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The Role of Phonology and Morphology in the Development of Basic Reading Skills of Dyslexic and Normal Native Arabic Readers  [PDF]
Salim Abu-Rabia, Nariman Abu-Rahmoun
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.37185
Abstract: This study is an investigation of the role of some basic reading skills of dyslexic (n = 27) and normal readers of Arabic: A reading-age-matched group (n = 29) and a chronological age-matched group (n = 31). The children were tested on reading and cognitive measures, all of which had vowelized and unvowelized versions: phonological, orthographic, reading, spelling, syntax, and working memory skills. The results of the MANOVA revealed significant differences between the dyslexic readers and the two control groups on most measures. Moreover, main effects of vowels and roots were found. In other words, subjects were much better at the vowelized than the unvowelized tests and used morphology to assist their reading accuracy. However, the Stepwise Regression analysis revealed that syntax, reading measures (isolated words, real roots and false roots), morphology and spelling were the most powerful predictors of reading accuracy among dyslexic and normal readers.
Reading Proficiency and Adaptability in Orthographic Processing: An Examination of the Effect of Type of Orthography Read on Brain Activity in Regular and Dyslexic Readers  [PDF]
Irit Bar-Kochva, Zvia Breznitz
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086016
Abstract: Regular readers were found to adjust the routine of reading to the demands of processing imposed by different orthographies. Dyslexic readers may lack such adaptability in reading. This hypothesis was tested among readers of Hebrew, as Hebrew has two forms of script differing in phonological transparency. Event-related potentials were recorded from 24 regular and 24 dyslexic readers while they carried out a lexical decision task in these two forms of script. The two forms of script elicited distinct amplitudes and latencies at ~165 ms after target onset, and these effects were larger in regular than in dyslexic readers. These early effects appeared not to be merely a result of the visual difference between the two forms of script (the presence of diacritics). The next effect of form of script was obtained on amplitudes elicited at latencies associated with orthographic-lexical processing and the categorization of stimuli, and these appeared earlier in regular readers (~340 ms) than in dyslexic readers (~400 ms). The behavioral measures showed inferior reading skills of dyslexic readers compared to regular readers in reading of both forms of script. Taken together, the results suggest that although dyslexic readers are not indifferent to the type of orthography read, they fail to adjust the routine of reading to the demands of processing imposed by both a transparent and an opaque orthography.
Phonological and Cognitive Reading Related Skills as Predictors of Word Reading and Reading Comprehension among Arabic Dyslexic Children  [PDF]
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Soulef Mecheri, Mohamed Reba?
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.61003
Abstract: The present study sought to identify cognitive reading-related skills (i.e. visual attention, rapid automatized naming and working memory) that might distinguish dyslexic Arabic children from skilled ones in 4th and 5th grades, and to examine the potential contribution of these factors to word reading and reading comprehension. Two experiments were conducted for this purpose. In Experiment 1, normal readers (N = 108) and dyslexics (23) were given a set of literacy tasks, visual attention, and rapid automatized naming. The results indicated that dyslexic children exhibited lower reading-related skills than controls. Visual attention and phonological processing were able to predict word reading. Experiment 2 was carried out on 36 dyslexic children compared to chronological-age controls. This experiment was designed to assess the relation between phonological awareness and working memory with word recognition and reading comprehension. Results showed significant differences between groups in literacy scores. In addition, inter-correlations indicated a strong relation between word recognition and reading comprehension on one hand and phonological awareness and verbal working memory on the other. Regression analyses showed that rapid naming, visual attention, and verbal working memory were significantly associated with literacy. The findings underscored the importance of cognitive skills in the acquisition of Arabic literacy and emphasized persistent difficulties in dyslexic children from multiple causes.
Binocular saccade coordination in reading and visual search: a developmental study in typical reader and dyslexic children  [PDF]
Magali Seassau,Emmanuel Bui-Quoc,Maria Pia Bucci
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2014.00085
Abstract: Studies dealing with developmental aspects of binocular eye movement behavior during reading are scarce. In this study we have explored binocular strategies during reading and visual search tasks in a large population of dyslexic and typical readers. Binocular eye movements were recorded using a video-oculography system in 43 dyslexic children (aged 8–13) and in a group of 42 age-matched typical readers. The main findings are: (i) ocular motor characteristics of dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to those reported in typical children in reading task; (ii) a developmental effect exists in reading in control children, in dyslexic children the effect of development was observed only on fixation durations; and (iii) ocular motor behavior in the visual search tasks is similar for dyslexic children and for typical readers, except for the disconjugacy during and after the saccade: dyslexic children are impaired in comparison to typical children. Data reported here confirms and expands previous studies on children’s reading. Both reading skills and binocular saccades coordination improve with age in typical readers. The atypical eye movement’s patterns observed in dyslexic children suggest a deficiency in the visual attentional processing as well as an impairment of the ocular motor saccade and vergence systems interaction.
A Working Memory Deficit among Dyslexic Readers with No Phonological Impairment as Measured Using the N-Back Task: An fNIR Study  [PDF]
Itamar Sela, Meltem Izzetoglu, Kurtulus Izzetoglu, Banu Onaral
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046527
Abstract: Data indicated that dyslexic individuals exhibited difficulties on tasks involving Working Memory (WM). Previous studies have suggested that these deficits stem from impaired processing in the Phonological Loop (PL). The PL impairment was connected to poor phonological processing. However, recent data has pointed to the Central Executive (CE) system as another source of WM deficit in dyslexic readers. This opened a debate whether the WM deficit stems solely from PL or can also be seen as an outcome of poor CE processing. In an attempt to verify this question, the current study compared adult skilled and compensated dyslexic readers with no impairment of phonological skills. The participants’ PL and CE processing were tested by using the fNIR device attached to the frontal lobe and measured the changes in brain oxygen values when performing N-back task. As it was previously suggested, the N = 0 represented PL and N = 1 to 3 represent CE processing. It was hypothesized that dyslexic readers who show non-impaired phonological skills will exhibit deficits mainly in the CE subsystem and to a lesser extent in the PL. Results indicated that the two reading level groups did not differ in their accuracy and reaction times in any of the N-Back conditions. However, the dyslexic readers demonstrated significant lower maximum oxyHb values in the upper left frontal lobe, mainly caused due to a significant lower activity under the N = 1 condition. Significant task effects were found in the medial left hemisphere, and the high medial right hemisphere. In addition, significant correlations between fNIR-features, reading performance and speed of processing were found. The higher oxyHb values, the better reading and speed of processing performance obtained. The results of the current study support the hypothesis that at least for the group of dyslexics with non-impaired PL, WM deficit stems from poor CE activity.
Servet Bayram,,Mucahit Camnalbur,,Esad Esgin
Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: In the study, we examine and compare dyslexic and normal readers, reading habits and eye movements during reading passages and pseudowords. Participants were 15 Turkish dyslexic students, suffering mainly from reading disorder. In addition there were 15 Turkish students who were regular readers and who did not have problems with reading. During reading passages and pseudowords, the eye movements of participants were recorded. For both text and pseudoword reading, the dyslexic readers exhibited more and much longer fixations, but relatively few regressions. An increased length of words and pseudowords led to a greater increase in the number of fixations for dyslexics rather than normal readers.
Brain Mechanisms and Reading Remediation: More Questions Than Answers  [PDF]
Kristen Pammer
Scientifica , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/802741
Abstract: Dyslexia is generally diagnosed in childhood and is characterised by poor literacy skills with associated phonological and perceptual problems. Compensated dyslexic readers are adult readers who have a documented history of childhood dyslexia but as adults can read and comprehend written text well. Uncompensated dyslexic readers are adults who similarly have a documented history of reading impairment but remain functionally reading-impaired all their lives. There is little understanding of the neurophysiological basis for how or why some children become compensated, while others do not, and there is little knowledge about neurophysiological changes that occur with remedial programs for reading disability. This paper will review research looking at reading remediation, particularly in the context of the underlying neurophysiology. 1. Brain Mechanisms and Reading Remediation: More Questions Than Answers Approximately 10% of children suffer a specific reading difficulty such as dyslexia [1]. Despite some residual deficits in core skills, (e.g., phonological processing), some of these individuals will ultimately learn good reading skills as adults (become compensated), while others will remain functionally reading-impaired all their lives (uncompensated) [2, 3]. On the last page of her seminal book on dyslexia, Snowling [2] concludes “The research agenda for the next decade must certainly be directed to the treatment resisters,… those poor readers who do not respond well to current intervention programs.” Yet despite the huge personal and social costs of dyslexia, virtually nothing is known about how or why some young dyslexic readers ultimately learn to read, while others remain functionally dyslexic their whole lives. The aim of the current review is to consider some of the research on reading remediation, particularly within the context of underlying brain mechanisms. A number of reviews have been conducted regarding the functional organisation of the normal reading network in the brain (refer to [4] for a recent review) and there is some research that has looked at compensatory brain mechanisms that develop as poor readers develop good reading skills [5]. However, a full understanding of how cortical networks develop in response to acquiring reading skills requires not only an understanding of what those networks look like but also an understanding of how those networks are functionally connected. Functional connectivity in language is well documented (e.g., [6]), and it is common for researchers to draw on this literature to also describe reading
Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial  [PDF]
Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Clara Regina Brand?o de ávila, George B. Ploubidis, Jair de Jesus Mari
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059984
Abstract: Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of S?o Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves, enough to make music lessons as public policy.
Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study
Jascha Rüsseler, Petra Becker, S?nke Johannes, Thomas F Münte
BMC Neuroscience , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-8-52
Abstract: Normal readers responded faster compared to dyslexic readers in all three tasks. Onset latencies of the N400 component were delayed in dyslexic readers in the rhyme judgment and in the gender judgment task, but not in the semantic judgment task. N400 and the anterior negativity peak amplitudes did not differ between the two groups. However, the N400 persisted longer in the dyslexic group in the rhyme judgment and in the semantic judgment tasks.These findings indicate that dyslexics are phonologically impaired (delayed N400 in the rhyme judgment task) but that they also have difficulties in other, non-phonological aspects of reading (longer response times, longer persistence of the N400). Specifically, semantic and syntactic integration seem to require more effort for dyslexic readers and take longer irrespective of the reading task that has to be performed.Developmental dyslexia is characterized by a difficulty in written language processing in persons possessing the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for accurate and fluent reading. More formally, it has been defined as a specific developmental impairment in the ability to read and spell despite adequate educational resources, average non-verbal intelligence, no obvious sensory deficits and appropriate socio-cultural opportunities [1,2]. Dyslexia occurs in all languages and is perhaps the most common developmental learning disorder affecting children with prevalence rates ranging from 5% to 17.5% [3-6]. Both, prospective and retrospective longitudinal studies indicate that dyslexia is a chronic, persistent condition [7,8] and, thus, does not represent a developmental lag [9]. Over time, poor and good readers tend to maintain their relative positions along the spectrum of reading ability. However, adult dyslexic readers have problems that differ from those of dyslexic children. Their main problems are poor spelling, slow reading, decoding, and nonword-reading [10-12].Most researchers agree that develop
The characteristics of struggling university readers and instructional approaches of academic reading in Malaysia
Latisha Asmaak Shafie,Surina Nayan
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Many university students are struggling readers when they have to read academic texts. Thus these students are not able to comprehend academic texts which hinder their success academically. These students are forced to sit for Reading for Academic Purposes in order to improve their academic reading skills. This paper is a reflection of the authors’ experiences teaching reading for academic purposes at a local higher learning institution in Malaysia. In order to improve struggling readers’ reading abilities, the authors examine the ways struggling readers transacted with their academic reading demands. This paper examines reading strategies and characteristics of struggling readers. It also suggests a reading instructional approach for struggling readers and their instructors.
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