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Spinoza and Toleration
Thijs Bogers
Opticon1826 , 2011, DOI: 10.5334/opt.111102
Abstract: The arguments put forward by Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677) in his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) of 1670 build up towards the final chapter wherein Spinoza states that ‘the true purpose of the state is in fact freedom.’ (Spinoza 2008, 252). In the final chapter, Spinoza pleads for a state based on the toleration of differing opinions: ‘freedom of judgment must necessarily be permitted and people must be governed in such a way that they can live in harmony, even though they openly hold different and contradictory opinions.’ (Spinoza 2008, 257). However, the title of the preceding chapter begins with the words: ‘Where it is shown that authority in sacred matters belongs wholly to the sovereign powers’ (Spinoza 2008, 245). Here Spinoza heavily curtails the freedom of individuals concerning all ‘external’ religious matters. Spinoza brings these two seemingly contradictory views together in chapter 20 when he concludes that: ‘the state is never safer than [...] when the right of the sovereign authorities, whether in sacred or secular matters, is concerned only with actions, and when everyone is allowed to think what they wish and to say what they think.’ (Spinoza 2008, 259).
Idel on Spinoza  [cached]
Warren Zev Harvey
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2007,
Abstract: In the course of his studies on Kabbalah, Moshe Idel has written on the influence of Kabbalists on philosophy. He suggests that Spinoza was influenced by the Kabbalah regarding his expressions “Deus sive Natura“ and “amor Dei intellectualis.” The 13th-century ecstatic Kabbalist Rabbi Abraham Abulafia and many authors after him cited the numerical equivalence of the Hebrew words for God and Nature: elohim = ha-teba` = 86. This striking numerical equivalence may be one of the sources of Spinoza’s expression “Deus sive Natura.” The same Kabbalist used the Hebrew expression “ahabah elohit sikhlit“ (“divine intellectual love”), which may underlie Spinoza’s expression “amor Dei intellectualis.” Abulafia’s expression “ahabah elohit sikhlit“ is repeated by the popular 15th-century Maimonidean philosopher, Rabbi Abraham Shalom.
Europa Uomo in collaboration with ESOP
Louis Denis
European Journal of Oncology Pharmacy , 2009,
Abstract: Europa Uomo is a confederation of patient support groups in 21 European countries. We inform and educate our members with the support of professional bodies. Closer collaboration with the ESOP is overdue and joint projects will be started in the near future.
L'Uomo delinquente di Cesare Lombroso: tra scienza e letteratura  [cached]
Lucia Rodler
Criminocorpus, Revue Hypermédia , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/criminocorpus.1905
Abstract: Questo articolo presenta il rapporto tra Cesare Lombroso e la letteratura, con particolare riferimento alla prima edizione dell’Uomo delinquente (1876). Rispetto agli studi precedenti che hanno riguardato soprattutto l’“effetto lombroso“ sui critici e gli scrittori successivi, questo contributo presenta l’“effetto letteratura“ sul pensiero lombrosiano tra gli anni Sessanta e Settanta dell’Ottocento, quando Lombroso apprende dalla linguistica a riflettere sulle origini dell’uomo, dall’antropologia a definire la nozione di atavismo, dalla letteratura a modellare la propria scrittura narrativa. L’articolo cerca di precisare la struttura dell’Uomo delinquente, la retorica della descrizione fisiognomica (fondata sull’ipotiposi e non sull’iperbole) e la biblioteca dei libri consigliati (in primis Dante e Manzoni, riletti con fortuna anche nella critica letteraria del tardo Ottocento italiano) e proibiti (tra cui Ovidio, Petronio, Apuleio, la letteratura picaresca, il romanzo francese dell’Ottocento).
Spinoza and the Relativity of Evil in the World  [PDF]
Muhammad Kamal
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.83011
Abstract: This article analyses the problem of evil in the world in the context of Spinoza’s philosophical discourse. It deals with an important and urgent question: is there evil in the world or not? Drawing upon Spinoza’s interpretation of the relationship between God and the world, I consider this dilemma by concentrating upon the pantheistic elements of his philosophy. I have discussed how Spinoza develops his arguments for the relativity of evil and its objective non-existence. This solution is derived from the way he identifies substance as the sole reality with God. I have also compared Spinoza’s ideas with those of Plotinus by highlighting similarities in their respective understandings of the problem of evil.
Spinoza: la verità utile
Maurizio Scandella
Nóema , 2011,
Abstract: Come intendere la completa intelligibilità del reale affermata da Spinoza? Da un lato essa porta alla perdita di senso della nozione di miracolo, di cui si mostrano la contradditorietà e l'inutilità. Dall'altro lato essa espone però la verità stessa al rischio della propria dissoluzione all'interno di un Dio in cui tutte le idee sono vere. Il confronto con tale difficoltà porta ad indagare il ruolo positivo dell'immaginazione nella filosofia di Spinoza e ad ipotizzare nella nozione di vera religione un possibile esempio di "verità utile", capace di efficacia pratico-politica. Spinoza: the useful truth What does the full intelligibility of reality proposed by Spinoza mean? On the one hand, it turns the notion of miracle into a nonsense, both contradictory and useless. On the other hand, it seems that the truth itself could disappear into a God in which all ideas are true. The confrontation with this problem requires an analysis of Spinoza’s positive approach to imagination and brings to considers the notion of true religion as a possible example of “useful truth”, effective on a practical and political level.
Two Layers of Spinoza’s Ontology  [cached]
Miroslav Fridl
Prolegomena , 2007,
Abstract: The paper aims to present Spinoza’s understanding of the ontological status of finite beings, which was heavily influenced by mathematics, i.e. geometry. Spinoza stratified finite beings (finite modes) into two fairly incompatible layers: the one subjectively conceived (in the same way as mathematical entities may be considered subjectively conceived), while the other is the objective level. The first level is related to the essence of being that is caused by God through immanent causality: here, we speak of entailment on the logical and epistemological level (reason and consequence), and not the level of reality (cause and effect). Unlike essence, existence represents the second level of being: existence is caused by the real finite being through transeunt cause. The first level, by its ontological status, is very close to mathematical entities, therefore the qualification that Spinoza ‘geometrized reality under a species of the essences’. Namely, he geometrized the segment under the scope of ontology, i.e. the essences of finite modes. The final part of the paper is dedicated to one of the main reasons why Spinoza failed to provide a satisfactory solution to this ontological problem, which is not the only such problem of his system. This would be that Spinoza paid too much attention on ethics (and consequently on epistemology that leads to proper ethics), to the detriment of metaphysics, i.e. ontology as general metaphysics. For Spinoza, ontology is subjected to epistemology and ethics, therefore the name ‘functional metaphysics’.
El mundo de Spinoza
Guillermo Delahanty Matuk
Argumentos (México, D.F.) , 2005,
Abstract: A partir de la focalización del repudio de la sinagoga a Spinoza, se teje su biografía alrededor de la visión del mundo del judaísmo, la Inquisición contra los marranos y la expulsión de sus antecesores de Portugal. Se revisa la atmósfera de la religión dominante en los Países Bajos, el calvinismo, y se enmarca en el momento histórico-social de su medio geográfico. Se analiza la trayectoria de Spinoza en el campo de la óptica, la física y sus experimentos químicos, y se exponen sus intercambios con los filósofos, cuyos intereses académicos eran similares. Finalmente, se da una mirada a su mundo interior, el de la familia y sus amigos.
Ibn ‘Arabi and Spinoza on God and the World  [PDF]
Muhammad Kamal
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.74021
Abstract: This paper is a comparative analysis of Ibn ‘Arabi’s and Spinoza’s interpretation of God’s existence and its relation with the world. The focus will be on the ontology of these two thinkers from different intellectual traditions, elucidating their tripartite system in order to find out whether the reality of the world in its relationship to God is denied or affirmed. To vindicate the similarities between the ontological views of Ibn ‘Arabi and Spinoza this paper argues in light of God’s simplicity and causality that the existence of the world can be understood by denying and affirming its identity with God.
Praxis Filosófica , 2011,
Abstract: la homogeneidad de la naturaleza, concebida como un todo racional y la universalidad del método se implican en spinoza. del principio de la unidad de la sustancia, o sea de la unidad de la naturaleza tomada como natura naturans y natura naturata, se sigue que no puede existir un método que preceda al conocimiento filosófico. ahora, si el carácter indisociable de la filosofía y del mos geometricus es efectivo, se debe a la total inteligibilidad para el hombre de la esencia de dios y de las cosas, ya que de ella se sigue que el conocimiento verdadero, es decir, adecuado, procede del todo a las partes. con spinoza, el racionalismo absoluto quiere acabar con el misterio que rodea la razón o que le subyace, misterio que hacía afirmar a descartes en su tercera meditación que "es propio de la naturaleza de lo infinito que yo, siendo finito, no pueda comprenderlo". la filosofía de spinoza se presenta como un intelectualismo íntegro, una doctrina de la necesidad y de la libertad. mas, podemos preguntarnos: ?no hay aquí una contradicción entre necesidad y libertad? ?será que la filosofía de spinoza es incoherente? o, dicho en otros términos, ?es posible para el hombre actuar dentro de un determinismo tan estricto?
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