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Growth, Yield, Qualities and Appropriate Sizes of Eight Baby Corn Cultivars (Zea mays L.) for Industrial Uses Grown on Oxic Paleustults Soil, Northeast Thailand  [PDF]
Kasikranan S.,H. Jones,A. Suksri
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: This field experiment was carried out at Khon Kaen University on Yasothon soil series (Oxic Paleustults soil) in late July to early November, 1998 to investigate the effects due to genotypes on growth, yields, industrial baby corn yields and kernel yields of the crop plants. The commercial maize cultivars being used were KU #1, SW 2, SRC 6, Baby corn #1, G 5414, KKU 922, CMB, and SSW. They were used as treatments and the design being used was a Randomised Complete Block Design with four replications. The results showed that total dry weights, stem dry weights, leaf dry weights, leaf areas and Brix values per plant were somewhat inconsistently found particularly total dry weights during the early growth period but subsequently became similar for all treated cultivars whilst crop growth rate (CGR) increased with time to the second interval and then a decline yet no trend due to treatments was shown. Leaf area indices were not up to optimum whilst kernel yields for the tested cultivars were ranging from 2,694 to 6,600 kg ha -1 for SSW and Baby #1, respectively. However, industrial baby corn characters were ranking at the highest rated scores with KKU 922 followed by G 5414, SW 2, SRC 6, CMB, KU #1, SSW, and Baby corn #1, respectively while commercial baby corn yields were highest with G 5414 followed by KU #1, Baby corn # 1, KKU 922, SW 2, CMB, SRC 6 and SSW with the yields of 442, 408, 407, 402, 398, 393, 357 and 352 kg fresh weights/hectare, respectively. KKU 922 cultivar was predominantly shown its outstanding features for further experiments.
Rainy Season Soybean (Glycine max L.) as Influenced by Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilisers
Grown on Oxic Paleustults Soil in Northeast Thailand
 [PDF]

A. Suksri
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1998,
Abstract: Oxic Paleustults soil required the additional amounts of both dolomite and chemical fertilisers annually from crop to crop due to high rate of leaching and some amounts of nutrients have been taken up by roots of the soybean plants. An increase in N levels consistently increased total shoot dry weights, stem plus petiole dry weights, leaf dry weights, and pod dry weights of the soybean plants but the differences were relatively small and not statistically significance. Potassium increased top growth, seed yields and seed sizes only up to the second level and then a decline. The levels of K were relatively too high for N to encounter. The differences between the fertiliser treated plants and the untreated plants were large and statistically significance. Oxic Paleustults soil requires the lowest rates of both N and K fertilisers but higher K levels should be adjusted to attain N:K ratio of 1:1.5. Nitrogen is needed for soybean plants even though rhizobium Japonicum is available in soil from the previous soybean experiments. Seed yields of soybean plants increased with an increase in N levels but slightly depressed by higher K levels. Seed sizes of the soybean plants increased by the second level of K and higher K levels depressed it. There were some significant relationships between seed yields and total shoot dry weights, seed yields and leaf areas, seed yields and leaf area indices and a slightly positive relationships between seed yields and levels of N but with lesser extent with higher K levels.
Soil Nutrients and Liming on Dry Weight Yields and Forage Quality of Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf.), Grown on Korat Soil Series (Oxic Paleustults) in Northeast Thailand  [PDF]
Suradej Pholsen
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: This experiment was carried out at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm, Khon Kaen University, Thailand during the 2004-2005 aiming to investigate effect of phosphorus (P) and dolomite levels on dry weight yields (DWYs) and forage quality of Signal grass. A 4x3 factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used. Four P levels were: 0, 100, 200 and 400 kg P2O5 ha-1 and three dolomite levels were: 0, 625 and 2,500 kg ha-1. The Signal grass plants were grown on Korat soil series, (Oxic Paleustults). A quadrat with a dimension of 50x50 cm was used for grass yield harvests. Crude Protein (CP), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) and Dry Matter Degradability (DMD) contents were determined. Tissues phosphorus and calcium contents were also analysed. The results showed that an increase in dolomite levels increased soil pH from 4.4 to 5.1 for levels 1 and 3, respectively. An increase in P levels increased available soil P from 4.56 to 28.38 ppm for levels 1 and 4, respectively. For the first year experiment, dolomite levels had no significant effect on DWYs, whilst P levels significantly increased but only up to level 2. The 2-year average DWYs reached 11,368 kg ha-1 for level 4 of P. With the first year rainy season harvests, P levels had its significant effect on ADF and DMD up to level 2 but not with CP and NDF. For the dry season harvests, P and dolomite levels had no significant effects on forage quality. Dolomite levels had no significant effect on P and Ca contents of the Signal grass tissues but an increase in P levels increased P contents. P and Ca contents, in most cases, were higher for the dry season than the rainy season.
Sinopse das espécies de Panicum L. subg. Panicum (Poaceae, Paniceae) ocorrentes no Brasil
Guglieri, Adriana;Zuloaga, Fernando O.;Longhi-Wagner, Hilda Maria;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062004000200015
Abstract: a survey of panicum subg. panicum confirmed the occurrence of 29 species in brazil. analytical keys to differentiate the subgenus panicum from other sections of panicum not included in defined subgenera, and for species of subgenus panicum are provided, as well as illustrations of taxonomic characteristics and data on their geographic distribution.
Waste Recycling and Compost Benefits  [cached]
Vasilica STAN,Ana VIRSTA,Elena Mirela DUSA,Ana Maria GLAVAN
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2009,
Abstract: Composting is commonly used to treat solid wastes prior to recycling or disposal. It reduces the amount of material to handle and has the potential to inactivate pathogens thermally. Using composts in agriculture to minimize organic wastes and to reduce the addition of fertilizers and fungicides in crop production is highly effective. The amendment compost may improve all physical properties. Bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, and, water retention capacity may be improved, and, the improvement is proportional to the compost rate. Increasing concern regarding food safety and environmental pollution, as well as legislative pressures in European countries to reduce the number of approved active pesticide ingredients, has generated an interest in compost and other biological control agents to prevent and control plant diseases. In that way there was reported that compost amendment may be advantageous by increasing the disease suppressive properties of the soil or of the potting mixture due to an increasing microbial activity and/or the presence of specific antagonists in compost.
Non-microbial methane formation in oxic soils
A. Jugold, F. Althoff, M. Hurkuck, M. Greule, K. Lenhart, J. Lelieveld,F. Keppler
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2012,
Abstract: Methane plays an important role as a radiatively and chemically active gas in our atmosphere. Until recently, sources of atmospheric methane in the biosphere have been attributed to strictly anaerobic microbial processes during degradation of organic matter. However, a large fraction of methane produced in the anoxic soil layers does not reach the atmosphere due to methanotrophic consumption in the overlaying oxic soil. Although methane fluxes from aerobic soils have been observed, an alternative source other than methanogenesis has not been identified thus far. Here we provide evidence for non-microbial methane formation in soils under oxic conditions. We found that soils release methane upon heating and other environmental factors like ultraviolet irradiation, and drying-rewetting cycles. We suggest that chemical formation of methane during degradation of soil organic matter may represent the missing soil source that is needed to fully understand the methane cycle in aerobic soils. Although the emission fluxes are relatively low when compared to those from wetlands, they may be important in warm and wet regions subjected to ultraviolet radiation. We suggest that this methane source is highly sensitive to global change.
Non-microbial methane formation in oxic soils  [PDF]
A. Jugold,F. Althoff,M. Hurkuck,M. Greule
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-11961-2012
Abstract: Methane plays an important role as a radiatively and chemically active gas in our atmosphere. Until recently, sources of atmospheric methane in the biosphere have been attributed to strictly anaerobic microbial processes during degradation of organic matter. However, a large fraction of methane produced in the anoxic soil layers does not reach the atmosphere due to methanotrophic consumption in the overlaying oxic soil. Although methane fluxes from aerobic soils have been observed an alternative source other than methanogenesis has not been identified thus far. Here we provide evidence for non-microbial methane formation in soils under oxic conditions. We found that soils release methane upon heating and other environmental factors like ultraviolet irradiation, and drying-rewetting cycles. We suggest that chemical formation of methane during degradation of soil organic matter may represent the missing soil source that is needed to fully understand the complete methane cycle within the pedosphere. Although the emission fluxes are relatively low when compared to those from wetlands, they may be important in warm and wet regions subjected to ultraviolet radiation. We suggest that this methane source is highly sensitive to global change.
Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilisers on Growth, Chemical Components, and Seed Yields of a Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Grown on Oxic Paleustults Soil, Northeast Thailand  [PDF]
S. Pholsen,D.E.B. Higgs,A. Suksri
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: This experiment was carried out at Khon Kaen University, Thailand to investigate the effects of nitrogen and potassium chemical fertilisers upon growth, chemical components and seed yield. Urea and potassium chloride were used for nitrogen and potassium sources, respectively. Nitrogen application rates were 0, 62.5, 125 and 187.5 kg N/ha and potassium rates were 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg K2O/ha. The experiment was laid in a 4 x 4 factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The plant samples were taken at 52 and 82 days after emergence for dry weights of stem, leaves, flower heads, and leaf areas, and 93 days after emergence for seed head dry weights, seed yields and 1000-seed weights. The results showed that leaf dry weights and leaf areas of the sorghum plants at 52 days after emergence increased with an increase in nitrogen levels whilst potassium levels had no significant effect. At 82 days after emergence, total dry weights, stem dry weights, leaf dry weights, flower head dry weights and leaf areas were unaffected by both nitrogen and potassium levels. This was also true for Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) and Dry Matter Degradability (DMD). Crude Protein (CP) values increased with an increase in nitrogen levels while a reverse was found with the brix values for both nitrogen and potassium levels. At 93 days after emergence, seed head dry weights, seed yields and 1000-seed weights were unaffected by both nitrogen and potassium levels.
Bioactive Compost - A Value Added Compost with Microbial Inoculants and Organic Additives
R. Kavitha,P. Subramanian
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: A study was conducted in the Department of Environmental Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to transform the normal compost into bioactive compost through the addition of various substrates, which has multiple benefits to the crop system. The key players in this transformation process were Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Phosphobacteria, composted poultry litter, rock phosphate and diluted spent wash. This enrichment process has increased the nutritive value of compost. The highest nitrogen content (1.75%) and phosphorus content (1.16%) was observed in the treatment T5 (compost enriched with composted poultry litter, spent wash, microbial inoculants and rock phosphate). The beneficial microorganism viz., Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Phosphobacteria population were higher in the treatment T5 where all the inputs (composted poultry litter, microbial consortium, rock phosphate and spent wash) were added to the compost. The plant growth promoters viz., IAA and GA content was more in the treatment applied with spent wash and microbial inoculum. Beneficial microorganisms, composted poultry litter, rock phosphate and diluted spent wash contributes maximum level of nutrients and growth promoters to the compost with small expenses.
Study on the Quality and Comparing of the Compost Produced by Khomain and Tehran Compost Factories
M Farzadkia,S Salehi,A Joneidy Jafari,R Nabizadeh
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment , 2009,
Abstract: Backgrounds and Objectives: Over than 70% of solid wastes is consisted of food wastes with high putrecibility in Iran. Due to this regard, construction of composting factories for sanitary disposal or fertilizer production from solid wastes was very appreciated in our country. The objective of this research was to study on the quality and comparing of the compost produced by Khomain and Tehran compost factories."nMaterials and Methods: This study was accomplished on the compost produce from Khomain and Tehran compost factories about 9 months. For investigation of chemical qualities of these materials, some indexes such as percentage of organic materials, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and heavy metals consists of lead, cadmium, mercury and chromium were measured. Microbial quality of these compost materials were defined by assessing of the amounts of coliforms bacteria, salmonella bacteria and parasites ova."nResults: The average amounts of some indexes in compost of Khomain and Tehran were been: organic materials % (37.77, 29.80), carbon %( 22.14, 18.12), nitrogen% (2.08, 1.6), lead (229.6, 59.44 ppm), and chromium (70.2, 19.75), respectively. The microbial quality of these compost samples were agreement with class B of USEPA guidelines."nConclusion: This study showed that quality of organic materials percent in Tehran's samples was better than Khomain's samples, but these indexes on these samples were lower than the grade No.2 of compost. The percentage of carbon, nitrogen and potash in these samples were desirable but, phosphorus amount were not in sufficient. The heavy metals especially lead and chromium in Tehran's samples were higher than Khomain's samples, but these samples were usually in agreement with guidelines of compost. Due to the defined microbial qualities, these samples could be used as well as amendment agents for poor soil.
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