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Rapid Evolution of Coral Proteins Responsible for Interaction with the Environment  [PDF]
Christian R. Voolstra,Shinichi Sunagawa,Mikhail V. Matz,Till Bayer,Manuel Aranda,Emmanuel Buschiazzo,Michael K. DeSalvo,Erika Lindquist,Alina M. Szmant,Mary Alice Coffroth,Mónica Medina
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020392
Abstract: Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures), pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably.
Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment
Agnes E van den Berg, Marijke van Winsum-Westra, Sjerp de Vries, Sonja ME van Dillen
Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-9-74
Abstract: A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP), four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends) and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands.After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening and being active, and less towards passive relaxation.These findings are consistent with the notion that having an allotment garden may promote an active life-style and contribute to healthy aging. However, the findings may be limited by self selection and additional research is needed to confirm and extend the current findings.Allotment gardens originated in Europe during the 18th century when plots of land were made available to poor laborers for the
Development of neurodevelopmental disorders: a regulatory mechanism involving bromodomain-containing proteins  [cached]
Li Junlin,Zhao Guifang,Gao Xiaocai
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1866-1955-5-4
Abstract: Neurodevelopmental disorders are classified as diseases that cause abnormal functions of the brain or central nervous system. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders show impaired language and speech abilities, learning and memory damage, and poor motor skills. However, we still know very little about the molecular etiology of these disorders. Recent evidence implicates the bromodomain-containing proteins (BCPs) in the initiation and development of neurodevelopmental disorders. BCPs have a particular domain, the bromodomain (Brd), which was originally identified as specifically binding acetyl-lysine residues at the N-terminus of histone proteins in vitro and in vivo. Other domains of BCPs are responsible for binding partner proteins to form regulatory complexes. Once these complexes are assembled, BCPs alter chromosomal states and regulate gene expression. Some BCP complexes bind nucleosomes, are involved in basal transcription regulation, and influence the transcription of many genes. However, most BCPs are involved in targeting. For example, some BCPs function as a recruitment platform or scaffold through their Brds-binding targeting sites. Others are recruited to form a complex to bind the targeting sites of their partners. The regulation mediated by these proteins is especially critical during normal and abnormal development. Mutant BCPs or dysfunctional BCP-containing complexes are implicated in the initiation and development of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the pathogenic molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this review, we focus on the roles of regulatory BCPs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental retardation, Fragile X syndrome (FRX), Williams syndrome (WS), Rett syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, based upon the roles of BCPs, will lead to screening of targets for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.
The nature of proteins in influenza  [PDF]
K. Akila, P. Balamurugan, E. Rajasekaran
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.430151
Abstract: Mutation can alter the structure of viral proteins to form different structure. Carbon distribution is responsible for these changes in structure. The carbon distribution in proteins of human Influenza A virus is analyzed here. Results reveal that the carbon contents are high in surface proteins, optimum in polymerase proteins and less in nuclear proteins. Polymerase proteins have better carbon distribution pattern than the other proteins. Thymine distribution in different frames of mRNAs are checked as it has link with carbon distribution pattern in the corresponding proteins. Results show that frame 4 is violating from thymine distribution. This is responsible for production of protein with different carbon distribution. Unusual thymine distribution in frame 3 are observed. The thymine distributions are different in viral mRNA compared to normal one. Minimizing the excess thymine in H1N1 mRNAs might improve the protein performance. Mutational study based on carbon distribution should be better exploited for further improving the protein stability, activity and ultimately for gene therapy.
A brief overview about the proteins and the processes responsible for the formation of the nativ-folded thioproteins in the pro-and eukaryotic cells
Kruusma,J.; Benham,A.M.; Williams,J.A.G.; Kataky,R.;
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta , 2006,
Abstract: this review was erected to describe briefly proteins and processes responsible for the formation of the nativ-folded thioproteins in the pro- and eukaryotic cells. this issue has a significant importance due to many dieases and misfunctions caused by misfolded enzymes having low or inactive structure. this review contains also a short list of electrochemical methods for the detection and the quantification of the most important thioproteins.
A brief overview about the proteins and the processes responsible for the formation of the nativ-folded thioproteins in the pro-and eukaryotic cells  [cached]
J. Kruusma,A.M. Benham,J.A.G. Williams,R. Kataky
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta , 2006,
Abstract: This review was erected to describe briefly proteins and processes responsible for the formation of the nativ-folded thioproteins in the pro- and eukaryotic cells. This issue has a significant importance due to many dieases and misfunctions caused by misfolded enzymes having low or inactive structure. This review contains also a short list of electrochemical methods for the detection and the quantification of the most important thioproteins.
Impact of Exercise and Metabolic Disorders on Heat Shock Proteins and Vascular Inflammation  [PDF]
Earl G. Noble,Garry X. Shen
Autoimmune Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/836519
Abstract: Heat shock proteins (Hsp) play critical roles in the body’s self-defense under a variety of stresses, including heat shock, oxidative stress, radiation, and wounds, through the regulation of folding and functions of relevant cellular proteins. Exercise increases the levels of Hsp through elevated temperature, hormones, calcium fluxes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), or mechanical deformation of tissues. Isotonic contractions and endurance- type activities tend to increase Hsp60 and Hsp70. Eccentric muscle contractions lead to phosphorylation and translocation of Hsp25/27. Exercise-induced transient increases of Hsp inhibit the generation of inflammatory mediators and vascular inflammation. Metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia) are associated with type 1 diabetes (an autoimmune disease), type 2 diabetes (the common type of diabetes usually associated with obesity), and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Metabolic disorders activate HSF/Hsp pathway, which was associated with oxidative stress, increased generation of inflammatory mediators, vascular inflammation, and cell injury. Knock down of heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) reduced the activation of key inflammatory mediators in vascular cells. Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that the activation of HSF/Hsp induced by exercise or metabolic disorders may play a dual role in inflammation. The benefits of exercise on inflammation and metabolism depend on the type, intensity, and duration of physical activity. 1. Introduction The stress response is a self-protective mechanism against environmental stresses which is mediated via a group of evolutionally conserved proteins, heat shock proteins (Hsp). Hsp regulate the conformation and functions of a large number of cellular proteins in order to protect the body from stress [1]. The expression of Hsp is mainly modulated by a common transcription factor, heat shock factor-1 (HSF1). The activity, translocation, and expression of HSF1 respond to environmental stresses, such as heat shock, wounds, oxidative stress, and radiation [2]. Exercise is associated with transient elevations of Hsp expression, body temperature, hormones, and oxidative stress, which may reduce inflammatory mediators [3]. Metabolic disorders in common chronic diseases (diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) are associated with a prolonged stress response as a consequence of oxidative stress, altered hormone levels, vascular inflammation, and cell injury [4]. Type 1 diabetes is a common autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic -cell
Systematic Approach on Differences in Avian Viral Proteins Based on Carbon Composition  [PDF]
Baby Jerald A.,T. R. Gopalakrishnan Nair
Quantitative Biology , 2011,
Abstract: The distribution of amino acid along the protein sequences plays an imperative role in facilitating different biological functions. Currently, there is insufficient scientific data, which represents the arrangement of amino acid in the proteins based on atomic composition. Our deep observational and analytical studies indicate that the distribution of carbon in the protein sequence can bring differences in the function of proteins. Until now, it is believed that carbon content elicits the hydrophobic interactions in proteins. This distinct feature classifies normal proteins and viral proteins based on the carbon content. One of the objectives of this investigation is to show the significance of carbon composition in protein structure evaluation. Since, the level of perceived benefit is likely to be high in the field of proteomics for structural analysis, the position of this paper is to prioritize only the avian viral protein sequences based on carbon content when compared with the normal protein sequences. Here, we present the evaluation of carbon along the avian protein sequence in order to show the differences in the distribution of carbon using the software technology. The evaluation results provide a deep view in to the molecular structure of avian viral protein, which can further enable the progress of research in the proteomics domain based on carbon classification. This systematic approach in computing carbon level of avian viruses aim towards the benefit of individual, regional and global health in addition to opening of further effective research on avian viral protein based on the aforementioned results
Microencapsulation of Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate to Generate Carbon Dioxide with Thermal Responsible Shell Material  [PDF]
Yohei Koyama, Natsukaze Saito, Kiyomi Fuchigami, Yoshinari Taguchi, Masato Tanaka
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2015.51005
Abstract: This paper tried to develop the optimum procedure for microencapsulating water soluble solid powder with the thermal responsible material by the melting dispersion cooling method. Sodium hydrogen carbonate was adopted as a water soluble solid powder instead of microencapsulating carbon dioxide gas. The shell material was composed of olefin wax and α-tocopherol. In the experiment, the concentration of oil soluble surfactant and the water soluble surfactant species were changed. Sodium hydrogen carbonate was treated in the aqueous solution dissolving the water soluble surfactant to form the finer sodium hydrogen carbonate powder and to increase the content. The microencapsulation efficiency could be increased with the concentration of oil soluble surfactant and considerably increased by treating sodium hydrogen carbonate with the water soluble surfactant. Sodium hydrogen carbonate was protected well from environmental water. The microcapsules showed the thermal responsibility to generate carbon dioxide.
Patterns of Expression in the Matrix Proteins Responsible for Nucleation and Growth of Aragonite Crystals in Flat Pearls of Pinctada fucata  [PDF]
Liang Xiang, Jingtan Su, Guilan Zheng, Jian Liang, Guiyou Zhang, Hongzhong Wang, Liping Xie, Rongqing Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066564
Abstract: The initial growth of the nacreous layer is crucial for comprehending the formation of nacreous aragonite. A flat pearl method in the presence of the inner-shell film was conducted to evaluate the role of matrix proteins in the initial stages of nacre biomineralization in vivo. We examined the crystals deposited on a substrate and the expression patterns of the matrix proteins in the mantle facing the substrate. In this study, the aragonite crystals nucleated on the surface at 5 days in the inner-shell film system. In the film-free system, the calcite crystals nucleated at 5 days, a new organic film covered the calcite, and the aragonite nucleated at 10 days. This meant that the nacre lamellae appeared in the inner-shell film system 5 days earlier than that in the film-free system, timing that was consistent with the maximum level of matrix proteins during the first 20 days. In addition, matrix proteins (Nacrein, MSI60, N19, N16 and Pif80) had similar expression patterns in controlling the sequential morphologies of the nacre growth in the inner-film system, while these proteins in the film-free system also had similar patterns of expression. These results suggest that matrix proteins regulate aragonite nucleation and growth with the inner-shell film in vivo.
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