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Characterization of MgtC, a Virulence Factor of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi  [PDF]
Patricio Retamal, Mario Castillo-Ruiz, Guido C. Mora
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005551
Abstract: The MgtC is a virulence factor in Salmonella Typhimurium that is required for growth at low-Mg2+ concentrations and intramacrophage survival. This gene is codified in a conserved region of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI-3), and is also present in the chromosome of other Salmonella serovars. In this study we characterized the MgtC factor in S. Typhi, a human specific pathogen, by using mgtC and SPI-3 mutant strains. We found that MgtC is the most important factor codified in the SPI-3 of S. Typhi for growth in low-Mg2+ media and survival within human cells. In addition, by using reporter genes we determined that the low-Mg2+ concentration, acidic media and PhoP regulator induce mgtC expression in S. Typhi. We suggest that MgtC is the most important virulence factor codified in the SPI-3 of S. Typhi.
Coordinated Regulation of Virulence during Systemic Infection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium  [PDF]
Hyunjin Yoon,Jason E. McDermott,Steffen Porwollik,Michael McClelland,Fred Heffron
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000306
Abstract: To cause a systemic infection, Salmonella must respond to many environmental cues during mouse infection and express specific subsets of genes in a temporal and spatial manner, but the regulatory pathways are poorly established. To unravel how micro-environmental signals are processed and integrated into coordinated action, we constructed in-frame non-polar deletions of 83 regulators inferred to play a role in Salmonella enteriditis Typhimurium (STM) virulence and tested them in three virulence assays (intraperitoneal [i.p.], and intragastric [i.g.] infection in BALB/c mice, and persistence in 129X1/SvJ mice). Overall, 35 regulators were identified whose absence attenuated virulence in at least one assay, and of those, 14 regulators were required for systemic mouse infection, the most stringent virulence assay. As a first step towards understanding the interplay between a pathogen and its host from a systems biology standpoint, we focused on these 14 genes. Transcriptional profiles were obtained for deletions of each of these 14 regulators grown under four different environmental conditions. These results, as well as publicly available transcriptional profiles, were analyzed using both network inference and cluster analysis algorithms. The analysis predicts a regulatory network in which all 14 regulators control the same set of genes necessary for Salmonella to cause systemic infection. We tested the regulatory model by expressing a subset of the regulators in trans and monitoring transcription of 7 known virulence factors located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). These experiments validated the regulatory model and showed that the response regulator SsrB and the MarR type regulator, SlyA, are the terminal regulators in a cascade that integrates multiple signals. Furthermore, experiments to demonstrate epistatic relationships showed that SsrB can replace SlyA and, in some cases, SlyA can replace SsrB for expression of SPI-2 encoded virulence factors.
The subtleties and contrasts of the LeuO regulator in Salmonella Typhi: implications in the immune response  [PDF]
Carmen Guadarrama,Tomás Villase?or,Edmundo Calva
Frontiers in Immunology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00581
Abstract: Salmonella are facultative intracellular pathogens. Salmonella infection occurs mainly by expression of two Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2). SPI-1 encodes transcriptional factors that participate in the expression of virulence factors encoded in the island. However, there are transcriptional factors encoded outside the island that also participate in the expression of SPI-1-encoded genes. Upon infection, bacteria are capable of avoiding the host immune response with several strategies that involve several virulence factors under the control of transcriptional regulators. Interestingly, LeuO a transcriptional global regulator which is encoded outside of any SPI, is proposed to be part of a complex regulatory network that involves expression of several genes that help bacteria to survive stress conditions and, also, induces the expression of porins that have been shown to be immunogens and can thus be considered as antigenic candidates for acellular vaccines. Hence, the understanding of the LeuO regulon implies a role of bacterial genetic regulation in determining the host immune response.
Virulence of 32 Salmonella Strains in Mice  [PDF]
Matthew C. Swearingen, Steffen Porwollik, Prerak T. Desai, Michael McClelland, Brian M. M. Ahmer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036043
Abstract: Virulence and persistence in the BALB/c mouse gut was tested for 32 strains of Salmonella enterica for which genome sequencing is complete or underway, including 17 serovars within subspecies I (enterica), and two representatives of each of the other five subspecies. Only serovar Paratyphi C strain BAA1715 and serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 were fully virulent in mice. Three divergent atypical Enteritidis strains were not virulent in BALB/c, but two efficiently persisted. Most of the other strains in all six subspecies persisted in the mouse intestinal tract for several weeks in multiple repeat experiments although the frequency and level of persistence varied considerably. Strains with heavily degraded genomes persisted very poorly, if at all. None of the strains tested provided immunity to Typhimurium infection. These data greatly expand on the known significant strain-to-strain variation in mouse virulence and highlight the need for comparative genomic and phenotypic studies.
A Salmonella Small Non-Coding RNA Facilitates Bacterial Invasion and Intracellular Replication by Modulating the Expression of Virulence Factors  [PDF]
Hao Gong,Gia-Phong Vu,Yong Bai,Elton Chan,Ruobin Wu,Edward Yang,Fenyong Liu ,Sangwei Lu
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002120
Abstract: Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) that act as regulators of gene expression have been identified in all kingdoms of life, including microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) in eukaryotic cells. Numerous sRNAs identified in Salmonella are encoded by genes located at Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) that are commonly found in pathogenic strains. Whether these sRNAs are important for Salmonella pathogenesis and virulence in animals has not been reported. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that a pathogenicity island-encoded sRNA, IsrM, is important for Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells, intracellular replication inside macrophages, and virulence and colonization in mice. IsrM RNA is expressed in vitro under conditions resembling those during infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, IsrM is found to be differentially expressed in vivo, with higher expression in the ileum than in the spleen. IsrM targets the mRNAs coding for SopA, a SPI-1 effector, and HilE, a global regulator of the expression of SPI-1 proteins, which are major virulence factors essential for bacterial invasion. Mutations in IsrM result in disregulation of expression of HilE and SopA, as well as other SPI-1 genes whose expression is regulated by HilE. Salmonella with deletion of isrM is defective in bacteria invasion of epithelial cells and intracellular replication/survival in macrophages. Moreover, Salmonella with mutations in isrM is attenuated in killing animals and defective in growth in the ileum and spleen in mice. Our study has shown that IsrM sRNA functions as a pathogenicity island-encoded sRNA directly involved in Salmonella pathogenesis in animals. Our results also suggest that sRNAs may represent a distinct class of virulence factors that are important for bacterial infection in vivo.
Polyamines Are Required for Virulence in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium  [PDF]
Lotte Jelsbak, Line Elnif Thomsen, Inke Wallrodt, Peter Ruhdal Jensen, John Elmerdahl Olsen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036149
Abstract: Sensing and responding to environmental cues is a fundamental characteristic of bacterial physiology and virulence. Here we identify polyamines as novel environmental signals essential for virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a major intracellular pathogen and a model organism for studying typhoid fever. Central to its virulence are two major virulence loci Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI1 and SPI2). SPI1 promotes invasion of epithelial cells, whereas SPI2 enables S. Typhimurium to survive and proliferate within specialized compartments inside host cells. In this study, we show that an S. Typhimurium polyamine mutant is defective for invasion, intracellular survival, killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and systemic infection of the mouse model of typhoid fever. Virulence of the mutant could be restored by genetic complementation, and invasion and intracellular survival could, as well, be complemented by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection. Interestingly, intracellular survival of the polyamine mutant was significantly enhanced above the wild type level by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection, indicating that these polyamines function as an environmental signal that primes S. Typhimurium for intracellular survival. Accordingly, experiments addressed at elucidating the roles of these polyamines in infection revealed that expression of genes from both of the major virulence loci SPI1 and SPI2 responded to exogenous polyamines and was reduced in the polyamine mutant. Together our data demonstrate that putrescine and spermidine play a critical role in controlling virulence in S. Typhimurium most likely through stimulation of expression of essential virulence loci. Moreover, our data implicate these polyamines as key signals in S. Typhimurium virulence.
THE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN DPS FUNCTIONS AS A GLOBAL REGULATOR IN STARVED SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS DURING STARVATION
LEONA NICOLE CALHOUN, JEONG NAM KIM, YUAN REN, JOON JIN SONG AND YOUNG MIN KWON
International Journal of Microbiology Research , 2011,
Abstract: The DNA binding protein of stationary phase cells (Dps)-first discovered in starved Escherichia coli-is capable ofproviding protection to cells during exposure to various environmental assaults. Its ability to do so is based on three intrinsicproperties of the protein: DNA binding, iron sequestration, and its ferroxidase activity. Proteomic studies have lead to theinference of a regulatory role for Dps as well; however, the ability of Dps to serve as a global regulator during nutritionaldeprivation has yet to be directly examined. In this study, we utilized microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR toestablish direct evidence for a regulatory role of Dps in starved Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The results of ourmicroarray screening revealed over 150 genes significantly up or down regulated in starved cells lacking functional Dpsprotein. Also, we identified a small subset of genes regulated by Dps that are important for the induction of hydrogenperoxide, iron, and acid resistance. The fact that it positively regulates genes important for stress resistance furthersolidifies Dps as a virulence regulator in S. enteritidis; for resistance to such cytotoxic conditions is likely to translate intoenhanced survivability and virulence within infected hosts.
lac Repressor Is an Antivirulence Factor of Salmonella enterica: Its Role in the Evolution of Virulence in Salmonella  [PDF]
Sandeepa M. Eswarappa, Guruswamy Karnam, Arvindhan G. Nagarajan, Sangeeta Chakraborty, Dipshikha Chakravortty
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005789
Abstract: The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella enterica. Using murine model of typhoid fever, we show that the expression of LacI causes a remarkable reduction in the virulence of Salmonella enterica. LacI also suppresses the ability of Salmonella enterica to proliferate inside murine macrophages. Microarray analysis revealed that LacI interferes with the expression of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, we found that SBG0326 of Salmonella bongori is homologous to lacI of Escherichia coli. Salmonella bongori is the only other species of the genus Salmonella and it lacks the virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Overall, our results demonstrate that LacI is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica and suggest that absence of lacI has facilitated the acquisition of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 in Salmonella enterica making it a successful systemic pathogen.
Comparative proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ppGpp-deficient mutant to identify a novel virulence protein required for intracellular survival in macrophages
Takeshi Haneda, Mariko Sugimoto, Yukie Yoshida-Ohta, Yoshio Kodera, Masamichi Oh-Ishi, Tadakazu Maeda, Satomi Shimizu-Izumi, Tsuyoshi Miki, Yoshinori Kumagai, Hirofumi Danbara, Nobuhiko Okada
BMC Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-324
Abstract: Of the 366 examined spots, 269 proteins were successfully identified. The comparative analysis of the wild-type and ppGpp0 mutant strains revealed 55 proteins, the expression patterns of which were affected by ppGpp. Using a mouse infection model, we further identified a novel virulence-associated factor, STM3169, from the ppGpp-regulated and Salmonella-specific proteins. In addition, Salmonella strains carrying mutations in the gene encoding STM3169 showed growth defects and impaired growth within macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, we found that expression of stm3169 was controlled by ppGpp and SsrB, a response regulator of the two-component system located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 2.A proteomic approach using a 2-DE reference map can prove a powerful tool for analyzing virulence factors and the regulatory network involved in Salmonella pathogenesis. Our results also provide evidence of a global response mediated by ppGpp in S. enterica.The facultative intracellular bacterium Salmonella enterica causes a broad spectrum of diseases, such as gastroenteritis and bacteremia, which are typically acquired by oral ingestion of contaminated food or water. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes enterocolitis in humans and a typhoid-like systemic infection in mice.Several virulence genes associated with Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) and the virulence plasmid have been characterized in S. Typhimurium. Two type III secretion systems (T3SS) encoded by SPI-1 and SPI-2 play central roles in Salmonella pathogenesis. SPI-1 is essential for the invasion of host cells and the induction of apoptosis in infected macrophages [1,2]. SPI-2 T3SS primarily confers survival and replication on macrophages and is required for systemic infection in the mouse infection model [3,4]. Expression of SPI-2 genes is induced within a modified phagosome, called the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), in infected macrophages [5]. Induction of SPI-2 genes dep
The Cost of Virulence: Retarded Growth of Salmonella Typhimurium Cells Expressing Type III Secretion System 1  [PDF]
Alexander Sturm,Matthias Heinemann,Markus Arnoldini,Arndt Benecke,Martin Ackermann,Matthias Benz,Jasmine Dormann,Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002143
Abstract: Virulence factors generally enhance a pathogen's fitness and thereby foster transmission. However, most studies of pathogen fitness have been performed by averaging the phenotypes over large populations. Here, we have analyzed the fitness costs of virulence factor expression by Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium in simple culture experiments. The type III secretion system ttss-1, a cardinal virulence factor for eliciting Salmonella diarrhea, is expressed by just a fraction of the S. Typhimurium population, yielding a mixture of cells that either express ttss-1 (TTSS-1+ phenotype) or not (TTSS-1? phenotype). Here, we studied in vitro the TTSS-1+ phenotype at the single cell level using fluorescent protein reporters. The regulator hilA controlled the fraction of TTSS-1+ individuals and their ttss-1 expression level. Strikingly, cells of the TTSS-1+ phenotype grew slower than cells of the TTSS-1? phenotype. The growth retardation was at least partially attributable to the expression of TTSS-1 effector and/or translocon proteins. In spite of this growth penalty, the TTSS-1+ subpopulation increased from <10% to approx. 60% during the late logarithmic growth phase of an LB batch culture. This was attributable to an increasing initiation rate of ttss-1 expression, in response to environmental cues accumulating during this growth phase, as shown by experimental data and mathematical modeling. Finally, hilA and hilD mutants, which form only fast-growing TTSS-1? cells, outcompeted wild type S. Typhimurium in mixed cultures. Our data demonstrated that virulence factor expression imposes a growth penalty in a non-host environment. This raises important questions about compensating mechanisms during host infection which ensure successful propagation of the genotype.
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