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Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops  [PDF]
Zdravkovi? Jasmina,Pavlovi? Nenad,Girek Zdenka,Zdravkovi? Milan
Genetika , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/gensr1002223z
Abstract: The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.
Evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to root-knot nematodes
F Jaiteh, C Kwoseh, R. Akromah
African Crop Science Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most popular vegetable crops worldwide, owing to its high nutritive value and diversified use. Tomato production in Ghana is threatened by plant parasitic nematodes, especially the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), which are responsible for huge economic yield losses. The losses, however, can be averted through use of resistant varieties. A study was conducted to evaluate tomato genotypes reaction to root-knot nematodes. Five inoculum levels, 100, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 root-knot nematode eggs per 1.6 litres of soil per pot were inoculated on tomato seedlings. A total of 33 genotypes were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne spp. Nine tomato genotypes were collected from Burkina Faso, eight from Vietnam, seven from the United States of America, three genotypes from South Africa, and six from local agro-dealers and farmers in Ghana. The genotypes were screened in pots and the field for host resistance to Meloidogyne spp. The 1500 eggs per plant inoculation level resulted in the highest number of eggs, juveniles and fresh root weight. Among the 33 genotypes screened, Tomato Mongal T-11 and Tomato Beef Master were found to be highly resistant to Meloidogyne spp. and also recorded the lowest reproductive factors of 0.71 and 0.53, respectively.
Utilization and Feasibility of Retting Effluent as Fertilizer in Vegetable Crops Production
Firoza Akhter,Zakaria Ahmed,Hasina Banu,M. Shamsul Haque
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Jute retting was conducted in the corner of rice filed by making artificial ditches. Retting could be efficiently conducted in the rice field. The fibres produced there of were also of good quality and as the ribbons were retted, the percentage of cutting in the basal parts were also very nominal. The fertilizer value of the retting effluent was tested on three vegetable crops of cabbage, brinzzal and tomato. In all the cases, retting effluent showed better yield than the control. The tithe of the soil was also increased.
The Use of High Tunnels to Produce Fruit and Vegetable Crops in North America  [PDF]
Rhonda R. Janke, May Elfar Altamimi, Mumtaz Khan
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.87052
Abstract: High tunnels have been used in the United States for more than 50 years, and growers are encouraged to use them more frequently through government cost-share programs. Research on fruits and vegetable production systems has focused on high value crops such as tomato, salad greens, and several fruit crops. Maintaining soil quality and controlling insects and diseases are all issues that growers face. This review looks at current research on these issues as well as economic considerations addressed in the scientific literature. Global statistics and reports are also reviewed that complement the North American studies. Gaps in our understanding are identified, and directions for future research are suggested.
Biodiversity in vegetable crops, a heritage to save: the case of Puglia region
Antonio Elia,Pietro Santamaria
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2013.e4
Abstract: The biodiversity in vegetable crops is composed by the genetic diversity, as species diversity (interspecific diversity) and as diversity of genes within a species (intraspecific diversity) referring to the vegetable grown varieties, and by the diversity of agro-ecosystems (agrobiodiversity). Intraspecific diversity is very ample in vegetable crops and is not reflected, at least not to the same extent, in other groups of crops. The labour operated by farmers over centuries of selection has led to the creation of a plurality of local varieties, following domestication of cultivated forms, and wide agro-biodiversity, a precious heritage both from a genetic and a cultural-historical point of view. The Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT) takes into account in its annual survey about forty vegetable crops. Intraspecific diversity in vegetables can also be analyzed by examining the information contained in the common catalogue of varieties of vegetable species. The 27 EU Countries as a whole had entered 19,576 varieties of vegetables in the common catalogue as of August 2011. The Netherlands, which represents 8% of total vegetable production in the EU, has registered 7826 varieties. Italy and Spain, which predominate in Europe for the production of vegetables, have registered only 8% (1513) and 9% (1672) of the total varieties, respectively. As a whole 54% of the European varieties entered in the catalogue are hybrids. Puglia, which contributes with about 22% to the Italian vegetable growing area, is among the leading regions for the productions of broccoli raab, celery, parsley, processing tomato, artichoke, endive and escarole, cabbage, fennel, lettuce, cucumber, cauliflower and broccoli, early potato, and asparagus (all with more than 20% of the national area). The region is particularly rich in local vegetable varieties, obtained by farmers themselves after repeated simple selection procedures generation after generation. The local varieties for which there is a strong link with the Puglia traditions and which are described in this review are: carota di Polignano (Polignano carrot) and carota di sant’Ippazio (Saint Ippazio carrot) (Apiaceae), cipolla di Acquaviva delle Fonti (Acquaviva delle Fonti onion) and cipolla bianca di Margherita (Margherita white onion) (Liliaceae), cima di rapa (broccoli raab) (Brassicaceae), unripe melon - carosello, barattiere, meloncella, etc. (Cucurbitaceae), catalogna chicory - cicoria di Molfetta e cicoria di Galatina (Molfetta’s chicory and Galatina’s chicory) (Asteraceae).
Senescence of rin, rin/rin, rin/+ and +/+ tomato fruits  [PDF]
Zdravkovi? Jasmina,Markovi? ?ivoslav,Stankovi? Ljiljana,Zdravkovi? Milan
Genetika , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0403195z
Abstract: Ripening inhibitor (rin) gene is a spontaneous recessive mutant which changes fruit ripening aspects (most important synthesis of carotene, especially lycopene). It also delays fruit senescence. Tomato is a vegetable crop with specific maturing climax (pik). Tomato genotypes homozygote for rin gene does not have this maturing climax, so the ethyl-ene production and red, lycopene colour does not appear. In order to research the maturing process material from the final tomato selection cycle we used: pure line S-49 (genetic constitution u/u, with uniform ripening), line hom 4 (rin/rin, homozygote with ripening inhibitor) and hybrid combination 449 Fl (u/rin, heterozygote for ripening inhibitor). Fruits with uniform ripening and hybrids ripened simultaneously, while homozygote with rin gene did not ripe at all. Ethylene stimulates the appearance of yellow colour in rin fruits and the lycopene production. After treatment with ETEPHONE (0.1%) (Ethylene) fruits with uniform ripening, senescence more quickly, while hybrids senescence slowly. Rin homozygotes did not change colors, but the fruits senescence more quickly comparing to control. Ethylene treatment speeded the maturing and senescence process in tomato fruits. Extended maturing process as a result influence of rin gene, makes the new created hybrids a late maturing ones. On the other hand, the firmness of fruits is improved as well as the "shelf life", which enables longer transportation and storing, coordinated maturing according to market demands. The aim was to research the maturing according to market demands. The aim was to research the maturing process of rin heteroyzgote, and the reaction of some genotypes to treatment with RT-REL (Ethzlene) in order to decrease extremely late maturing.
A new mutant genetic resource for tomato crop improvement by TILLING technology
Silvia Minoia, Angelo Petrozza, Olimpia D'Onofrio, Florence Piron, Giuseppina Mosca, Giovanni Sozio, Francesco Cellini, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Filomena Carriero
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-69
Abstract: To apply TILLING to tomato, a new mutant collection was generated in the genetic background of the processing tomato cultivar Red Setter by treating seeds with two different ethylemethane sulfonate doses (0.7% and 1%). An associated phenotype database, LycoTILL, was developed and a TILLING platform was also established. The interactive and evolving database is available online to the community for phenotypic alteration inquiries. To validate the Red Setter TILLING platform, induced point mutations were searched in 7 tomato genes with the mismatch-specific ENDO1 nuclease. In total 9.5 kb of tomato genome were screened and 66 nucleotide substitutions were identified. The overall mutation density was estimated and it resulted to be 1/322 kb and 1/574 kb for the 1% EMS and 0.7% EMS treatment respectively.The mutation density estimated in our collection and its comparison with other TILLING populations demonstrate that the Red Setter genetic resource is suitable for use in high-throughput mutation discovery. The Red Setter TILLING platform is open to the research community and is publicly available via web for requesting mutation screening services.Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable plants in the world. Its fruits are end products both for the fresh market and food processing industry. Tomato presents a relatively small genome highly syntenic to others economically important Solanaceae species and was selected as a reference species for sequencing a Solanaceae genome. In addition to the availability of a number of genomic resources, including transcriptome [1-3] and metabolome [4], large collections of genetic resources are available to dissect the biochemical and the metabolic pathways in tomato [5]. Large EMS and fast neutron mutant collections, in the background of M82 tomato cultivar, have been generated and more then 3,000 phenotype alterations catalogued [6]. An EMS-induced mutation library of the miniature dwarf tomato cultivar Mi
In Vitro screening of tomato genotypes for drought resistance using polyethylene glycol
K Manoj, D Uday
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits plant growth and productivity. Tomato is an important vegetable crop and area under production is limited by irrigation water scarcity. Effort was made to screen tomato germplasm under in vitro condition using polyethylene glycol (PEG) at four concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/l) with two replications in factorial CRD. Important seedling characters like root length and weight; shoot length and weight were recorded. Drought resistant mutant derivatives and hybrid produced using mutant derivative as female parent performed significantly superior for root characters. Decrease in seedling growth was worth notice with increasing concentration of PEG indicating precise nature of the in vitro screening. Mutant hybrid and its derivatives were observed with outstanding ability to continue root growth under in vitro stress conditions indicating there ability to fight with sever water stress situation. These results were further confirmed for early indication traits in raised bed seedlings and fully-grown mature plants under field conditions. At all three experimental conditions, mutant derivatives and hybrids performed better than cultivated genotypes under all levels of water stress. Based on results, Hy-3 and MTG 1-4 were found to be drought resistant due to there remarkable performance at all levels of water stress. This in vitro screening method is potential and cost effective method to screen large set of germplasm within very less time period and accurately.
Arsenic and Lead Uptake by Vegetable Crops Grown on Historically Contaminated Orchard Soils  [PDF]
M. B. McBride
Applied and Environmental Soil Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/283472
Abstract: Transfer of Pb and As into vegetables grown on orchard soils historically contaminated by Pb arsenate pesticides was measured in the greenhouse. Lettuce, carrots, green beans, and tomatoes were grown on soils containing a range of total Pb (16.5–915?mg/kg) and As (6.9–211?mg/kg) concentrations. The vegetables were acid-digested and analyzed for total Pb and As using ICP-mass spectrometry. Vegetable contamination was dependent on soil total Pb and As concentrations, pH, and vegetable species. Arsenic concentrations were the highest in lettuce and green beans, lower in carrots, and much lower in tomato fruit. Transfer of Pb into lettuce and beans was generally lower than that of As, and Pb and As were strongly excluded from tomato fruit. Soil metal concentrations as high as 400?mg/kg Pb and 100?mg/kg As produced vegetables with concentrations of Pb and As below the limits of international health standards. 1. Introduction Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) have been used historically in pesticides (e.g., calcium arsenate, lead arsenate, and copper arsenate) applied to orchard crops such as apples and peaches, as well as to some other crops such as potatoes. Because Pb is quite immobile, and As is only very slowly leached through soils [1, 2], the cumulative contamination of orchard soils by lead and arsenate beginning in the late 1800s persists today [3]. As old orchard lands are converted from agricultural to residential uses, the potential hazard to human health may be increased from certain exposure pathways arising from gardening and direct contact with soil. The scale of this problem is largely based on estimates that millions of acres across North America have been contaminated by arsenic and lead pesticides. Virginia may have 100,000–300,000 acres of old orchard land [3], and other states with large acreages of impacted orchard land include Washington (188,000 acres), Wisconsin (50,000 acres) and New Jersey (up to 5% of the total agricultural acreage) [2]. The total area of historical soil contamination in New York state is uncertain, but apple production has occupied about 40–50,000 acres in recent decades, with a general long-term decline in orchard acreage and a simultaneous increase in yield. It seems likely, then, that the present apple crop acreage underestimates the total land area that may have been contaminated by As and Pb at some time in the past. The potential transfer of soil Pb and As into vegetable crops is a concern when garden soils are contaminated by these toxic metals. With growing concern about dietary exposure to these two toxic
Differences of cadmium absorption and accumulation in selected vegetable crops
Ni Wu-Zhong,Yang Xiao-E,Long Xin-Xian,
Ni WZ
,Yang XE,Long XX

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2002,
Abstract: A pot experiment and a sandy culture experiment grown with three vegetable crops of Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis L., cv. Zao-Shu 5), winter greens (B. var. rosularis Tsen et Lee, cv. Shang-Hai-Qing) and celery (A. graveolens L. var. dulce DC., cv. Qing-Qin) were conducted, respectively. The initial soil and four incubated soils with different extractable Cd (0.15, 0.89, 1.38, 1.84 and 2.30 mg Cd/kg soil) were used for the pot experiment. Five treatments were designed (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 mg Cd/L) in nutrient solution in the sandy culture experiment. Each treatment in pot and sandy culture experiments was trireplicated. The objectives of the study were to examine Cd accumulation in edible parts of selected vegetable crops, its correlation with Cd concentrations in vegetable garden soil or in nutrient solution, and evaluate the criteria of Cd pollution in vegetable garden soil and in nutrient solution based on the hygienic limit of Cd in vegetables. Cadmium concentrations in edible parts of the three selected vegetable crops were as follows: 0.01-0.15 mg/kg fresh weight for Chinese cabbage, 0.02-0.17 mg/kg fresh weight for winter greens, and 0.02-0.24 mg/kg fresh weight for celery in the pot experiment, and 0.1-0.4 mg/kg fresh weight for Chinese cabbage, 0.1-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight for winter greens, and 0.05-0.5 mg/kg fresh weight for celery in the pot experiment (except no-Cd treatment). The order of the three test vegetable crops for cadmium accumulation in the edible parts was celery > winter greens > Chinese cabbage in both the pot experiment and the sandy culture experiment. Cadmium accumulation in edible parts or roots of the vegetable crops increased with increasing of cadmium concentration in the medium (soil or nutrient solution). And cadmium concentrations in edible parts of the test vegetable crops were significantly linearly related to the Cd levels in the growth media (soil and nutrient solution). Based on the regression equations established and the limit of cadmium concentration in vegetable products, the thresholds of Cd concentration in the growth medium evaluated was as follows: 0.5 mg/kg soil of extractable Cd for soil and 0.02 mg/L for nutrient solution. The high capacity for cadmium accumulation in the edible parts of different vegetable crops together with the absence of visual symptoms implies a potential danger for humans.
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