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Monitoring the Residue Level of Three Selected Pesticides in Red Amaranth  [PDF]
Jahan Ara Khatoon,Md. Shariful Islam,Nur Mohammad Talukder,Md. Afzal Hossain
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: A study was undertaken in the Department of Biochemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to monitor the level of three selected pesticides at various dose levels. In this case edible part of red amaranth was extracted and analyzed for applied pesticide residues. It was found that after one day 0.0065 μg of cypermethrin retained per g of plant sample, which was 0.23% of the applied dose. While on the 3rd day of spray the level of residue was found to decrease (0.0024 μg g1-1) which accounted for 0.085% of the applied dose. In case of higher dose applied, the residue level of chlorpyrifos was 0.0173 μg g-1 whereas the level increased to 0.0237 μg g1-1 on 3rd day of application. It seemed that the uptake of chlorpyrifos by red amaranth from soil and its accumulation therein was higher on 3rd day of application. The residue level of carbofuran was very low both at 1st and 3rd day of application. However, an increasing trend of incorporation was observed on 3rd day of application. It is remarkable to note that when higher level of chlorpyrifos and carbofuran were jointly applied, the amount of chlorpyrifos as residue increased but the level of carbofuran decreased. Finally carbofuran could not be traced after 72 h of joint application. So study indicated that chlorpyrifos might exert antagonistic effect on the uptake/accumulation of carbofuran in plant system.
Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp.) and Their Influence in the Nutritional Value of Cereal Based Foods
Food and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.fph.20120206.12
Abstract: The use of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) is of great nutritional interest because of their peculiar composition and the minor components present in these grains. In addition to being one of the important energy sources due to their starch content, these pseudocereals provide good quality protein, dietary fibre and lipids rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Also contain adequate levels of minerals, vitamins, and significant amounts of other bioactive components such as saponins, phytosterols, squalene, fagopyritols and polyphenols. Amaranth and quinoa are also gluten-free grains. This composition and nutritional facts describes their potential for functional properties (as supplements or common cereal replacers) and for human health, particularly for certain consumers such as the elderly, children, high-performance athletes, diabetics, celiacs, and people who are gluten or lactose intolerant among others. A review of the main aspects of amaranth and quinoa, and their food applications are presented here.
Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max)  [PDF]
Aman Chandi,David L. Jordan,Alan C. York,Susana R. Milla-Lewis,James D. Burton,A. Stanley Culpepper,Jared R. Whitaker
International Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/168267
Abstract: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate. Early season interference in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] for 40 days after emergence by three glyphosate-resistant (GR) and three glyphosate-susceptible (GS) Palmer amaranth biotypes from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. A field experiment over 2 years compared season-long interference of these biotypes in soybean. The six Palmer amaranth biotypes reduced soybean height similarly in the greenhouse but did not affect soybean height in the field. Reduction in soybean fresh weight and dry weight in the greenhouse; and soybean yield in the field varied by Palmer amaranth biotypes. Soybean yield was reduced 21% by Palmer amaranth at the established field density of 0.37 plant m?2. When Palmer amaranth biotypes were grouped by response to glyphosate, the GS group reduced fresh weight, dry weight, and yield of soybean more than the GR group. The results indicate a possible small competitive disadvantage associated with glyphosate resistance, but observed differences among biotypes might also be associated with characteristics within and among biotypes other than glyphosate resistance. 1. Introduction Palmer amaranth is one of the most troublesome weeds of agronomic crops in the southeastern United States [1–3] because of its competitive ability, C4 photosynthesis, higher water use efficiency, and rapid growth rate [4, 5]. This weed also possesses drought tolerance mechanisms which allow survival under limited water availability [6–8] and it adapts readily to shading [9]. Several biotypes of Palmer amaranth have evolved resistance to herbicides representing different modes of action, including 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors, and photosynthetic inhibitors [10], which make it challenging to control in cropping systems. Species, density, and time of emergence with respect to the crop determine the relative competitiveness of pigweed species [11–14]. Interference of pigweed species including common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) [15–17], Palmer amaranth [11, 17, 18], and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) [14, 17, 19–22] has been evaluated in soybean. Soybean yield reduction as a result of interference increased from 17% to 68% with an increase in Palmer amaranth density from 0.33 to 10 plants m?1 of row length [11].
Genetic interrelationship among nutritional and quantitative traits in the vegetable amaranth  [PDF]
Sudhir Shukla,Atul Bhargava,Avijeet Chatterjee,Avinash Chandra Pandey
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to elucidate the interrelationship among various agronomic andquality traits and their direct and indirect effect on foliage yield in 39 distinct cultivars of vegetable amaranth (A. tricolor).Among the agronomic traits, plant height and number of inflorescence exhibited significant positive association with foliageyield, while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, fiber and ascorbic acid were positively correlated with foliage yield.Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b exhibited significant positive association with carotenoid, fiber and ascorbic acid. Ascorbicacid was positively correlated with fiber and carotenoid. Protein was associated with plant height, branches per plant and 500seed weight. Chlorophyll a, carotenoid and inflorescence length revealed high positive direct effect on foliage yield, whilebranches plant-1, leaf size, seed yield, chlorophyll b, moisture content and ascorbic acid showed negative path coefficient withfoliage yield. Suitable traits have been marked out to enhance foliage yield in vegetable amaranth.
Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based on Kenyan amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus)
MW Mburu, NK Gikonyo, GM Kenji, AM Mwasaru
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional and functional properties of Amaranthus cruentus grain grown in Kenya for preparation of a ready-to-eat product that can be recommended as infant complementary food. Amaranth grains were subjected to steeping and steam pre-gelatinization to produce a ready-to-eat nutritious product with improved solubility during reconstitution. The effect of processing on the functional and nutritional properties of amaranth grain was analyzed. Two blends were prepared from raw and processed amaranth grains. Standard procedures of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to determine the proximate chemical composition. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used quantify amino acid, water soluble vitamins, α-tocopherols and phytates, while Atomic Absorption Flame Emission spectrophotometry was used to determine the mineral element composition. Fatty acid composition was determined using Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC). Tannin composition was determined using vanillin hydrochloric acid method. The overall results indicated that processing amaranth grain did not significantly affect its nutritional and physicochemical properties. Amaranth grain product was rich in protein with 0.5 g/10g of lysine, a limiting amino acid in cereals, and methionine, a limiting amino acid in pulses. The product had good amount 44.4 mg/100g of α-tocopherols important for infant development. The product was also rich in oleic acid (36.3%) and linoleic acid (35.9%) with some amounts of linolenic acid (3.4%) that are important for infant growth. It also had good amounts of minerals of importance such as potassium (324.4 mg/100g), phosphorous (322.8 mg/100g), calcium 189.1 (mg/100g), magnesium (219.5 mg/100g), iron (13.0 mg/100g) and zinc (4.8 mg/100g). Considering amaranth grain product fed to infant three times a day, at a reconstitution of 15% product, the levels of magnesium, manganese and tocopherols were far above the recommended intakes, while protein, phosphorous, iron, zinc, riboflavin and niacin were above the average requirements. Therefore, reconstituting the product with milk would enrich the deficient nutrients, especially for iron and zinc which are crucial nutrients for infants. The processing method is a practical approach aimed at combating the problem of malnutrition among infants and young children in Kenya and other developing countries. The product developed in this study would also be appropriate for use in geriatrics care and also in immuno-compromised individuals. The technique in this study can be easily adopted at both household and village levels to produce high protein-energy weaning food to help enhance the nutritional status of Kenyans.
Morphological Features in Sunflower as Influenced by Varying Nutritional Area
M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh,Shuaib Kaleem,M. Ishaque,Javaid Iqbal
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: Agronomic traits ultimately contribute to final achene yield. Any improvement in agronomic traits means increase in achene yield. For this purpose, a field trial was conducted at experimental area of Agronomy Department, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during two consecutive years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the performance of two sunflower hybrids i.e S-278 and Hysun-33 under different levels of nutritional area i.e, 60 x 20, 60 x 30, 60 x 40, 60 x 50, 60 x 60 (with 1 plant/hill) and 60 x 60 cm-2 (with 2 plants hill). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications in split plot arrangement keeping nutritional areas levels in main plot and sunflower hybrids in sub plot effects. It was observed that among sunflower hybrids, S-278 produced significantly taller plants, heavier 1000-achene weight, higher achene and stalk yield, but lesser harvest index than these in Hysun-33. Both hybrids were, however, similar for head diameter and number of achene/head. Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 produced the highest achene yield (2.89 t/ha), which was also statistically at par with other treatments; whereas sunflower hybrid S-278 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 40 cm2 produced the lowest achene yield (2.45 t/ha). Likewise, sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 40 cm2 computed the highest harvest index (37.75%), which was also statistically at par with other treatments; whereas sunflower hybrid S-278 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 computed the lowest harvest index (31.00%). It is therefore suggested that sunflower hybrid S-278 should be cultivated at level of nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 to get maximum achene and stalk yield.
Determination of Pesticides Residues in Selected varieties of Mango  [PDF]
Saqib Hussain,Tariq Masud,Karam Ahad
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to access the residue of commonly used pesticides viz Cypermethrin, Methamedophos, Monocrotophos, Cyfluthrin, Dialdrin and Methyl Parathian respectively in three varieties of Mango being collected from the grower fields in Multan division. The samples were treated with organic solvent Cyclohexane and ethylacetate (1:1), cleaned on Gel Permeation Chromatograph (GPC) and analyzed on auto system Gas Chromatograph (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD). All the samples were found to be contaminated with a degree of variation of pesticides residue studied. However, all the samples were within permissible limits being set by FAO/WHO with reference to public health.
Qualitative Analysis of Spring Planted Sunflower Hybrids as Influenced by Varying Nutritional Area  [PDF]
M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh,Javaid Iqbal,Shuaib Kaleem,Allah Wasaya
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area of PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi to evaluate the quality parameters of spring planted sunflower hybrids as influenced by varying potassium application doses during two consecutive years i.e. 2008 and 2009. Experiment was quadruplicated using randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement keeping different levels of nutritional area in main plots and sunflower hybrids in subplots. Protein and achene oil contents were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique, where as fatty acid composition was determined by GC-9A Fatty Acid Analyzer. Different levels of nutritional area significantly increased protein content and palmitic acid concentration in achene but reduced oil content when levels of nutritional area vary from 60 x 20 cm2 to 60 x 60 cm2 (2 plants/hill). However, the concentration of oleic, linoleic and linolenic remained un-affected by varying levels of nutritional area. Hybrid Hysun-33 produced significantly higher protein content (18.89%) in achene as compared to S-278. Conversely, hybrid S-278 accumulated significantly higher oil content (43.48 %) as compared to hybrid Hysun-33. No proper pattern was noticed regarding stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid accumulation in achenes. It is concluded that sunflower hybrids exhibited differential genotypic response to different levels of nutritional area by increasing oil contents, palmitic acid concentration and reducing protein contents in achenes without affecting stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid concentration.
Impact of Pesticides Contamination on Nutritional Values of Marinefishery from Karachi Coast of Arabian Sea  [PDF]
Hina Ahsan, Nasim Karim, Syed Sanwer Ali, Alia B. Munshi, Sohail Shaukat
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49120
Abstract:

The present study explores the chemical and economic aspects of pesticide contamination of marinefishery in relation to nutritional values Marine Pollution of pesticides poses signify can tricks to the environment and non-target organisms ranging from beneficial marine micro organisms, to insects, seaweeds, fish, and mangroves at Karachi Coast. Fish typically contains good quality nutrition, particularly oily fish has maximum commercial values but contamination of fishery is the major problem caused by pesticides and PCBs pollution resulting in serious health hazards. A number of fish and shell fish samples were analyzed for determination of pesticides contamination due to marine environment pollution. It was found that most pesticides pose risk to humans, fishery or the environment because they are designed to kill or adversely affect living organisms. Quantitative analysis of pesticides and PCBs was performed using GC equipped with ECD and the FPD for organophosphorus and GC-MS. The arithmetic mean concentrations of each pesticide were calculated and statistical evaluation was done. Relationship of protein and pesticides level has been determined to determine impact of pesticide on protein content of each type of fish. There is a considerable difference found in the pesticides contents of each type of fishery, which reveals that environmental pollution status that attributes towards pesticides distribution.

Biodegradation of Selected Chlorinated Pesticides Contaminating Lake Maruiut Ecosystem  [PDF]
El-Bestawy E,A.H. Mansy,A.H. Mansee,A.H. El-Koweidy
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Water pollution with chlorinated pesticides is one of the most serious environemntal problems due to their highpersistence as a result of the slow biodegradation. Residue levels of organochlorine compounds including (P, P- - DDT, -HCH and DDE) and cyclodiene components (aldrin, endrin) in the water and sediments of Lake Mariut, Alexandria (brackish water) were analyzed and determined by capillary gas chromatography. Bacterial isolates collected from sediments of such lake were identified and investigated for their ability to biodegrade the selected pesticides. Water and sediment samples were collected from six different sites in the main basin of Lake Maruit and also through three successive seasons, summer, autumn and winter 1996-97. Bacterial isolates were identified and subjected to two concentrations: 0.05 and 50 ppm of the investigated pesticides to study the interaction between pesticides and bacteria. Results showed that lindane, aldrin. P,P- - DDT and endrine were present in the water and sediments of Lake Mariut at very high levels with residue levels significnatly higehr in sediments compared to water samples. Seasonal and spatial variation of their distribution in the water and sediments were observed. Biodegradation results showed superior ability of the isolated bacteria to decompose the investigated pesticides with very high efficiency reaching 100% for most of them. Results also revealed selective ability among the tested bacteria for biodegradtion of different pesticides especially at the lowet concentrations.
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