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Understanding Trajectories of Experience in Situated Learning Field Trips  [PDF]
Ilaria Canova Calori,Chiara Rossitto,Monica Divitini
Interaction Design and Architecture(s) , 2013,
Abstract: This paper discusses the role context plays in promoting engagement and exploration in situated learning experiences during field trips. We look at field trips where children engage with the physical and social context in order to learn about cultural and social aspects of the city they live in. By drawing on empirical data collected by means of qualitative methods, we discuss how learning unfolds along trajectories of experience towards pre-defined and emerging learning objectives. We reflect of the role technology can play in sup-porting learning experiences outside the classroom.
Understanding the nature of "superhard graphite"  [PDF]
Salah Eddine Boulfelfel,Artem R. Oganov,Stefano Leoni
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1038/srep00471
Abstract: Numerous experiments showed that on cold compression graphite transforms into a new superhard and transparent allotrope. Several structures with different topologies have been proposed for this phase. While experimental data are consistent with these models, the only way to solve this puzzle is to find which structure is kinetically easiest to form. Using state-of-the-art molecular-dynamics transition path sampling simulations, we investigate kinetic pathways of the pressure-induced transformation of graphite to various superhard candidate structures. Unlike hitherto applied methods for elucidating nature of superhard graphite, transition path sampling realistically models nucleation events necessary for physically meaningful transformation kinetics. We demonstrate that nucleation mechanism and kinetics lead to $M$-carbon as the final product. $W$-carbon, initially competitor to $M$-carbon, is ruled out by phase growth. Bct-C$_4$ structure is not expected to be produced by cold compression due to less probable nucleation and higher barrier of formation.
Understanding the Nature of the Presumption of Resulting Trusts
Xueping Chen
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100593
Abstract: The nature of the presumption of a resulting trust has generated a controversy, which has created two schools of thoughts. Both schools of thoughts claim that resulting trusts give effect to the presumed intention, positive or negative. But in this paper, I take on a quite different view of point that whether a lack of intent to benefit or a positive intent to create a trust is not related with the presumption of the resulting trusts, which, I believe, will make it interesting to general readers. Further, this paper thinks the presumption of a resulting trust as circumstances or facts based on presumption, legal presumption and thinks that it can be rebutted by evidential circumstances, which are helpful to ascertain the grounds for imposing a resulting trust. In a word, exploring the nature of the presumption of resulting trusts will aid in the understanding the grounds upon which a resulting trust is imposed. This article proceeds under four parts: the role of intention in the presumption of the resulting trusts; the circumstances or facts based on presumption; a legal presumption; rebutting by evidential circumstances.
Teamwork Approach: An Investigation on Iranian Teamwork Attitudes
Mostafa Nejati,Mehran Nejati,Bijan Nami
Canadian Social Science , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this article is to address the main problems in Iranian working teams and study the Iranian teamwork attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The authors have examined several factors which affect teamwork performance. Besides, the Iranians attitudes and approaches in teamwork have been discussed and analyzed. Moreover, using Hofstede cultural dimensions, the teamwork characteristics of Iranians have been further discussed and compared with other countries in terms of cultural perspectives. Findings – Most common Iranian Teamwork Problems and Conflicts, as well their symptoms, results, and suggestions to resolve them have been discussed in the paper. Originality/value – The authors found out that the Hofstede’s studies about different cultural dimensions cannot explain the teamwork performance level of different countries. Rather, there are other factors such as the work environment which affect the quality of teamwork. Keywords: Teamwork; Iranian culture; Virtual teams; Team performance Résumé: Objectif - L'objectif de cet article est de résoudre les problèmes principaux des équipes de travail iraniennes et d'étudier les attitudes de travail d'équipe iraniennes. Conception / méthodologie / approche - Les auteurs ont examiné plusieurs facteurs qui affectent la performance de travail d'équipe. De plus, les attitudes des Iraniens et les approches dans le travail d'équipe ont été discutées et analysées. En outre, en utilisant les dimensions culturelles de Hofstede, les caractéristiques du travail d'équipe des iraniens ont été étudiées davantage et comparées avec d'autres pays en termes de perspectives culturelles. Résultats - La plupart des problèmes communs et des conflits de travail d'équipe iraniens, ainsi que leurs sympt mes, les résultats et les suggestions pour les résoudre ont été discutés dans l'article. Originalité / valeur - Les auteurs ont constaté que les études de Hofstede sur les différentes dimensions culturelles ne pouvaient pas expliquer le niveau de performance de travail d'équipe des différents pays. Au contraire, il existe d'autres facteurs, tel que l'environnement de travail, qui affectent la qualité de travail d'équipe. Mots-clés: travail d'équipe; culture iranienne; équipes virtuelles; performance de l'équipe
Understanding the nature and mechanism of foot pain
Fiona Hawke, Joshua Burns
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-2-1
Abstract: Foot pain is experienced by 17 to 42% of the adult population [1-4]. It is disabling in nearly half of these cases [4] and can impair mood, behaviour, risk of falls, self-care ability and quality of life [3,5-11]. Foot pain is complex, and difficulties in accurately diagnosing the source of pain and cause of tissue damage can impair clinical management of the pain [12,13]. However, most people with foot pain do not seek professional treatment, even when the pain is disabling [4]. There is clearly a need to improve the provision of foot care to people suffering such pain.Currently, the aetiological mechanisms underlying some types of tissue injury within the foot are not clearly understood. As a result, interventions targeting foot pain in clinical trials often lack specific targets (e.g. plantar heel pain) [14]. Perhaps as a result of this limitation, evidence from randomised controlled trials of some common interventions that are highly regarded in clinical practice (e.g. custom foot orthoses) have detected only small, if any, beneficial effects [15].A deeper understanding of pain is needed to identify the nature and mechanism of foot pain, its diagnosis and how best to target clinical intervention. It has been two decades since a review on foot pain has been published [16-19]. Given that almost all prevalence studies for foot pain have been performed since then, in addition to the recent advances in our understanding of the nature and mechanism of pain in general, a review of this type is warranted. The aim of this paper was to comprehensively review the literature on foot pain, with specific reference to its definition, prevalence, aetiology and predictors, classification, measurement and impact. We conclude by discussing the complexities of foot pain as a sensory, emotional and psychosocial experience in the context of clinical practice, therapeutic trials and the placebo effect.Foot pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience following perceived dama
Nanotechnology and Nature: On Two Criteria for Understanding Their Relationship
Gregor Schiemann
Hyle : International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry , 2005,
Abstract: Two criteria are proposed for characterizing the diverse and not yet perspicuous relations between nanotechnology and nature. They assume a concept of nature as that which is not made by human action. One of the criteria endorses a distinction between natural and artificial objects in nanotechnology; the other allows for a discussion of the potential nanotechnological modification of nature. Insofar as current trends may be taken as indicative of future development, nanotechnology might increasingly use the model of nature as a point of orientation, while many of its products will continue to be clearly distinguished from nature.
Understanding Levels of Prospective Science Teachers on the Nature of Science  [cached]
Süleyman Yaman,Hasret Nuho?lu
Eurasian Journal of Physics and Chemistry Education , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine whether the understandings levels of prospective science teachers on the nature of science are dependent on differences in grade level and gender. This study utilizes VOSTS scale, which was developed by Aikenhead and Ryan, and adapted by Chan in order to determine viewpoints of prospective teachers on the nature of science. Eighteen multiple-choice questions from this scale were translated and adapted into Turkish from English by researchers, who also conducted a preliminary work on the validity and reliability of the scale. The adapted scale was applied to 80 prospective science teachers, who were not included in the sample of this study and the reliability coefficient of the scale was found to be 0.81. Then the scale is applied to 201 prospective teachers who are enrolled in the science education program. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that while views of the prospective science teachers on nature of science are not significantly correlated with differences in grade level and gender, there were significant variations among these views. In this study, it was determined that prospective teachers had certain misconceptions on nature of science with respect to specific issues including hierarchical relationships between concepts of hypothesis, theory, law, and universal scientific method; that they relied predominantly on positivist paradigm; and that they espoused the traditional approach to science in understanding and interpreting nature of science.
Understanding the Nature of $Λ(1405)$ through Regge Physics  [PDF]
Cesar Fernandez-Ramirez,Igor V. Danilkin,Vincent Mathieu,Adam P. Szczepaniak
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: It appears that there are two resonances with $J^P= 1/2^-$ quantum numbers in the energy region near the $\Lambda(1405)$ hyperon. The nature of these states is a topic of current debate. To provide further insight we use Regge phenomenology to access how these two resonances fit the established hyperon spectrum. We find that only one of these resonances is compatible with a three-quark state.
Animal Density and Track Counts: Understanding the Nature of Observations Based on Animal Movements  [PDF]
Derek Keeping, Rick Pelletier
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096598
Abstract: Counting animals to estimate their population sizes is often essential for their management and conservation. Since practitioners frequently rely on indirect observations of animals, it is important to better understand the relationship between such indirect indices and animal abundance. The Formozov-Malyshev-Pereleshin (FMP) formula provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the relationship between animal track counts and the true density of species. Although this analytical method potentially has universal applicability wherever animals are readily detectable by their tracks, it has long been unique to Russia and remains widely underappreciated. In this paper, we provide a test of the FMP formula by isolating the influence of animal travel path tortuosity (i.e., convolutedness) on track counts. We employed simulations using virtual and empirical data, in addition to a field test comparing FMP estimates with independent estimates from line transect distance sampling. We verify that track counts (total intersections between animals and transects) are determined entirely by density and daily movement distances. Hence, the FMP estimator is theoretically robust against potential biases from specific shapes or patterns of animal movement paths if transects are randomly situated with respect to those movements (i.e., the transects do not influence animals’ movements). However, detectability (the detection probability of individual animals) is not determined simply by daily travel distance but also by tortuosity, so ensuring that all intersections with transects are counted regardless of the number of individual animals that made them becomes critical for an accurate density estimate. Additionally, although tortuosity has no bearing on mean track encounter rates, it does affect encounter rate variance and therefore estimate precision. We discuss how these fundamental principles made explicit by the FMP formula have widespread implications for methods of assessing animal abundance that rely on indirect observations.
Towards Flexible Teamwork  [PDF]
M. Tambe
Computer Science , 1997,
Abstract: Many AI researchers are today striving to build agent teams for complex, dynamic multi-agent domains, with intended applications in arenas such as education, training, entertainment, information integration, and collective robotics. Unfortunately, uncertainties in these complex, dynamic domains obstruct coherent teamwork. In particular, team members often encounter differing, incomplete, and possibly inconsistent views of their environment. Furthermore, team members can unexpectedly fail in fulfilling responsibilities or discover unexpected opportunities. Highly flexible coordination and communication is key in addressing such uncertainties. Simply fitting individual agents with precomputed coordination plans will not do, for their inflexibility can cause severe failures in teamwork, and their domain-specificity hinders reusability. Our central hypothesis is that the key to such flexibility and reusability is providing agents with general models of teamwork. Agents exploit such models to autonomously reason about coordination and communication, providing requisite flexibility. Furthermore, the models enable reuse across domains, both saving implementation effort and enforcing consistency. This article presents one general, implemented model of teamwork, called STEAM. The basic building block of teamwork in STEAM is joint intentions (Cohen & Levesque, 1991b); teamwork in STEAM is based on agents' building up a (partial) hierarchy of joint intentions (this hierarchy is seen to parallel Grosz & Kraus's partial SharedPlans, 1996). Furthermore, in STEAM, team members monitor the team's and individual members' performance, reorganizing the team as necessary. Finally, decision-theoretic communication selectivity in STEAM ensures reduction in communication overheads of teamwork, with appropriate sensitivity to the environmental conditions. This article describes STEAM's application in three different complex domains, and presents detailed empirical results.
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