel Rock
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/425826
Abstract: This study sought to examine the association between sleep, fatigue, and functional health in psychotic patients. Participants included 93 psychotic inpatients ( with schizophrenia) who completed the Chalder Fatigue Scale (ChFS), the Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the SF36 Health Survey. Patients were classified on the basis of their performance on sleep and fatigue measures: 60% reported significant levels of fatigue and 67% significant sleep disturbances. 28.4% reported both, suggesting that fatigue and sleep dysfunctions do not necessarily cooccur. A closer examination of patterns showed that fatigue was only related to qualitative aspects of sleep and not quantifiable aspects of sleep disturbances. The results also showed that functional health was the lowest in patients with high levels of fatigue, compared to patients with sleep problems only or patients with neither symptom. A regression analysis further showed that the size of the contribution of fatigue onto functional health was twice as much as that of sleep dysfunctions. In conclusion, the results show that (i) dissatisfaction with sleep—and not sleep itself—is related to fatigue symptoms and that (ii) fatigue is particularly detrimental to functional health, regardless of the presence of sleep dysfunctions. 1. Introduction Fatigue is a condition characterised by persistent weakness or exhaustion and a combination of symptoms that feature self-reported impairments in some of the following: impaired attention and concentration, headaches, unrefreshing sleep, and/or musculoskeletal pain [1]. Fatigue is an experiential state typically diagnosed on the basis of self-reports and is a common complaint in the general population [2, 3]. It is usually associated with middle age, being female, and having lower education and occupation attainment [4]. Fatigue is common in psychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression (25–36%) [5–7] and in chronic medical conditions such as cancer, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and viral infection [8–12]. Fatigue worsens with increasing physical disease severity [10] and is independent of medication suggesting that medication itself is not responsible for fatigue. Studies of fatigue in patients with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are currently lacking. Yet several reasons support an investigation into fatigue symptoms in these individuals. First, the functional impairments associated with fatigue include considerable impairments and disability [13, 14] pointing
Health habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of psychiatric patients
Jovanovi? Svetlana,Gaji? Ivanka,Mandi? Jelena,Mandi? Bojan
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1004136j
Abstract: Introduction. People with psychiatric disorders are at high risk of oral diseases due to the impact of their primary psychiatric condition and the side-effects of antipsychotic medications. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of hospitalized psychiatric patients with psychotic disorders, including mood disorders with psychotic characteristics, as well as to identify factors that could influence those habits, attitudes and behavior. Methods. The experimental group consisted of 186 hospitalized patients with psychiatric disorders (87 males and 99 females), aged from 18 to 59 years (mean age 46.0±8.0 years). The control group consisted of 186 healthy persons matched for age and gender. Data were obtained by using specially designed questionnaires with questions about the subjects' social, economic and demographic characteristics, as well as their habits, attitudes and behaviour concerning their oral health, in a form of a standardized interview. Other medical data were collected from medical documentation of disease history. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, ANOVA, Logistic Regression and simultaneous multiple regression. Results. Psychiatric patients have worse habits, attitudes and behavior concerning their oral health in comparison with healthy persons (p<0.001): they wash their teeth more rarely and in a shorter time, have less knowledge of oral diseases and their effect on general health, and visit their dentist more rarely. The obtained results depend on social, economic and demographic characteristics and on the underlying illness of patients. Conclusion. Health educational work concerning oral health of patients should be included in psychiatric treatment, as a part of an existing therapy with the aim of improving the general quality of their life.
The occurrence and nature of early signs of schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders among former child and adolescent psychiatric patients followed into adulthood  [cached]
Engqvist Ulf,Rydelius Per-Anders
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-2-30
Abstract: Background This investigation was designed to characterize psychotic disorders among patients originally treated as in- and outpatients by child and adolescent psychiatric services and subsequently followed-up into mid-adulthood. The age at the first onset on symptoms, possible changes in diagnoses, early signs noted prior to or upon admission to child and adolescent psychiatric care and possible differences between patients with early- and later-onset disorder were of particular interest. Methods The study population consisted of patients (285 in- and 1115 outpatients) born between 1957 and 1976 and admitted to and treated by child and adolescent psychiatric care units in J mtland County, Sweden, between 1975 and 1990. The status of their mental health was monitored until 2003 using official registries and hospital records. Diagnoses based on the ICD-8 and -9 systems, which were used in Sweden from 1968–1997, converted to diagnoses according to ICD-10, which has been in use since 1997. The Comprehensive Assessment of at Risk Mental States was employed to assess the information concerning psychopathology provided by the hospital records. Results By the end of the follow-up period 62 former child and adolescent psychiatric patients (36 females and 26 males), 4.4% of the entire study group, had received an ICD-10 diagnosis of "F20–29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" (48) and/or "F30–39: Psychotic mood disorders" (14). One-third (21) of these individuals were given their initial diagnosis of psychosis in connection with child and adolescent psychiatric care. Two of these 21 were not treated later for this disorder in general (adult) psychiatric care whereas the remaining 19 individuals were diagnosed for the same type of disorder as adults. The other 41 patients were diagnosed as psychotic only in connection with general (adult) psychiatric care. The mean age at the time of first onset of symptoms was 21.4 years (SD 6.4) and corresponding median age was 18. Behavioural changes and positive symptoms were the most frequent signs associated with a diagnosis of "F20–F29: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders" made during child and adolescent psychiatric care. In cases where a specific psychopathology developed later on the initial admission to child and adolescent psychiatry involved unspecified psychopathology. Conclusion In summary, it appears that psychotic disorders are relatively uncommon among patients admitted to child and adolescent psychiatric care in Sweden. However, individuals experiencing early onset of
Psychotic spectrum disorders in childhood  [PDF]
Popovi?-Deu?i? Smiljka,Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica,Dragani?-Gaji? Saveta,Aleksi?-Hil Olivera
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0810555p
Abstract: For a long time, there was a strong belief of existing continuity between childhood-onset psychoses and adult psychoses. Important moment in understanding psychotic presentations during infancy and childhood is Kanner's description of early infantile autism. Later studies of Rutter and Kolvin, as well as new classification systems, have delineated pervasive developmental disorders from all other psychotic disorders in childhood. But clinical experience is showing that in spite of existence of the group of pervasive developmental disorders with subgroups within it and necessary diagnostic criteria there are children with pervasive symptoms, who are not fulfilling all necessary diagnostic criteria for pervasive developmental disorder. Therefore, in this paper we are discussing and pointing at psychotic spectrum presentations in children, which have not the right place in any existing classification system (ICD-10, DSM-IV).
Oral lesions in patients with psychiatric disorders  [PDF]
Jovanovi? Svetlana,Gaji? Ivanka,Mandi? Bojan,Mandi? Jelena
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1010564j
Abstract: Introduction. Oral diseases in psychiatric patients are usually a result of bad oral hygiene and psychopharmaceutical side-effects. Objective. The aim of this study was to detect oral lesions in patients hospitalized in psychiatric institutions with the confirmed diagnosis of psychiatric illness and mood disorder with psychotic characteristics, as well as to discover the factors that can influence these oral lesions. Methods. Cross-section study consisted of 186 hospitalized patients with psychiatric disorders in the experimental group, out of whom 87 were males and 99 females. Patients were aged from 18 to 59 years, mean age 46.0±8.0 years. The control group consisted of 186 healthy persons matched for age and gender. Data on oral lesions were obtained within history and clinical examination of the oral cavity. Other medical data were collected from medical documentation. Statistical analysis was performed by Student’s t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Dry mouth was registered in 78.5% of patients. The difference in tongue and lip lesions, burning and stinging symptoms, bruxism, facial pain, low saliva rates, halitosis, taste changes and swallowing difficulties between the patients and healthy persons was highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Age and gender, as well as the factors of main disease, influence burning and stinging, bruxism, low saliva rates, swallowing difficulties, taste changes and facial pain of the psychiatric patients. Conclusion. Results imply that psychiatric patients are more frequently involved with oral lesions than healthy persons. It is necessary to organize specific preventive and educational oral health programmes with these patients, as well as with doctors who treat the basic illness.
Health Problems of Mentally Disabled Individuals  [cached]
Hatice Yildirim Sari
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2010,
Abstract: Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2): 145-150]
Comparison of oral health habits in smoking and non-smoking individuals
Ana Paula Franco CZARNECKI,Carmen Mueller STORRER,Hudson Prestes dos SANTOS,Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR
Perspectives in Oral Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: To compare the oral health of smokers and non-smokers and to establish the relationship between oral hygiene habits andsmoking. Methods: Two hundred questionnaires were given to university students of the Business School of Positivo University (Curitiba, PR, Brazil). The answers were separated into two groups: smokers and non-smokers. The results were statistically analyzed with a significance level of 0.05. Results: The questionnaires were answered by 83% of the students; 51.2% were women and 48.8% were men. From the total of respondents, 137 were non-smokers. Of the eight questions, only two (frequency and time of toothbrushing) showed statistical differences between the two groups. The use of floss, mouthwashes, frequency of dental visits and perception of gingival bleeding did not show any differences between the groups. Conclusion: The smokers were more negligent to frequency and time of toothbrushing.
Oral Health Status of Individuals with Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate or Both in a Nigerian Population
Idowu Olusegun Fadeyibi, Modupeore Ekua Sorunke, Olubunmi Olufunmilayo Onigbinde, Victor Olabode Ogunbanjo, Babatunde Ogunbiyi Ogunbanjo, Samuel Ademiluyi
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2011.0175
Abstract: Background: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) deformities are congenital anomalies with fissures of either the lip, palate or both combined. The altered oral anatomy causes physiological changes and diminished self cleansing ability. The oral hygiene may thus not be properly maintained. Aim: A prospective study of the oral health status of individuals with these deformities in Lagos-Nigeria was carried out to determine the need, types, and extent of pre-operative dental management that these patients may require. Material and Methods: Individuals with orofacial deformities in Lagos were screened by a CL/P management team at a sponsored treatment programme between April and June 2007. All those with CL/P deformities that were seen during the exercises participated in the study. Dental examinations included inspections for caries, plaque, calculus, gingivitis, malocclusions and enamel hypoplasia. The following parameters were assessed: Oral Hygiene, Debris, and Calculus Indices; Periodontal diseases, Caries experience, and CPITN. Results: Fifty-two cases with CL/P were seen. The ages ranged from 3weeks to 32years (mean 11.5 ± 10.9). CLP was the commonest presentation (48 %). The mean Oral Hygiene Index Score was 2.1 and 38.6 % had good oral hygiene. Highest prevalence of caries was in the age group 26-30 years. Enamel hypoplasia in primary dentition was present in one subject and 50 % of permanent dentition. Nearly 50 % of the cases had malocclusion and different degrees of periodontal diseases. All the cases in age group 31-35 years had calculus. Conclusion: The oral health status of patients with CL/P deformities is poor in the environment in which the study was conducted.
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