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Land Cover Change in Colombia: Surprising Forest Recovery Trends between 2001 and 2010  [PDF]
Ana María Sánchez-Cuervo, T. Mitchell Aide, Matthew L. Clark, Andrés Etter
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043943
Abstract: Background Monitoring land change at multiple spatial scales is essential for identifying hotspots of change, and for developing and implementing policies for conserving biodiversity and habitats. In the high diversity country of Colombia, these types of analyses are difficult because there is no consistent wall-to-wall, multi-temporal dataset for land-use and land-cover change. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, we mapped annual land-use and land-cover from 2001 to 2010 in Colombia using MODIS (250 m) products coupled with reference data from high spatial resolution imagery (QuickBird) in Google Earth. We used QuickBird imagery to visually interpret percent cover of eight land cover classes used for classifier training and accuracy assessment. Based on these maps we evaluated land cover change at four spatial scales country, biome, ecoregion, and municipality. Of the 1,117 municipalities, 820 had a net gain in woody vegetation (28,092 km2) while 264 had a net loss (11,129 km2), which resulted in a net gain of 16,963 km2 in woody vegetation at the national scale. Woody regrowth mainly occurred in areas previously classified as mixed woody/plantation rather than agriculture/herbaceous. The majority of this gain occurred in the Moist Forest biome, within the montane forest ecoregions, while the greatest loss of woody vegetation occurred in the Llanos and Apure-Villavicencio ecoregions. Conclusions The unexpected forest recovery trend, particularly in the Andes, provides an opportunity to expand current protected areas and to promote habitat connectivity. Furthermore, ecoregions with intense land conversion (e.g. Northern Andean Páramo) and ecoregions under-represented in the protected area network (e.g. Llanos, Apure-Villavicencio Dry forest, and Magdalena-Urabá Moist forest ecoregions) should be considered for new protected areas.
Forest Fragmentation and Its Potential Implications in the Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010  [PDF]
Izaya Numata, Mark A. Cochrane
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.24033
Abstract: In recent decades, human development pressures have results in conversions of vast tracts of Amazonian tropical rain forests to agriculture and other human land uses. In addition to the loss of large forest cover, remaining forests are also fragmented into smaller habitats. Fragmented forests suffer several biological and ecological changes due to edge effects that can exacerbate regional forest degradation. The Brazilian Amazon has had greatly contrasting land cover dynamics in the past decade with the highest historical rates of deforestation (2001-2005) followed by the lowest rates of forest loss in decades, since 2006. Currently, the basin-wide status and implications of forest fragmentation on remnant forests is not well known. We performed a regional forest fragmentation analysis for seven states of the Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010 using a recent deforestation data. During this period, the number of forest fragments (>2 ha) doubled, nearly 125,000 fragments were formed by human activities with more than 50% being smaller than 10 ha. Over the decade, forest edges increased by an average of 36,335 km/year. However, the rate was much greater from 2001-2005 (50,046 km/year) then 2006-2010 (25,365 km/year) when deforestation rates dropped drastically. In 2010, 55% of basin-wide forest edges were < 10 years old due to the creation of large number of small fragments where intensive biological and ecological degradation is ongoing. Over the past decade protected areas have been expanded dramatically over the Brazilian Amazon and, as of 2010, 51% of remaining forests across the basin are within protected areas and only 1.5% of protected areas has been deforested. Conversely, intensive forest cover conversion has been occurred in unprotected forests. While 17% of Amazonian forests are within 1 km of forest edges in 2010, the proportion increases to 34% in unprotected areas varying between 14% and 95% among the studied states. Our results indicate that the Brazilian Amazon now largely consists of two contrasting forest conditions: protected areas with vast undisturbed forests and unprotected forests that are highly fragmented and disturbed landscapes.
Greater Sochi (1945–2010) in contemporary local historiography
Valery Е. Shetnev
European Researcher , 2010,
Abstract: Article on the basis of modern regional historiography is the degree of knowledge of the history of Big Sochi from 1945 to 2010.
Lower Extremity Amputations in Persons with and without Diabetes in Italy: 2001–2010  [PDF]
Flavia L. Lombardo, Marina Maggini, Alessandra De Bellis, Giuseppe Seghieri, Roberto Anichini
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086405
Abstract: Objective To analyze hospitalization for lower extremity amputations (LEAs) and amputee rates in persons with and without diabetes in Italy. Research Design and Methods All patients with LEAs in the period 2001–2010 were identified analyzing the National Hospital Discharge Record database. For each year, amputee and hospitalization rates for LEAs were calculated either for persons with diabetes or without. Time trend for major and minor amputations were analysed. Results From 2001 to 2010 a mean annual number of 11,639 individuals underwent a lower extremity amputation: 58.6% had diabetes accounting for 60.7% of total hospitalizations. In 2010, the crude amputee rate for LEAs was 20.4 per 100,000 inhabitants: 247.2 for 100.000 persons with diabetes, and 8.6 for those without diabetes. Having diabetes was associated to an increased risk of amputation (Poisson estimated RR 10.9, 95%CI 9.4–12.8). Over the whole period, a progressive reduction of amputee rates was observed for major amputations either among persons with diabetes (?30.7%) or without diabetes (?12.5%), while the rates of minor amputations increased progressively (+22.4%) among people without diabetes and were nearly stable in people with diabetes (?4.6%). A greater number of minor amputations were performed among persons with than without diabetes: in 2010, the minor-to-major ratio among persons with diabetes (2.5) was more than twice than in those without diabetes (1.0). Conclusions The nationwide analyses confirm a progressive reduction of hospitalization and amputee rates for major LEAs, suggesting an earlier and more diffuse approach aimed at limb salvage.
Promotion of Prescription Drugs to Consumers and Providers, 2001–2010  [PDF]
Rachel Kornfield, Julie Donohue, Ernst R. Berndt, G. Caleb Alexander
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055504
Abstract: Background Pharmaceutical firms heavily promote their products and may have changed marketing strategies in response to reductions in new product approvals, restrictions on some forms of promotion, and the expanding role of biologic therapies. Methods We used descriptive analyses of annual cross-sectional data from 2001 through 2010 to examine direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) (Kantar Media) and provider-targeted promotion (IMS Health and SDI), including: (1) inflation-adjusted total promotion spending ($ and percent of sales); (2) distribution by channel (consumer v. provider); and (3) provider specialty both for the industry as a whole and for top-selling biologic and small molecule therapies. Results Total promotion peaked in 2004 at US$36.1 billion (13.4% of sales). By 2010 it had declined to $27.7B (9.0% of sales). Between 2006 and 2010, similar declines were seen for promotion to providers and DTCA (both by 25%). DTCA’s share of total promotion increased from 12% in 2002 to 18% in 2006, but then declined to 16% and remains highly concentrated. Number of products promoted to providers peaked in 2004 at over 3000, and then declined 20% by 2010. In contrast to top-selling small molecule therapies having an average of $370 million (8.8% of sales) spent on promotion, top biologics were promoted less, with only $33 million (1.4% of sales) spent per product. Little change occurred in the composition of promotion between primary care physicians and specialists from 2001–2010. Conclusions These findings suggest that pharmaceutical companies have reduced promotion following changes in the pharmaceutical pipeline and patent expiry for several blockbuster drugs. Promotional strategies for biologic drugs differ substantially from small molecule therapies.
A recent increase in the abundance of the echinoid Diadema antillarum in Dominica (Lesser Antilles): 2001-2005
Steiner,S. C. C; Williams,S. M;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: diadema antillarum populations at many caribbean locations have failed to recover from the pathogen-induced mortality events of the 1980s. it has become clear that the massive decline of this herbivorous urchin and the wide-spread absence of a population recovery lead to numerous long-term ecological consequences and reef degradation. while few quantitative studies on pre-mortality exist, great effort has been put forth to monitor remaining populations and their recovery. however, the patchy distribution of d. antillarum coupled with paucity of long-term studies based on the same methods applied at the same locations undermines the value of local as well as regional comparisons. in dominica, ongoing quantitative assessments of d. antillarum began in 2001. surveys of d. antillarum abundance are being carried out in 4-month intervals at six 100 m2 sites; spread over 38 km along the west coast. the density of d. antillarum has differed significantly between sites, ranging from 0.81(sd= 0.04) to 3.13 m-2 (sd= 2.10), and increased by 61.11% during the first five years of this study. seasonal fluctuations, possibly related to spawning aggregations, are also evident. the current abundance of d. antillarum on dominican reefs contrasts that of caribbean locations with recorded incidents of mass mortality events, and in some cases resembles pre-mortality densities from the early 1970s. prior to this study, no systematic quantitative assessments of d. antillarum were carried out in dominica. it is thus unclear in what way dominica?s d. antillarum were affected by the mass mortality events observed elsewhere in the 1980s. the increase in d. antillarum density so far observed may thus be the recovery from a pathogen-induced disturbance or from hurricane lenny in november 1999. locally, d. antillarum is important grazer on dominican?s reefs, where over-fishing has drastically reduced the number of herbivorous fishes. on a regional scale, the island?s d. antillarum may represent a
A recent increase in the abundance of the echinoid Diadema antillarum in Dominica (Lesser Antilles): 2001-2005
S. C. C Steiner,S. M Williams
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: Diadema antillarum populations at many Caribbean locations have failed to recover from the pathogen-induced mortality events of the 1980s. It has become clear that the massive decline of this herbivorous urchin and the wide-spread absence of a population recovery lead to numerous long-term ecological consequences and reef degradation. While few quantitative studies on pre-mortality exist, great effort has been put forth to monitor remaining populations and their recovery. However, the patchy distribution of D. antillarum coupled with paucity of long-term studies based on the same methods applied at the same locations undermines the value of local as well as regional comparisons. In Dominica, ongoing quantitative assessments of D. antillarum began in 2001. Surveys of D. antillarum abundance are being carried out in 4-month intervals at six 100 m2 sites; spread over 38 km along the west coast. The density of D. antillarum has differed significantly between sites, ranging from 0.81(SD= 0.04) to 3.13 m-2 (SD= 2.10), and increased by 61.11% during the first five years of this study. Seasonal fluctuations, possibly related to spawning aggregations, are also evident. The current abundance of D. antillarum on Dominican reefs contrasts that of Caribbean locations with recorded incidents of mass mortality events, and in some cases resembles pre-mortality densities from the early 1970s. Prior to this study, no systematic quantitative assessments of D. antillarum were carried out in Dominica. It is thus unclear in what way Dominica’s D. antillarum were affected by the mass mortality events observed elsewhere in the 1980s. The increase in D. antillarum density so far observed may thus be the recovery from a pathogen-induced disturbance or from Hurricane Lenny in November 1999. Locally, D. antillarum is important grazer on Dominican’s reefs, where over-fishing has drastically reduced the number of herbivorous fishes. On a regional scale, the island’s D. antillarum may represent a source of larvae for downstream islands, given the duration of the echinoplutei stage and a range of larval dispersal of hundreds of kilometers. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3): 97-103. Epub 2007 Jan. 15. Las poblaciones de Diadema antillarum de muchas localidades del Caribe, no se han recuperado después de los eventos de mortandad, inducidos por un patógeno, en la década de 1980. Se ha podido demostrar que la muerte masiva de este erizo herbívoro y la ausencia de recuperación, han tenido consecuencias ecológicas que han producido la degradación de los arrecifes. Existen pocos estudios pre-mor
Land Use Scenarios for Greater Copenhagen: Modelling the Impact of the Fingerplan  [PDF]
Christian FERTNER,Gertrud J?RGENSEN,Thomas Sick NIELSEN
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2012,
Abstract: Urban planning and development in Denmark can be characterised by a relatively strong planning framework. Land use scenarios based on empirically derived dynamics of urban growth are practically never applied. However, modelling approaches do offer a methodology to explore the pressures in an urban region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning framework, the “Fingerplan 2007”. We test three policy scenarios and analyse different effects on urban growth by using the Metronamica model from the Dutch-based Research Institute for Knowledge Systems (RIKS). We analyse the possibilities to elaborate a practical and useful outcome within a relatively short period of time. The set-up and the results were discussed with a few experts from the Danish Ministry of the Environment and its value as discussion input recognized. The approach offers a lot of possibilities to discuss urban growth and spatial planning policies, even in a country with a strong planning framework as in Denmark.
Temporal Trend in Hospitalizations for Acute Diabetic Complications: A Nationwide Study, Italy, 2001–2010  [PDF]
Flavia Lombardo, Marina Maggini, Gabriella Gruden, Graziella Bruno
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063675
Abstract: Background We investigated temporal trends and geographic variations in both hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality rates for acute diabetic complications (ADC) in the Italian universal health care system. Methods and Findings A retrospective review of the medical records of patients with either primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of hyperglycaemic acute complications (ICD-9-CM codes 250.1, 250.2, 250.3) or hypoglycemic coma (ICD-9-CM code 251.0) was performed in period 2001–2010. Standardized rates by age and gender on 2001 Italian population and by diabetic population were calculated. We identified 7,601.883 diabetes-related hospital discharges. Out of them, 266,374 (3.5%) were due to ADC, either ketoacidosis/hyperosmolarity (94.4%) or hypoglycemic coma (5.6%). The rate of discharge for ADC decreased by 51.1% from 2001 to 2010 (14.4 vs. 7.1 discharge rate/1,000 diabetic people; 5.7% decrease per year, test for trend, p<0.001) with a similar trend for both hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic complications. Diabetic people in the younger age groups (≤19 and 20–44 years old) had a significantly greater rate of discharge for ADC than people aged 65 years and over (≤19 10-fold increase; 20–44: 2-fold increase). In-hospital mortality rate was 7.6%, with 211 preventable deaths in younger diabetic people (≤44 years old). There was a large variability among Italian Regions and the ratio between the highest and the lowest regional discharge rate reached 300% in 2010. Conclusions Decreasing temporal trend in hospitalizations for preventable ADC suggests improving outpatient care. In younger diabetic patients, however, both hospitalization rates and in-hospital mortality are still a matter of concern.
Changes in the Loop Current's Eddy Shedding in the Period 2001–2010  [PDF]
Fred M. Vukovich
International Journal of Oceanography , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/439042
Abstract: A major change in the Loop Current's eddy shedding was found in the decade 2001–2010. Sixteen (16) rings separated from the Loop Current in that decade, whereas in two previous decades, 11 rings separated in each decade. More than half the rings (i.e., 56%) that separated from the Loop Current in the decade 2001–2010 had separation periods ≤8 months. In the period prior to 2001, only 26% of the rings had separation periods ≤8 months. Furthermore, the dataset average period for ring separation for the period prior to 2001, an average over a 29-year period, was about 11 months, and the dataset average Loop Current's westward tilt angle—a factor that indicates whether the Loop Current will soon shed an eddy or not—was about 16°. After the year 2000, the dataset average period for ring separation, an average over a 39-year period, decreased by about 1 month and was about 10 months. The average ring-separation period in the decade 2001–2010 was about 9 months. The dataset average of the Loop Current's westward tilt angle increased by about 5° in the period 1998–2008 and was about 20° in 2010. Potential causes for these changes are discussed.
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