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An assessment of availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria
Stanley A.M.,Joshua I.A.
Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted to assess availability and adequacy of domestic water supply in Tsaunin Kura community of Kaduna metropolis Nigeria, between May and December 2009 using structured questionnaire. The study populations were household members living in the study area. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected with 74% responses. Majority of the respondents, 38.5% and 90% were civil servants and females respectively. Their commonest source of water supply was well (41%) which is inadequate in 74% of cases due to the seasonal variation of their water content. Other sources of water included tap bore hole and purchase of water from vendors. About 41% of the respondents spend N2000 ($13) on buying water for home use daily and 62.4% store water in drum/bucket/galloon. Cleaning of the storage facilities were done once in a year in majority of cases (54%). A significant percentage (48%) does not treat their water before using it. On the medical history, 74% claimed to have had illness (68% of such was typhoid fever) which they believed was from the poor quality of water they are using and 68% were treated in the hospital.
ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER QUALITY IN LOW INCOME HIGH DENSITY AREAS OF KADUNA METROPOLIS  [PDF]
Muhammad, M. N.
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Water is essential for life and bloodstream of the green economy. Lack of access to clean drinking water adversely affects the public health on many developing countries like Nigeria. Population growth, expanding cities and accelerating economic activity create unsustainable pressure on our water resources. Kaduna metropolis is a city undergoing rapid expansion in economics growth and urbanization. One of the challenges of this growth is pressure on public water supply. As in most developing countries, public water supply in Kaduna is erratic and inadequate for local consumers. Consequently, majority of the local population relied on underground water for domestic andcommercial applications. The quality of underground water in the metropolis is rarely assessed. This study investigated underground water quality in high density low income areas of the metropolis. Acombination of Physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters were used to analysed the quality of ground water samples collected from hand dug wells and bore holes across the metropolis. Generally, over 65% of samples were contaminated by coliform. Results indicate higher bacterial counts in hand dug wells than bore holes. While the pH of the samples varied widely, physicochemical analysis showed over 90% of water samples were in conformity with Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). Although underground water in the metropolis may be suitable for commercial and industrial applications, human consumption is only recommended after treatment to eliminate coliform risk. Protection of shallow wells and boreholes is strongly adviced.
Characteristics of Obstetric Fistula in Kaduna Metropolis  [PDF]
Sunday Jenner Lengmang, Hannah Degge
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.77074
Abstract: Introduction: Obstetric fistula is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, it is more prevalent in the North compared to the South; and mainly rural. Urbanization has had significant impact on global health. Rapid urbanization is predicted to intensify in developing countries where fistula is endemic, but the pattern of presentation of obstetric fistula in urban areas is yet to be described. Objective: The objective of the study was to find out if obstetric fistula exists in Kaduna metropolis, and if it does, to explore the pattern of presentation. Methodology: Women living with obstetric fistula were mobilized from Kaduna metropolis for free screening and repair. They were screened using direct dye and three swab tests. Consenting patients with confirmed obstetric fistula were included in the study. Their socio-demographic and clinical data were captured using Microsoft Access and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Results: All twenty three consenting women confirmed to have obstetric fistula lived within Kaduna city and had phone contacts. A depreciating proportion of primiparous women presented with obstetric fistula in Kaduna metropolis as multiparous women were in majority. The women also appeared to have higher height and weight measures and majority of them had access to fistula repair. They married early and were mostly uneducated and illiterate. Conclusion: Obstetric fistula afflicts women living in Kaduna metropolis. Women living with fistula in Kaduna metropolis appear to present different socio-demographic features, suggesting an emerging trend related to urbanization.
Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Well Water in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State
I. A. Allamin, M. B. Borkoma, R. Joshua, I. B. Machina
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101597
Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of well water from Kaduna metropolis. The physiochemical quality of the water was analyzed using FAO (1997) method and the result obtained showed that the water sample was acidic, some neutral but they all fell within the range as recommended by WHO, and NAFDAC, the water sample fell within the recommended range for Nitrite, turbidity, conductivity and chloride. The bacteriological quality of the water was also determined by most probable number technique, the total coli-form count and the differential E. coli count in which several tubes with diluted buffered solution to dilute the water sample and then incubated for 24 hrs, this is called the presumptive test while for the confirmation test, positive tubes from the presumptive test were inoculated into separate growth medium for total coli-form and E. coli and then incubated. The results obtained showed that total coliforms were observed ranging from 11.0 to 63.0 cfu/ml with Sabon Tasha (TS) having the highest counts and Nasarawa (NS) with the least counts, while only two sites—Sabon Tasha (ST) and Kakuri (KK)—were recorded to have feacal contaminations. E. coli was identified suggesting that the water samples from the two were having recent feacal contamination.
Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Kaduna Metropolis, Northwest Nigeria  [PDF]
Murtala Shehu Ahmed, Adamu Idris Tanko, Martin Obada Eduvie, Mohammed Ahmed
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.56011
Abstract: DRASTIC index model was employed in the assessment of the intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. The model evaluates the contribution of seven environmental parameters (Depth to water level, Net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and Hydraulic Conductivity) in the protection of groundwater against contamination. The mapping was conducted within the framework of Geographical Information System. The study area has very low, low to slightly moderate vulnerability with highest and lowest DRASTIC values of 131 and 77 respectively. To have better understanding of the spatial vulnerability of groundwater in the area, the DRASTIC map was reclassified into five (very high, high, moderate, low and very low) vulnerability zones. Generally, the distribution of the vulnerability classes indicated the low to moderate vulnerability status of the majority parts of the study area, with high vulnerability at the center. Strict control measures should be put in place when locating land uses with high potential hazards in the high and very high vulnerability areas.
Acquisition of Geospatial Database for Primary Schools in Kaduna Metropolis
J.O. Sule,H.S. Abdullahi,J. Bungwon
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: A map is one of the final products of surveying. This is of many types and uses. A digital map of primary schools is a thematic map which shows the location, distribution, the number of private and public schools in a given area and other relevant information. At the present, such a map for Kaduna is not available. This project aims at producing a digital map showing the location of all private and public primary schools within Kaduna metropolis to aid planning and decision making. The project was carried out with the aid of handheld GPS receiver as a tool for the field data collection and the use of a digital map of Kaduna town as a base map on which the positions of these schools were plotted. The plotting was done using ArcGIS.
Grinding Machine Noise Spectra in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ali Haruna,Agu, M. N.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2011,
Abstract: When we are exposed to intense noise levels some or all of the hair cells in the organ of corti may be damaged temporarily or permanently. Exposure to excessive noise for a short period of time may produce a loss of heavy sensitivity. Continuous noise exposure over a long period of time (years) is more damaging than interrupted exposure to noise, which permits the ear to have a rest and possible recovery period. The presence of low frequency noise in the noise generated by grinding machines in Kaduna metropolis can have adverse effect on concentration and memory.Thus, this study was carried out to assess the grinding machine noice spectra in Kaduna Metropolis using sound level meter (Digital, Testo 816) and Digital Hand Data Logger (DB-525).
Intestinal Helminthoses in Dogs in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Umar YA
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2009,
Abstract: "nBackground: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be-tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec-tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area."nMethods: During the survey, 160 gastrointestinal tracts of dogs killed for meat selected by simple sampling technique were collected and examined for helminths in Kaduna metropolis, latitude 100 50I N and longitude 70 50I E."nResults: Of the helminths found, Dipylidium caninum (75.0%), Taenia hydatigena (43.8%), Diphyllobothrium latum (6.3%), Ancylostoma caninum (6.3%) and Toxocara canis (6.3%) were the most common. Female dogs were more likely of contacting intestinal helminths than male dogs (RR = 1.125). Higher mean worm burden was recorded for dogs infected by T. hydatigena and D. caninum than dogs infected by T. canis, D. latum or A. caninum."nConclusion: The presence of these parasites in dogs examined indicates a potential public health problem in Kaduna me-tropolis. Mass enlightenment of dog keepers on the need for periodic veterinary care and restriction of stray dogs through legislation formulation and enforcement are recommended as possible control measures.
Antibacterial activity of some powdered herbal preparations marketed in Kaduna metropolis
D Abba, H.I Inabo, S.E Yakubu, OS Olonitola
Science World Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the phytochemical components and the antibacterial activities of some powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal shops and retail outlets in different parts of Kaduna metropolis. Extracts obtained from the herbal preparations were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites using established procedures. Also, antibacterial activities of the extracts were evaluated. Carbohydrates and tannins were identified in 105 (70%) and 101 (67.3%) of the samples respectively. Alkaloids were found in 97 (64.7%); saponins were detected in 91 (60.7%), while anthraquinones, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were identified in 82 (54.7%), 80 (53.3%) and 60 (40%) of the herbal preparations respectively. All the methanolic extracts had inhibitory activities on the test bacterial isolates at various minimum inhibitory concentrations: 81 (54%) had inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, 74 (49.3%) on Escherichia coli, 74 (49.3%) on Salmonella typhi and 63 (42%) on Shigella spp. The uses of these products in herbal medicine are justified. However, further works are needed to identify the chemical nature of the active substances as well as their modes of actions on the bacterial cells and their roles in disease curing.
Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Probiotic Potential from Fermented Cow Milk (Nono) in Unguwar Rimi Kaduna State Nigeria  [PDF]
Philip Anthony Vantsawa, Umar Thlama Maryah, Timothy Bulus
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2017.72008
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from fermented cow milk (nono) sold inUnguwar Rimi, Kaduna markets were isolated on lactic bacteria specific medium (De Man Rogosa Sharpe MRS media). Isolated strains were identified and characterized using morphological, biochemical test and carbohydrate fermentation system (API-50 CHL). Six (6) pure colonies were distinctly obtained and identified as Lactobacillus strains. Out of the 6 isolated Lactobacilli, 5 were further identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis 2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus acidophilus 2 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. They were further screened for antimicrobial activity and antibiotic sensitivity. Lactobacillus acidophilus had higher resistance to all but one of the antibiotics used (Chloramphenicol 30 μg) with no zone of inhibition to Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Gentamycin, Penicillin, Streptomycin and Tetracycline. The antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli exhibited varying degree of inhibitory activity. It can be concluded that the presence of these microorganisms in fermented cow milk (nono) is of great benefits to humans and animals either as supplements or food production processes.
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