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First Breeding and Nidification Record of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed,Masood Ahmed Qureshi
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on the breeding and nidification of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). Three main zones were divided into 8 main localities, each main locality was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. Two nests were found during survey i.e. one at sub-locality Nar Ka Daman at an attitude of 2500 m and other at Batal Ka Daman of Sangar Bari at 2600 m on July 11, 2002 and June 8, 2003, respectively. A female, hatching eggs (n=8) was flushed from first nest at sub-locality, Nar Ka Daman. The second nest was an old and inactive. The composition and measurements of both the nests were almost same. Both nests were constructed on ground under the bushes of Plactranthus rugosus and made up of 65-70% dry grasses i.e. saccharum rufipilum, Eriophorum sp. Poa angustifolia, with 10-12% twigs of Plactranthus rugosus, Indigofera heterantha and 20-26% needles of Pinus wallichiana The average size of eggs was 53x40 mm. In present study 2 pairs of adults with 13 juveniles were observed at cheetah location at elevation of 1900 m in July 10, 2002. Similarly in Kavashan (2500 m) a pair with 10 newly hatched chicks were observed in July 9, 2002.
Habitat Utilization of Cheer Pheasant (Catereus wallichii) in Jhelum Valley, Muzaffaraabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Masood Ahmed Qureshi,Khawaja Basharat Ahmed
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Sum of 28 surveys were conducted from June 2002 to June 2003 in three main zones (Pir Chinasi, Lowasi-Ghari Dopatta and Chinari-Qazinag) of Jhelum valley Muzaffarabad to collect data on Phytosociological habitat analysis of Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii). Three zones were divided into 8 main localities, each of which was further divided into sub-localities or calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. The Phytosociological analysis of five localities was carried out at calling sites of Cheer Pheasant. The importance value (dominant and co-dominant vegetation by Quadrate Method) of each plant species was calculated in order to find out the relationship of Cheer Pheasant population with various variables of habitat. Phytosociological habitat comparison of dominant and co-dominant vegetation of five main localities showed that the following plant species are common and characteristic of each habitat. These species are Pinus walliachiana, Plactranthus rugosus, Indigofera heterantha, Berberis lycium, Fragaria indica, Oenothera rosea, cynoglossum lanceolatum, Saccharum rufipilum and onychium japonicum. Correlation analysis between Cheer Pheasant density indices at various sites and habitat variables showed non-significant results with ground cover (r = 0.24, p>0.5), with shrubs (r = 0.44, p>0.5) and with tree cover (r = 0.36, p>0.5). However the higher value of r with shrubs showed some relationship of Cheer population. Similarly, correlation analysis between Cheer Pheasant population and with canopy cover showed non-significant results i.e. with ground canopy cover (r =-0.08, p>0.5), with shrub canopy cover (r = 0.33, p>0.5) and with tree canopy cover (r =-0.05, p>0.5). Again the higher value of r with shrub canopy cover indicates some affinity of Cheer Pheasant population.
Fodder Plants of Some Selected Areas of Jhelum Valley District Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir  [PDF]
Ashfaq Ahmad Awan,Tanweer Akhtar,Muhammad Ejaz Ul Islam Dar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Jhelum valley is a subtropical to moist temperate region lying in the District Muzaffarabad. The present communication describes 61 species belonging to 19 families which are the source of fodder. The plants together with their local names, period of availability and other details with pertinent comments are enumerated. Results of fodder plant investigation conducted in Jhelum Valley during 2005-2006 are presented.
Comparative Study of the Effect of Na+, K+ and Ca++ Metals and Rhizopus species on the Growth of Acacia nilotica and Peganum harmala Seeds, Khewra Salt Mine, District Jhelum and Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
Altaf Hussain,Mirza Shahid Baig
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The Khewra salt mine area lies in the District Jhelum, Pakistan. The Precambrian Salt Range Formation is exposed in the foothills of southern Potwar. The Salt Range Formation consists of mainly halite (NaCl), sylvite (KCl) and gypsum (Ca So4) salts. The alkaline soil is the product of weathering of the Salt Range Formation. The soil on which the plants are growing is rich in Na+, K+ and Ca++ metals. The seeds of Acacia nilotica and Peganum harmala were collected from salt polluted soil out side of the Khewra salt mine and the non-polluted soil from Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. These seeds were grown in different concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca++ at room temperature (22 ± 2°C). The study of salt polluted seeds in presence or absence of fungus Rhizopus, shows that the germination rate and biomass increase with increasing concentration levels of Na+ and Ca++ up to 30 μg ml ̄1 and K+ up to 400 μg ml ̄1. However, the germination rate and biomass of non-polluted seeds in absence of fungus, decrease with increasing the concentration levels of Na+, K+ and Ca++. In contrast, no single non-polluted seed germinated in the presence of fungus. The present study shows that if seeds from A. nilotica and P. harmala plants are sown and grown in saline soils of Punjab and Indus plains, these will reduce the salinity of soil without fungal infection in such plants.
Diversity of Butterflies from District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir  [PDF]
M. Rafique Khan,M. Nasim,M. Rahim Khan,M.A. Rafi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The adult butterflies were collected from nine localities of district Muzaffarabad through out the summer season of (April to October) 2001. A total of 28 species belonging to 7 families were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that the lowest diversity was obtained from Kohala and highest diversity was obtained from Shaeed Gali and Gari Dopatta.
Valeriana Wallichii Traditional Medicinal Plant Of India
R.Karthikeyan,A.Suganthi,Sapna Shrikumar,T.K. Ravi
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2004,
Abstract: Valeriana wallichii commonly known as Indian valerian is one of the important plant species of commerce, which belongs to the family Valerianaceae. It is native to India (Himalayas). Indian valerian is used in various pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of migraine. The active constituent if the root of valeriana wallichii is valerenic acid, valerenol, valerenone, valtrate, Isovaltrate.INTRODUCTION1-9The plant root occurs in short, irregular pieces about 5 cm long and 6-12 cm in diameters marked with transverse ridges and bearing numerous, prominent, circular tubercles, to some of which on the under surface, thick rootlets are attached. The upper surface bears the remains of leaves. The rhizome is hard and tough internally, it is greenish-brown in color. The odour is powerfully valerianaceous.DESCRIPTION12Botanical names: Valeriana wallichi ( Indian Valerian ) , Valeriana leschenauitic, Valeriana brunoniana, Valeriana officinalisFamily: Valerianaceae
Leaf Flavonoid Aglycone Patterns, Ethnobotany and Conservation of Schima wallichii  [PDF]
Kunjani Joshi
Ecoprint: An International Journal of Ecology , 2006, DOI: 10.3126/eco.v13i0.1622
Abstract: Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth (Chilaune) is widely distributed in the various habitats of Himalaya. Information?regarding chemical constituents of this species is very limited. During the chemotaxonomic study of some angiosperms, falconoid aglycone : flavonal quercetin was isolated from the leaves? of Schima Wallichii using standard procedures after seperation and purification by paper chromatography and TLC (thin layer chromatography) plates in several solvent system, but other falconoid were not detected. The ethno botanical study of Schima Wallichii was also carried out. Various parts and the products of this species are locally used for medicine, fuel and other domestic purposes. This indigenous knowledge can be integrated in the local plan that can help to the poverty alleviation and economic development of the villages. But at present, this plant is under serious threat due to habitat destruction and over-exploitation. A holistic approach is, therefore, essential for the sustainable conversation of this species. In this paper , strategies for conservation of the plant, its resources and habitatshave also been proposed.
Spirowallichiione: A Rearranged Multiflorane from Euphorbia wallichii Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae)  [PDF]
Muhammad Shaiq Ali,Shakeel Ahmed,Muhammad Saleem
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13020405
Abstract: Euphorbia wallichii of the family Euphorbiaceae yielded a new rearrangedpentacyclic triterpene of the multiflorane class which we have named spirowallichiione.The structure of this natural spirocompound was elucidated with the aid of modernspectroscopic techniques, including 2D-NMR.
Shallow Groundwater Quality of Mirpur City along the Upper Jhelum Canal  [cached]
Muhammad Ayyaz
Journal of Asian Scientific Research , 2013,
Abstract: The present study was conducted along the upper Jhelum Canal to evaluate the shallow ground water quality of Mirpur city aquifer by assessing the physical (color, odor and turbidity), chemical (pH, TDS, Cl, F, NO3, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb) and bacteriological (E.coli) parameters of fifteen shallow ground water samples. The samples were collected during November 2011 to March 2012, with 2_ month interval from five sites along the upper Jhelum Canal, which include, Bong village (50 feet, depth), Lehri Village (45 feet, depth), Chechian (70 feet Depth), Pothi village (80 feet depth) and District Courts Mirpur Building (150 feet depth). It was observed that color of shallow ground water samples varied from colorless to yellowish, odor varied from odorless to objectionable (OB) and turbidity varied from 2 to 4 NTU. The pH, TDS, Cl, F, NO3, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb levels ranged from 7.2 to 7.8, 250 to 1099 ppm, 21.2 to 173.2 ppm, 0.14 to 0.68 ppm, 0.4 to 28.7 ppm, (BDL) Below Detection Level to 0.08ppm, 0.06 to 0.18 ppm BDL to 0.07 ppm, BDL to 0.11 ppm respectively. E coli were present in all shallow ground water samples except at District Court Mirpur Building. The turbidity, TDS (except at Lehri and Bong) Cl, F, NO3 , Cu and Zn levels were found within the permissible limits of WHO, US- EPA, Pak- EPA for drinking water quality. The Pb, Ni, and E coli (Except at District Courts Mirpur Building ) levels exceeded the limits set for drinking water quality by WHO, US- EPA, Pak- EPA. The study also recommended various measures and practices for control and mitigation of shallow ground water contamination.
Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants of Lawat District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  [PDF]
Muhammad Ejaz-Ul-Islam Dar
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: An ethnobotanical exploration was carried out in Lawat ad its allied areas District Muzaffarabad. The checklist consisted of 52 species out of which 3 species are of 2 gymnospermic families while 49 species are of 35 angiospermic families. The plants were used medicinally and other purposes. The investigation indicated that the medicinal plants were used singly or used with mixtures by local inhabitants. The area under investigation due to unplanned exploitation had resulted in loss of medicinally important plant species. It was concluded that afforestation programme followed by proper protection is need of time.
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