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 Anita Naciscione International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2006, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.6.1.46861 Abstract: In discourse a phraseological unit may extend across sentence boundaries, constituting a continuity. The sustainability of a phraseological unit is the spread of its image in the interrelated web of discourse. A sustained phraseological image provides for the semantic and stylistic cohesion of the text. My aim is to ascertain sustainability as one of the basic concepts of the stylistic use of phraseological units and prove that a sentence-bound approach and thinking fail to account for sustained figurative use. The analysis is based on D.H. Lawrence's short story "Rawdon's Roof'. As the story unfolds, the phraseological unit under one's roof appears sixteen times, undergoing creative changes and acquiring new associations and figurative ties in discourse. It first appears in core use while further in the text new patterns emerge - puns and extended metaphors, subtly interwoven with reiteration of the image-bearing constituent roof or the whole phraseological unit, which becomes the key image by force of sustained reference to it. It is also used in the title, lending an overtone and spanning the boundaries of the short story. Sustained figurative use calls for enhanced cognitive skills of perception, comprehension and interpretation.
 European Researcher , 2011, Abstract: The article considers phraseological units transformations in contemporary journalistic discourse.
 American Journal of Linguistics , 2013, DOI: 10.5923/j.linguistics.20130201.02 Abstract: The study paper examines phraseological activity of writers, the phraseological variations and modifications in particular. Phraseological variations and modifications are deliberate, creative, innovative forms of the original phraseological units` structure and meaning that produce different semantic, stylistic and pragmatic effect in the literary discourse. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the analysis of the phraseological activity of writers and to identify the procedures, transformations and changes that take part in the process of formal modification which result in the extension of the phraseological system of the language.
 Argumentum , 2009, Abstract: The paper is a critical review of Paul Horwich’s views on the nature of synonymy as outlined in his two books: Meaning (1998) and Reflections on Meaning (2005). For Horwich (similar to other language philosophers’ views), synonymy is primarily a semantic notion and is mainly based on identity rather than similarity of meaning. Its occurrence is manifested in words and sentences, and it can be tested via the interchangeability of the respective lexical elements or propositional structures in given contexts. I find these criteria too narrow and unreliable. In my linguistically rather than philosophically based view, the nature of synonymy (more precisely, near synonymy) is at least as much pragmatic as it is semantic. It is a graded notion deeply embedded in schema-related types of conceptual strructure such as scenes, frames, and scripts as well as the traditional notion of semantic fields. Its gradience can be measured along the lines of the prototypicality (and distance fom the possible prototype) of lexical expressions belonging to given synonym sets.
 Olesya V. Pavlova European Researcher , 2013, Abstract: The article is focused on the comparison of phraseological systems of languages, having different structures by means of phraseological units distribution by lexico-semantic groups. Semantic analysis of phraseological units enables to determine the national and cultural features of the Russian and Chinese ethnos and find anthropocentric roots in the fragments of linguistic world image
 Ana Isabel Rodríguez-Pi？ero Alcalá Revista de Lingüística y Lenguas Aplicadas , 2012, DOI: 10.4995/rlyla.2012.1138 Abstract: Researchers have traditionally established a link between synonymy and variation. This connection has been used to analyse phraseological units and their relationships within the language. Numerous extensive studies have been carried out on variation in phraseological units and their differentiation from synonymy. Recently, however, synonymy has begun to be understood as formal variation of the same semantic content within a functional language, either as free alternation (restricted view) or free alternation with complementary distribution (broad view). Thus, the aim of this work is to review the existing positions regarding the relationship between variation and synonymy in idioms as seen in various studies on this type of phraseological unit, before finally offering our own particular perspective on the question Una de las conexiones que tradicionalmente han establecido los estudiosos del tema de la sinonimia es la que se produce entre esta y la variación. Este vínculo ha sido retomado hoy día para el análisis de las unidades fraseológicas de la lengua y de las relaciones que mantienen entre sí. Desde un primer momento, varios investigadores del campo de la fraseología han ofrecido amplios estudios sobre la variación en las expresiones fijas y su diferenciación con respecto a la sinonimia. Sin embargo, en los últimos tiempos, también se ha manejado una noción de sinonimia entendida como variación formal de un mismo contenido semántico dentro de una misma lengua funcional, ya sea en alternancia libre (visión restrictiva) o en alternancia libre y distribución complementaria (visión amplia). Así pues, la intención que subyace a este trabajo es la de ofrecer una revisión de las posturas existentes en torno a las relaciones entre sinonimia y variación en las locuciones en diversos estudiosos de este tipo de unidad, proporcionando al final nuestra particular perspectiva sobre el tema.
 Olga V. Gorik European Researcher , 2011, Abstract: The article examines phraseological units connotative possibilities in Ven. Erofeev’s works and diaries.
 Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.cplett.2004.10.032 Abstract: Basin-Hopping (BH) or Monte-Carlo Minimization (MCM) is so far the most reliable algorithms in chemical physics to search for the lowest-energy structure of atomic clusters and macromolecular systems. BH transforms the complex energy landscape into a collection of basins, and explores them by hopping, which is achieved by random Monte Carlo moves and acceptance/rejection using the Metropolis criterion. In this report, we introduce the jumping process in addition to the hopping process in BH. Jumping are invoked when the hopping stagnates by reaching the local optima, and are achieved using the Monte Carlo move at the temperature $T=\infty$ without rejection. Our Basin-Hopping with Occasional Jumping (BHOJ) algorithm is applied to the Lennard-Jones clusters of several notoriously difficult sizes. It was found that the probability of locating the true global optima using BHOJ is significantly higher than the original BH.
 Poljarnyj Vestnik , 2000, Abstract: The notion of syntactic phraseological structures in Russian was introduced in the Russian Grammar of 1980. Here it is argued that certain syntactic struc- tures (about 30) can be considered phraseological due to their compact and stable usage and to the fact that their specific semantic structure cannot be understood as a direct sum of the meanings of their components (e.g., den' kak den', emu ne do smecha, vse ljudi kak ljudi). The semantics of these structures, however, has not been the subject of special studies. There exists only one book by A. B. Velichko, where an attempt at semantic classification has been made with a focus on the needs of a foreign student. As it turns out,this classification is not detailed enough. The authors of this article suggest certain changes in Velichko's classification considering specific emotional colouring of some of these structures. The authors provide illustrative exam- ples, the translations of which into Norwegian show that different devices render the emotional meanings of these structures. It can be concluded that in certain cases it is possible to use similar syntactic structures as in Russian, but in most cases it is necessary to find other expressive means (either lexical or syntactic).
 Olena Lazarenko Kalbotyra , 2008, Abstract: Phraseological units are not only steady constructions, the transition of free word-combinations in semantically indivisible and syntactically entire word-combinations, but they also serve as a buil-ding material for new words.The article is devoted to the productivity of phraseological units in word-formation of the Ger-man language. The object of my research is 1200 lexemes motivated by phraseological units. The research material is extracted from lexical and phraseological dictionaries, the German belles-lettres and press. The purpose of this study is to analyse linguistic and extralinguistic factors causing the process of the dephraseological derivation, basic word-formation mechanisms and ways of enri-ching vocabulary on the basis of phraseological units.
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