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Ionu? POPA
Lakes reservoirs and ponds , 2009,
Abstract: The Baikal lake is located in Central Asia, on Russian Federation territory, in the southern part of East Siberia, on the border between Irkutsk Region and the Buryat Autonomous Republic. The lake surface lies between 51° 29’ lat. N, extreme south point, and 55° 46’ lat. N, in north, and between 103° 43’ long. E, extreme west point and 109° 56’ long E, in the east.His elongated shape is orientated on NE-SV direction, having a 636 km maximum length; the length of the shoreline is around 2 000 km. The maximum width is 79.5 km, in the sector where Barguzin river flows into the Baikal Lake, between the villages of Onguren, in west, and Oust Barguzin, in east, and the minimum width is only 25 km, in the area of Selenga river delta.Today, the total surface of the Baikal is 31 722 km2, with 500 km2 wider, after the rising of the Irkutsk dam, on Angara river.
New developments of photodetectors for the Lake Baikal Neutrino Experiment  [PDF]
B. K. Lubsandorzhiev
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: New developments of photodetectors for the lake Baikal neutrino experiment are described. Some test results of photodetectors at the lake Baikal are presented.
On the Survival and Destruction of Spiral Galaxies in Clusters  [PDF]
Ben Moore,George Lake,Thomas Quinn,Joachim Stadel
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02345.x
Abstract: We follow the evolution of disk galaxies within a cluster that forms hierarchically in a cold dark matter N-body simulation. At a redshift z=0.5 we select several dark matter halos that have quiet merger histories and are about to enter the newly forming cluster environment. The halos are replaced with equilibrium high resolution model spirals that are constructed to represent examples of low surface brightness (LSB) and high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies. Varying the disk and halo structural parameters reveals that the response of a spiral galaxy to tidal encounters depends primarily on the potential depth of the mass distribution and the disk scale length. LSB galaxies, characterised by slowly rising rotation curves and large scale lengths, evolve dramatically under the influence of rapid encounters with substructure and strong tidal shocks from the global cluster potential --- galaxy harassment. We find that up to 90% of their stars are tidally stripped and congregate in large diffuse tails that trace the orbital path of the galaxy and form the diffuse intra-cluster light. The bound stellar remnants closely resemble the dwarf spheroidals (dE's) that populate nearby clusters. HSB galaxies are stable to the chaos of cluster formation and tidal encounters. These disks lie well within the tidally limited dark matter halos and their potentials are more concentrated. Although very few stars are stripped, the scale height of the disks increases substantially and no spiral features remain, therefore we speculate that these galaxies would be identified as S0 galaxies in present day clusters.
Baikal-GVD: first cluster Dubna  [PDF]
A. D. Avrorin,A. V. Avrorin,V. M. Aynutdinov,R. Bannash,I. A. Belolaptikov,D. Yu. Bogorodsky,V. B. Brudanin,N. M. Budnev,I. A. Danilchenko,S. V. Demidov,G. V. Domogatsky,A. A. Doroshenko,A. N. Dyachok,Zh. -A. M. Dzhilkibaev,S. V. Fialkovsky,A. R. Gafarov,O. N. Gaponenko,K. V. Golubkov,T. I. Gress,Z. Honz,K. G. Kebkal,O. G. Kebkal,K. V. Konischev,A. V. Korobchenko,A. P. Koshechkin,F. K. Koshel,A. V. Kozhin,V. F. Kulepov,D. A. Kuleshov,V. I. Ljashuk,M. B. Milenin,R. A. Mirgazov,E. R. Osipova,A. I. Panfilov,L. V. Pan'kov,E. N. Pliskovsky,M. I. Rozanov,E. V. Rjabov,B. A. Shaybonov,A. A. Sheifler,M. D. Shelepov,A. V. Skurihin,A. A. Smagina,O. V. Suvorova,V. A. Tabolenko,B. A. Tarashansky,S. A. Yakovlev,A. V. Zagorodnikov,V. A. Zhukov,V. L. Zurbanov
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In April 2015 the demonstration cluster "Dubna" was deployed and started to take data in Lake Baikal. This array is the first cluster of the cubic kilometer scale Gigaton Volume Detector (Baikal-GVD), which is constructed in Lake Baikal. In this contribution we will review the design and status of the array.
Measurements of group velocity of light in the lake Baikal water  [PDF]
B. K. Lubsandorzhiev,P. G. Pokhil,R. V. Vasiliev,Y. E. Vyatchin
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00269-9
Abstract: The results of direct measurements of group velocity of light in the lake Baikal water at the depth of 1100 m are presented. The lake Baikal water dispersion has been measured at three wavelengths: 370 nm, 470 nm and 525 nm. The results are in a rather good agreement with theoretical predictions.
The Baikal Experiment: Status Report  [PDF]
The Baikal Collaboration
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We review the present status of the Baikal Neutrino Project. The construction and performance of the large deep underwater Cherenkov detector for muons and neutrinos, NT-200, which is currently under construction in Lake Baikal are described. Some results obtained with the first stages of NT-200 - NT-36 (1993-95), NT-72 (1995-96) and NT-96 (1996-97) - are presented, including the first clear neutrino candidates selected with 1994 and 1996 data.
Quantum Destruction of Spiral Order in Two Dimensional Frustrated Magnets  [PDF]
Subhro Bhattacharjee
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.104430
Abstract: We study the fate of spin-1/2 spiral-ordered two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets that are disordered by quantum fluctuations. A crucial role is played by the topological point defects of the spiral phase, which are known to have a Z2 character. Previous works established that a nontrivial quantum spin-liquid phase results when the spiral is disordered without proliferating the Z2 vortices. Here, we show that when the spiral is disordered by proliferating and condensing these vortices, valence-bond solid ordering occurs due to quantum Berry phase effects. We develop a general theory for this latter phase transition and apply it to a lattice model. This transition potentially provides a new example of a Landau-forbidden deconfined quantum critical point.
Destruction of star clusters due to the radial migration in spiral galaxies  [PDF]
M. S. Fujii,J. Baba
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2012.01336.x
Abstract: Most stars in galactic disks are believed to be born as a member of star clusters or associations. Star clusters formed in disks are disrupted due to the tidal stripping and the evolution of star clusters themselves, and as a results new stars are supplied to the galactic disks. We performed $N$-body simulations of star clusters in galactic disks, in which both star clusters and galactic disks are modeled as $N$-body ("live") systems, and as a consequence the disks form transient and recurrent spiral arms. In such non-steady spiral arms, star clusters migrate radially due to the interaction with spiral arms. We found that the migration timescale is a few hundreds Myr and that the angular momentum changes of star clusters are at most $\sim 50$% in 1 Gyr. Radial migration of star clusters to the inner region of galaxies results in a fast disruption of the star clusters because of a stronger tidal field in the inner region of the galaxy. This effect is not negligible for the disruption timescale of star clusters in galactic disks. Stars stripped from clusters form tidal tails which spread over 1--2 kpc. While the spatial distribution of tidal tails change in a complicated way due to the non-steady spiral arms, the velocity distribution conserve well even if the tidal tails are located at a few kpc from their parent clusters. Tidal tails of clusters in galactic disks might be detected using velocity plots.
Wooden architecture of the conservation area of the Lake Baikal Circular Railway Деревянная архитектура заповедной, Кругабайкальской  [cached]
Aleksey Chertilov
Project Baikal , 2004,
Abstract: The rural and taiga character of the Siberian constructions on the shore of Lake Baikal could not influence on the style and the look of the road under construction, because it had been fully designed by the capital engineers, first in St. Petersburg and Irkutsk, then directly on the site of the road: in the Maritui and Baikal villages, where the first special design bureaus were organized. That is why the Lake Baikal Circular Railway is an example of the European construction culture, with its peculiar departmental style worked out by the Ministry of Communications (the socalled style of Ministry of Communications ). The only thing that was borrowed from the Siberian and Russian experience in general is a technology of wooden and at the same time urban house-building. Making walls of round timber, binding corners without remainders, panelling frameworks with planks, strict decorations of fronts - these are the attributes of the architectural constructions of the Lake Baikal circular area and other areas of Transsib.
An Illustrated Checklist of Leech Species from Lake Baikal (Eastern Siberia, Russia)  [PDF]
Irina Kaygorodova
Dataset Papers in Science , 2013, DOI: 10.7167/2013/261521
Abstract: New data on Lake Baikal fauna of Hirudinida (Annelida, Clitellata) are presented. The species composition of Baikal leeches extends to 20 species belonging to two orders, four families, and 12 genera. An updated checklist includes information on five species recorded in Eastern Siberia for the first time. All specimens from author’s collection are provided with illustration. 1. Introduction Lake Baikal is situated in the northeast of Central Asia. It is one of the most ancient (25–30?MY), the deepest (1637?m), and the largest (volume of 23?000?km3, length of 636?km, width up to 80?km, catchment area of 540?000?km2, and coastline of 1800?km) repository of single volume of unfrozen fresh water of the planet (20% of the global supply) [1]. Transparency of the Baikal water reaches 40–50?m with extremely poor mineralization and higher oxygen saturation. The oxygen content at the bottom even in the deepest areas is no lower than 70%–80% of saturation. The combination of these factors, together with numerous other ones, has resulted in the fact that the lake has a unique complex of living organisms (1550 animal species and over 1000 species of plants) [2]. Lake Baikal now holds the largest number of described metazoan species of all known lakes and can be considered as a centre of megadiversity. The organisms inhabiting the lake adapted to a variety of environmental conditions, having mastered and repopulating the diversity of habitats from interstitial zone to maximal depths. The pronounced endemism and specific wealth of its fauna (82% of known species) has attached a keen interest of biologists and biogeographers worldwide. A start of Lake Baikal studies occurred at the middle of the eighteenth century, but they have been carried out with the greatest intensity in the twentieth century. Despite a 200-year history of limnological studies, Lake Baikal is still full of white spots; one of them is the fauna of parasitic annelids. Baikal leeches demonstrate a high level of biological diversity and endemism, both at the genus level and at the species level. By 2001, there were 13 leech species stated in Lake Baikal [2]. These species are adapted to living in cold, clean, oxygenated water and fed by Baikal endemic animals: bullheads, amphipods, and perhaps other groups. Unfortunately, there is still no clear idea on their preferences to a host. The aim of this paper is to update knowledge on leech species composition of Lake Baikal fauna. 2. Methodology The previously published information and an extensive material collected by the author in the period from 2002
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