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Algunas creencias sobre susceptibilidad y severidad de la caries en adolescentes del Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Tascón,Jorge Eduardo; Cabrera,Gustavo Alonso;
Colombia Médica , 2005,
Abstract: objective: to know existing beliefs about susceptibility and severity of dental caries in high school adolescents in the state of valle del cauca, colombia. methods: the health belief model was used as the theoretic and methodological basis for a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in 38 out of 42 municipalities of the state of valle of cauca. a total of 5.400 adolescent students registered in public and private high schools aged of 10 and 20 were selected through a probabilistic, cluster, tri-stage, and stratified sample process. results: overall, 51% of the participants believe that dental caries do not affect the mastication process; 52% think they cannot suffer caries again once their teeth have been filled, and 54% does not associate caries with digestion changes; 80% does not relate the use of braces and retainers with the disease; 92% believes dental caries can affect any person and 91% believe that caries might make them lose their teeth. conclusions: beliefs on the severity of caries are favorable in general and beliefs about susceptibility must be improved through preventive intervention strategies directed to this population group
Frank Safford, Aspectos del siglo XIX en Colombia.  [cached]
Davila P.
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura , 1976,
Abstract: FRANK SAFFORD, Aspectos del siglo XIX en Colombia. Ediciones Hombre Nuevo, Medellín, 1977.
Panorama del negocio minorista en Colombia  [cached]
Harold Silva Guerra
Pensamiento & Gestión , 2012,
Abstract: El negocio minorista en Colombia en los últimos a os ha tenido una destacable evolución con la entrada de nuevos jugadores a lo largo y ancho del país, lo cual les ha permitido a los consumidores poder seleccionar la mejor opción de compra. Es así que las estrategias del negocio minorista se han diversificado con objeto de fidelizar y conquistar nuevos clientes. Retail business in Colombia in recent years has had a remarkable evolution with the entry of new players across the country, which has allowed consumers to select the best option. Thus, strategies have diversified retail business in order to retain and win new customers.
Avances del conocimiento Bioedafologico en Colombia  [cached]
Chamorro Clara E
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 1996,
Abstract: Se han realizado diversos trabajos dentro del avance del conocimiento sobre lombrices de tierra en Colombia, en especialmente en lo referente a su bíodiversidad, distribución dentro del perfil del suelo, su actividad como indicadora de contaminación edáfica de los mismos por metales pesados y en particular como transformadoras de residuos biodegradables. Los trabajos mencionados han permitido igualmente avanzar en el conocimiento de la lombriz de tierra, en cuanto a su capacidad para sintetizar proteínas y mejorar diversas características físico-químicas de los suelos. Several investigations have been carried out in order to get through the knowledge of the earthworm in Colombian soils, particularly referred to its biodiversity, distribution into the soil profile, its activity as an indicator of soil contamination by heavy metals, and specially to study the role of these animals as reworkers of biodegradable residues. The above mentioned has permitted to go further in the knowledge of the earthworms as to their capacity for protein synthesizing and the improving of several physico-chemical characteristics of the soils.
Historia del paramilitarismo en Colombia
Rivera, Edgar de Jesús Velásquez;
História (S?o Paulo) , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-90742007000100012
Abstract: in colombia, since the eighties of the xxth century, the paramilitarism has been taking force as a strategy against insurgence, a kind of politics which has not been yet recognized by part of different governments, being expressed state terrorism. it caused the emergence of such a phenomenon named anti-communist ideology, professed by most armed forces members, political culture that comes from violence, corruption and clientelism as well as from drug dealing, and external influences, mainly from france and the united states. paramilitarism has invaded all the different structures of the state power aiming at forming itself as a political, military, social and economic project at national level. according to its mentors, paramilitary groups have resulted from a reaction to the guerrilla movements excesses. paramilitarism has been choosing, as a fight method, selective massacres, murders and displacements of civil population suspicious of supporting and collaborating with guerrilla groups. president álvaro uribe vélez is accused by his political opponents of sustaining and institutionalizing paramilitary groups.
Belief Calculus  [PDF]
Audun Josang
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: In Dempster-Shafer belief theory, general beliefs are expressed as belief mass distribution functions over frames of discernment. In Subjective Logic beliefs are expressed as belief mass distribution functions over binary frames of discernment. Belief representations in Subjective Logic, which are called opinions, also contain a base rate parameter which express the a priori belief in the absence of evidence. Philosophically, beliefs are quantitative representations of evidence as perceived by humans or by other intelligent agents. The basic operators of classical probability calculus, such as addition and multiplication, can be applied to opinions, thereby making belief calculus practical. Through the equivalence between opinions and Beta probability density functions, this also provides a calculus for Beta probability density functions. This article explains the basic elements of belief calculus.
Informe sobre el estado actual del comercio cafetero en Colombia
Dickson Spencer S.
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura , 1976,
Abstract: Informe sobre el estado actual del comercio cafetero en Colombia (1903)/ Por Spencer S. Dickson, Vice-consul de Gran Breta a // En: Anuario No. 8 (1976); p. 101-106. Descripción del proceso de cultivo y beneficio del café en esa época con algunos datos sobre precios del grano y cantidades exportadas entre 1894-1898.
I terremoti del 1961-62 in Colombia  [cached]
a. BRUSCHI
Annals of Geophysics , 1962, DOI: 10.4401/ag-5438
Abstract: Nel breve giro di poco più di sei mesi due terremoti colpirono alcunidipartimenti, gli stessi tutte e due le volte, della Repubblica di Colombia,determinando ogni volta un numero di vittime superiore a quello checi si poteva attendere dal valore non molto grande della intensità con laquale fu sentito nelle varie località colpite.Furono colpiti specialmente i due dipartimenti di Antioquia (cap.Medellin) e Caldas (cap. Manizales).Il primo terremoto si verificò alle ore (locali) 8h 25' 34" del giorno20 Dicembre 1961. L'istituto geofìsico delle Ande Colombiane annessoalla Pontifìcia Università Javeriana di Bogotà ne determinò la magnitudoin 6,5 della Scala Richter e indicò che nelle località più colpite l'intensitàaveva raggiunto il grado 8 della Scala Mercalli Modificata. L'epicentrorisultò nelle prossimità di Belalcàzar, villaggio dell'Ovest del dipartimentodi Caldas (Fig. 2).Il secondo terremoto si verificò alle ore (locali) 15h 19' 11" del 31Luglio 1962.L'epicentro fu questa volta sulle falde del Cerro Torrà in grandeprossimità dell'epicentro del sismo di Dicembre. La magnitudo fu 7,5della Scala Richter e l'intensità nelle località più danneggiate potè stimarsitra i gradi 9 e 10 della Scala Mercalli Modificata.
Especie nueva del género Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae) del río Fonce, sistema río Magdalena, Colombia A new fish species of the genus Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae) from the Fonce river, Magdalena Basin, Colombia  [cached]
César Román-Valencia,James. A. Vanegas-Ríos,Raquel I. Ruiz-C.
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2009,
Abstract: Se describe una especie nueva del género Bryconamericus Eigenmann, 1907 de la cuenca río Fonce, sistema río Magdalena, Colombia. La especie se distingue de sus congéneres por el número de radios anteriores de la aleta anal cubiertos por una hilera de escamas (4-11 vs. 11-26, excepto de B. orinocoense Román-Valencia 2003, de la cual se distingue por el mayor número de radios ramificados en la aleta anal 19-26 vs. 16-17) y de escamas en la línea lateral (39-45 vs. 31-32); en machos, por un número reducido de espinas sobre los radios en las aletas (anal 2-10 vs. 9-23, pélvicas 2-9 vs. 8-20, pectorales 2-6 vs. 9-28 y dorsal 3-6 vs. 6-18). Se suministran datos ecológicos del hábitat del nuevo taxon y una clave taxonómica para las especies de la cuenca de los ríos Cauca-Magdalena, Sinú y Ranchería. A new fish species of Bryconamericus Eigenmann 1907 is described from the Fonce river, Magdalena Basin of Colombia. The species can be distinguished from all congeners by the number of anterior anal fin rays covered by a scales row (4-11 vs.11-26, except B. orinocoense Román-Valencia 2003 with 1-6, from which is distinguished by the higher number of branched anal fin rays 19 -26 vs. 16-17) and lateral line scales (39-45 vs.31-32); in males, by the spines number on each fins rays (anal 2-10 vs. 9-23, pelvic 2-9 vs. 8-20, pectorals 2-6 vs.9-28 and dorsal 3-6 vs. 6-18). Ecological data of the aquatic habitat of the new taxon are presented and a key to species of Bryconamericus from Cauca-Magdalena, Sinú and Ranchería rivers in Colombia is provided.
ESCALAS PARA MEDIR LA SEGURIDAD ALIMENTARIA EN COLOMBIA: SON VáLIDAS? SCALES FOR MEASURING FOOD SECURITY IN COLOMBIA: ARE THEY VALID?  [cached]
Ana Zulema Jiménez S,Gloria Esperanza Prada G,Oscar Fernando Herrán F
Revista Chilena de Nutricíon , 2012,
Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer en cuatro ciudades colombianas la reproducibilidad de los resultados sobre inseguridad alimentaria (INSA), la validez factorial y de criterio de la escala de Percepción de Seguridad Alimentaria (EPSA) y la Latinoamericana y Caribe a (ELCSA) en hogares urbanos y rurales, frente a tres métodos referentes usados para declarar INSA basados en el consumo usual de energía de todos los miembros del hogar. La reproducibilidad para EPSA fue de 0,51 y para ELCSA de 0,56. La sensibilidad de la EPSA estuvo entre 39,6% y 40,5%, de la ELCSA entre 62,2% y 62,6%. El acuerdo frente al referente para la EPSA estuvo entre 0,10 y 0,18, y para la ELCSA entre 0. 09 y 0,13. La eficiencia de las dos pruebas como medida resumen de confiabilidad es apenas mayor que la probabilidad en el lanzamiento de una moneda. Los resultados de estas escalas deben usarse de manera conservadora. The aim of this study was to assess reproducibility in four Colombian cities of the results obtained on food insecurity (INSA) comparing it with the factorial and criterion validity of the Food Security Perceptions scale (EPSA) and the Latin American and Caribbean (ELCSA) methods in homes from urban and rural area based on the usual consumption of energy for all household members. The reproducibility was 051 for EPSA and 056for ELCSA . The sensitivity of the EPSA was between 39.6% and 40.5% and for the ELCSA between 62.6% and 622%. The agreement against the reference for the EPSA was between 0.10 and 018for ELCSA was between 0.09 and 0.13. The efficiency of the two tests as a global measure of reliability is just greater than the probability in a coin toss. The results of these scales should be used conservatively.
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