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Groundwater nitrate pollution in Souss-Massa basin (south-west Morocco)
T Tagma, Y Hsissou, L Bouchaou, L Bouragba, S Boutaleb
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: The objective of our study was to determine the current status of alluvial aquifer in the Souss-Massa basin, where the nitrate pollution of groundwater is being increasing along the last decades. A multiapproach methodology using hydrogeology, nitrate concentrations, irrigation type and oxygen-18 and deuterium data, was carried out to identify the sources of this pollution. According to the spatial distribution of nitrate contents, nitrate pollution occurs mainly in Chtouka-Massa plain. More than 36% of the sampled wells exceed the value of 50 mg/L as NO3 -. Groundwater in Souss plain is less polluted comparing it to Chtouka-Massa; only 7% of wells exceed the permitted level. Agricultural practices in the study sites are the main cause of serious nitrate pollution given the uperimposition of high nitrate concentrations with the distribution of irrigated perimeters. High nitrate levels are associated with high 18O values, clearly indicating that significant quantities of evaporated irrigation waters infiltrate along with fertilizer nitrate to groundwater system. Different 18O-NO3 - trends suggest isotopically distinct, non-point source origins which vary spatially and temporally, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge and amounts of fertilizer applied.
Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater in Irrigated Perimeters under Arid Climate (The Case of Souss-Massa Aquifer, Morocco)
Tarik Tagma,Youssef Hsissou,Lhoussaine Bouchaou,Latifa Bouragba,Said Boutaleb
Environmental Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to clarify, the current status of alluvial aquifer in the Souss-Massa basin, where, the nitric pollution of groundwater is being increasing along the last decades. A multi-approach methodology using hydrogeology, nitrate concentrations, irrigation mode and Oxygen-18 and Deuterium isotopes data, was carried out to identify the sources of this pollution. According to the spatial distribution of nitrate contents, nitric pollution occurs mainly in the Chtouka-Massa plain. More than 36% of the sampled wells exceed the value of 50 mg L-1 which, constitutes the threshold value of nitrate concentrations for drinking water Moroccan standards. The groundwater in Souss plain is less polluted comparing to Chtouka-Massa. Only 7% of wells exceed the permitted level. The widespread distribution of high nitrate contents agrees with the distribution of irrigated areas, which can explain the major origin from agricultural fertilizers. High nitrate levels are associated with high δ18O values, clearly indicating that significant quantities of evaporated (isotopically enriched) irrigation water infiltrate along with fertilizer nitrate to the groundwater system. Different δ18O-NO3- trends suggest isotopically distinct, non-point source origins, which vary spatially and temporally, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge and amounts of fertilizer applied.
Nitrate Concentration in Groundwater in Isfahan Province  [cached]
A. Jafari Malekabadi,M. Afyuni,S. F. Mousavi,A. Khosravi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2004,
Abstract: In recent decades, the use of nitrogen fertilizers has increased irrespective of their effects on soil properties, agricultural products and, particularly, on environmental pollution. Nitrate easily leaches from soils into groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine temporal and spatial nitrate concentrations in groundwater in agricultural, industrial and urban regions in some parts of Isfahan Province. Water samples were collected monthly from 75 agricultural, industrial, and urban wells of Isfahan, Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Natanz and Kashan during January-May 2001. The results indicated that NO3-N concentrations in most of the regions studied were higher than the standard level (10 mg/l) and nitrate pollution must be reckoned among the most serious problems of sustainable agriculture and exploitation of groundwater resources. Average NO3-N concentration in different wells ranged from 1.03 to 50.78 mg/l (4.64 to 228.5 mg/l as nitrate). The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Isfahan and Natanz-Kashan was 17.56, 14.6, 16.04, and 8.24 mg/l and 95.5, 100, 84 and 33.3 % of total wells in these regions had nitrate concentrations above the standard level, respectively. Maximum NO3-N concentration was detected in the agricultural region south of Najaf-abad (64.6 mg/l). Nitrate pollution in most of the sampling areas was mainly linked to agricultural activities. The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of all agricultural, industrial, and urban regions, except for urban regions of Natanz and Kashan, were above the standard level. Generally, nitrate concentration level in groundwater increased with time and was maximum in March and April.
Effect on nitrate concentration in stream water of agricultural practices in small catchments in Brittany: I. Annual nitrogen budgets
L. Ruiz,S. Abiven,P. Durand,C. Martin
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2002,
Abstract: The hydrological and biogeochemical monitoring of catchments has become a common approach for studying the effect of the evolution of agricultural practices on water resources. In numerous studies, the catchment is used as a a mega-lysimetera ? to calculate annual input-output budgets. However, the literature reflects two opposite interpretations of the trends of nitrate concentration in streamwater. For some authors, essentially in applied studies, the mean residence time of leached nitrate in shallow groundwater systems is much less than one year and river loads reflect annual land use while for others, nitrate is essentially transport limited, independent of soil nitrate supply in the short term and annual variations reflect changes in climatic conditions. This study tests the effect of agricultural land-use changes on inter-annual nitrate trends on stream water of six small adjacent catchments from 0.10 to 0.57 km2 in area, on granite bedrock, at Kerbernez, in Western Brittany (France). Nitrate concentrations and loads in streamwater have been monitored for nine years (1992 to 2000) at the outlet of the catchments. An extensive survey of agricultural practices from 1993 to 1999 allowed assessment of the nitrogen available for leaching through nitrogen budgets. For such small catchments, year-to-year variations of nitrate leaching can be very important, even when considering the a memory effecta of soil, while nitrate concentrations in streamwater appear relatively steady. No correlation was found between the calculated mean nitrate concentration of drainage water and the mean annual concentration in streams, which can even exhibit opposite trends in inter-annual variations. The climatic conditions do not affect the mean concentration in streamwater significantly. These results suggest that groundwater plays an important role in the control of streamwater nitrate concentration. Keywords: nitrate, diffuse pollution, agricultural catchment, nitrogen budget, leaching, Kerbernez catchments
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Nitrate Pollution in Groundwater of Abuja, Nigeria  [cached]
M. A. Dan-Hassan,P. I. Olasehinde,A. N. Amadi,J. Yisa
International Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijc.v4n3p104
Abstract: Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja, Nigeria’s Capital as many households, private and government establishments depends solely on hand-dug wells and boreholes for their daily water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is rather delicate because of its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate when compared to surface water. The purpose of this paper is to present the occurrence of nitrate in groundwater of Abuja and discuss the implication and sources of the nitrate. High nitrate level in drinking water leads to infant methaemoglobinaemia (blue-baby syndrome), gastric cancer, metabolic disorder and livestock poisoning. A simplified map of nitrate occurrences in Abuja indicates that some areas have nitrate concentration above the WHO and NSDWQ guide limit of 50 mg/l and it is dominant in the rainy season than dry season. The number of people drinking water with nitrate concentration above the permissible level cannot be quantified presently. The sources of nitrate in the groundwater were attributed to bedrock dissolution in the course of groundwater migration and more importantly anthropogenic activities such as on-site sanitation, waste dumpsites and agricultural chemicals. Water treatment by bio-denitrification and nitrate pollution control programs should be introduced at local, state and federal levels in order to educate people on the need to protect groundwater from nitrate pollution caused by agricultural activity and indiscriminate disposal of wastes.
The Source of Arsenic and Nitrate in Borrego Valley Groundwater Aquifer  [PDF]
Mohammad Hassan Rezaie-Boroon, Jessica Chaney, Bradley Bowers
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.617145
Abstract: Groundwater in California is very precious, yet what we can withdraw is often contaminated with natural and anthropogenic pollution sources. We have examined the Borrego Valley (BV) groundwater (N = 6 wells) in southern California to understand the source of arsenic and nitrate in some of its groundwater production wells. The results show that the arsenic values range from <2 ppb to 12.2 ppb and the nitrate values from <1 ppm to 10.2 ppm for different wells respectively. The results showed that the arsenic concentration increased 270% for the well # ID1-10 since 2004 and showed an increase of 63% since 2013 respectively. For other wells the results showed an increase of 147% and 72% since 2001. The nitrate concentration has jumped 42% in concentration since last year in one of the wells. The objective of this study is to understand the nature and source of arsenic and nitrate in BV groundwater aquifer as to how this change in arsenic and nitrate concentration occurs through the time. The arsenic retention in the sediments is highly variable and controlled by local processes as a result of natural weathering process of metamorphic bedrock. The second results from the development of strongly reducing conditions at near-neutral pH values, leading to the desorption of arsenic from mineral oxides and to the reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides, also leading to arsenic release. The high arsenic concentrations in some groundwater wells in Borrego Valley CA require the need for reconnaissance surveys in mineralized areas of fractured crystalline basement. Net groundwater extraction values are based on an irrigation efficiency of 78 percent with 14 to 22 percent irrigation return. We believe that the return flow from irrigational activity could be one of the major sources of nitrate transferring the agricultural contaminants such as nitrate to Borrego Valley aquifer.
Effect on nitrate concentration in stream water of agricultural practices in small catchments in Brittany: II. Temporal variations and mixing processes  [PDF]
L. Ruiz,S. Abiven,C. Martin,P. Durand
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2002,
Abstract: In catchments with impervious bedrock, the nitrate concentrations in streamwater often show marked seasonal and small inter-annual variations. The inter-annual trends are usually attributed to changes in nitrogen inputs, due to changes in land use or in nitrogen deposition whereas seasonal patterns are explained in terms of availability of soil nitrate for leaching and of seasonality of nitrogen biotransformations. The companion paper showed that inter-annual variations of nitrogen in streamwater are not directly related to the variations of land use. The aim of this study is to describe nitrate concentration variations in a set of very small adjacent catchments, and to discuss the origin of the inter-annual and seasonal trends. Data from four catchments at the Kerbernez site (South Western Brittany, France) were used in this study. Nitrate concentrations in streamwater were monitored for eight years (1992 to 1999) at the outlet of the catchments. They exhibit contrasting inter-annual and seasonal patterns. An extensive survey of agricultural practices during this period allowed assessment of the amount of nitrogen available for leaching. The discharges measured since 1997 show similar specific fluxes but very different seasonal dynamics between the catchments. A simple, lumped linear store model is proposed as an initial explanation of the differences in discharge and nitrate concentration patterns between the catchments. The base flow at the outlet of each catchment is considered as a mixture of water from two linear reservoirs with different time constants. Each reservoir comprises two water stores, one mobile contributing to discharge, the other, immobile, where nitrate moves only by diffusion. The storm flow, which accounts for less than 10% of the annual flux, is not considered here. Six parameters were adjusted for each catchment to fit the observed data: the proportion of deep losses of water, the proportion of the two reservoirs and the size and initial concentration of the two immobile stores. The model simulates the discharge and nitrate concentration dynamics well. It suggests that the groundwater store plays a very important role in the control of nitrate concentration in streamwater, and that the pattern of the seasonal variation of nitrate concentration may result from the long term evolution of nitrogen losses by leaching. Keywords: nitrate, diffuse pollution, groundwater, seasonal variations, agricultural catchment, simulation model
Nitrogen dynamics in the shallow groundwater of a riparian wetland zone of the Garonne, SW France: nitrate inputs, bacterial densities, organic matter supply and denitrification measurements  [PDF]
J. M. Sánchez-Pérez,P. Vervier,F. Garabétian,S. Sauvage
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2003,
Abstract: This study highlights the role of interactions between surface and sub-surface water of the riparian zone of a large river (the Garonne, SW France). Information is given about the role of surface water in supplying Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC ) to the riparian zone for nitrate removal processes. The densities of bacteria (up to 3.3 106 cell m L-1) in groundwater are strongly conditioned by the water moving during flood events. Total bacterial densities in groundwater were related to surface water bacterial densities. In sediment, total bacteria are attached mainly to fine particles (90% in the fraction < 1 mm). Spatial variations in organic carbon and nitrate content in groundwater at the site studied are correlated with exchanges between the groundwater and the river, from the upstream to the downstream part of the meander. Total bacterial densities, nitrate and decressing organic carbon concentrations follow the same pattern. These results suggest that, in this kind of riparian wetland, nitrate from alluvial groundwater influenced by agricultural practices may be denitrified by bacteria in the presence of organic carbon from river surface water. Keywords: riparian zone, nitrate removal, spatial variations, alluvial groundwater
Forecasting the e ects of EU policy measures on the nitrate pollution of groundwater and surface waters

Ralf Kunkel,Peter Kreins,Bjrn Tetzlaff,Frank Wendland,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2010,
Abstract: We used the interdisciplinary model network REGFLUD to predict the actual mean nitrate concentration in percolation water at the scale of the Weser river basin (Germany) using an area di erentiated (100 m 100 m) approach. REGFLUD combines the agro-economic model RAUMIS for estimating nitrogen surpluses and the hydrological models GROWA/DENUZ for assessing the nitrate leaching from the soil. For areas showing predicted nitrate concentrations in percolation water above the European Union (EU) groundwater quality standard of 50 mg NO3-N/L, e ective agri-environmental reduction measures need to be derived and implemented to improve groundwater and surface water quality by 2015. The e ects of already implemented agricultural policy are quantified by a baseline scenario projecting the N-surpluses from agricultural sector to 2015. The REGFLUD model is used to estimate the e ects of this scenario concerning groundwater and surface water pollution by nitrate. From the results of the model analysis the needs for additional measures can be derived in terms of required additional N-surplus reduction and in terms of regional prioritization of measures. Research work will therefore directly support the implementation of the Water Framework Directive of the European Union in the Weser basin.
An Inexpensive and Simple Experimental Approach for the Estimation of Solute Import into Groundwater and Subsequent Export Using Inflow/Outflow Data  [PDF]
Velu Rasiah
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.98061
Abstract: In agricultural catchments where groundwater (GW) base flow discharge contributes substantially towards stream flow, the information linking GW inflow/outflow with contaminant import/export is scarce. However, this information is essential to address aquatic ecosystem health hazard/risk associated with nitrate export and subsequent loading in sensitive surface water bodies (SWB). The objectives of this study were to assess the temporal dynamics of (i) rain water inflow/outflow behaviour in three agricultural catchments in the humid tropics of far-northeast Queensland of Australia, (ii) solute import via inflow and subsequent export in outflow, and (iii) the association between GW inflow/outflow and solute import/export. Approximately 71% of the average seasonal rainfall percolated (inflow) into the porous basaltic regolith of the Johnstone River Catchment (JRC) compared with 44% into the alluvial regolith in the Mulgrave River Catchment (MRC) and 29% into the metamorphic regolith in the Tully River Catchment (TRC), respectively. The outflows from the basaltic, alluvial, and metamorphic regoliths were 56%, 36%, and 55% of the inflows, respectively. The cumulative nitrate import per season was 25 k/ha in the JRC compared with 11 kg/ha in MRC and 34 kg/ha in TRC. The corresponding exports were 24 kg/ha, 8 kg/ha 26 kg/ha in JRC, MRC, and TRC, respectively. The total dissolved solute (TDS) exports were 82%, 77%, 75%, of the corresponding imports in JRC, MRC, and TRC, respectively. Simple correlations indicated that nitrate export was positively correlated with the outflow in each one of the regolith and similar trends were observed between inflow and import. The import/export mass balance for nitrate shows that 73% to 96% of the imports were exported during the same rainy season, suggesting the potential for nitrate associated ecosystem health hazard/risk in sensitive SWB receiving the outflows.
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