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Surgical treatment of equinus foot deformity in children with cerebral palsy (review)  [PDF]
Krasnov A.S.
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2011,
Abstract: The review presents data about etiology and pathogenesis of cerebral palsy in children and its clinical manifestations. The effectiveness analysis of main surgical methods to correct equinus foot deformity in children with cerebral palsy has been conducted. The article comes to conclusion that at present surgical methods eliminating all pathologic deformity units are incompletely presented. In this connection high recurrence frequency after using traditional treatment methods is registered. Development of surgical intervention adequate to pathologic foot state in children with cerebral palsy is a perspective direction in treatment of given category of patients
Surgical treatment of equinus deformity in cerebral palsy by aponeurosis lengthening and Z-lengthening
A. Tirelli,S. Artiaco,F. Zanchini
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology , 2004, DOI: 10.1007/s10195-004-0039-4
Abstract: Surgical treatment of equines deformity in cerebral palsy can be carried out successfully by Achilles tendon lengthening and gastrocnemius aponeurosis lengthening. From 1993 to 1998, we performed 59 operations in 37 cerebral palsied patients with equinus deformity using Z-lengthening in 30 cases and a modified Baker’s procedure in 29 cases. The operations, associated with other hip and knee procedures in 65% of patients, were followed by postoperative use of casts and by a 12-month intensive kinesitherapeutic protocol. On preoperative evaluation, besides pattern deformity and the condition of proximal joints, we considered also age, clinical diagnosis, nature of tone and muscle strength. In most cases, the retrospective analysis showed the correction of deformity and a functional improvement. We observed 9 recurrences in six of the younger patients without relationship with topographic pattern of cerebral palsy. Overcorrection of equines deformity occurred in one diplegic child who had phasic hypertonia and low muscle strength. We believe that the evaluation of patients, the preoperative planning and the effective kinesitherapeutic program are necessary to reduce the risk of complications related to surgery.
Age as an Important Factor in Setting an Indication for Operative Treatment for Children with Cerebral Palsy
Azra Delalic
Acta Medica Saliniana , 2010, DOI: 10.5457/194
Abstract: Cerebral palsy is the result of brain damage in the early developmental period with clinically expressed various disorders, especially motoric ones. Child begins with a normally developed muscoskeletal system, but in time, due to spasticity and lack of activity contractures and deformities that can slow down its further functional recovery occur. Timely application of orthopedic-surgical treatment can have a positive effect on further course of rehabilitation, but also, for children who were previously operated and where applied certain operational techniques, occurring recurrences of the same deformity or secondary deformity are more frequent. By applying non-operative methods in decreasing spasticity one can delay the time of operative intervention or avoid the operation in children with cerebral palsy.
Split tendon transfers for the correction of spastic varus foot deformity: a case series study
Maria Vlachou, Dimitris Dimitriadis
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-3-28
Abstract: We retrospectively evaluated 48 consecutive ambulant patients (52 feet) with spastic paralysis due to cerebral palsy. The average age at the time of the operation was 12,4 yrs (9-18) and the mean follow-up 7,8 yrs (4-14). Eigtheen feet presented equinus hind foot deformity due to gastrocnemius and soleus shortening. According to the deformity, the feet were divided in two groups (Group I with forefoot and midfoot inversion and Group II with hindfoot varus). The deformities were flexible in all cases in both groups. Split anterior tibial tendon transfer (SPLATT) was performed in Group I (11 feet), while split posterior tibial tendon transfer (SPOTT) was performed in Group II (38 feet). In 3 feet both procedures were performed. Achilles tendon sliding lengthening (Hoke procedure) was done in 18 feet either preoperatively or concomitantly with the index procedure.The results in Group I, were rated according to Hoffer's clinical criteria as excellent in 8 feet and satisfactory in 3, while in Group II according to Kling's clinical criteria were rated as excellent in 20 feet, good in 14 and poor in 4. The feet with poor results presented residual varus deformity due to intraoperative technical errors.Overactivity of the anterior tibial tendon produces inversion most prominent in the forefoot and midfoot and similarly overactivity of the posterior tibial tendon produces hindfoot varus. The deformity can be clinically unidentifiable in some cases when Achilles shortening co-exists producing foot equinus. By identifying the muscle causing the deformity and performing the appropriate technique, very satisfying results were achieved in the majority of our cases. In three feet both muscles contributed to a combined deformity and simultaneous SPLATT and SPOTT were considered necessary. For complex foot deformities where the component of cavus co-exists, supplementary procedures are required along with the index operation to obtain the best result.Varus foot is often secondary to
Recurrence after correction of acquired ankle equinus deformity in children using Ilizarov technique
Khaled M. Emara,Mohamed Farouk Allam,Mohamed Nabil M. A. ElSayed,Khaled Abd E. L. Ghafar
Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11751-008-0045-9
Abstract: To describe our Ilizarov technique for the treatment of acquired equinus deformity in children and to determine if compliance with continuous use of an ankle foot orthosis (after removal of the fixator and until skeletal maturity) can influence the severity of recurrence. A cohort of 26 children with post-traumatic or post-burn contractures producing an equinus deformity was followed up for a minimum of 2 years after skeletal maturity. Cases with a bony deformity and/or nerve injury were excluded from this study. All patients were managed by a percutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening followed by application of an Ilizarov external fixator. Post-operative treatment was in the form of gradual correction at a rate of 0.5 mm per day. Correction started from the second postoperative day until an over-correction of 15 degrees dorsiflexion was achieved. Ankle range of movement was encouraged 4 weeks prior to removal of the external fixator. On removal of the fixator, a posterior splint was applied until substituted by an ankle foot orthoses (AFO). The AFO was used continuously during the first 2–3 months and at nighttime thereafter until skeletal maturity. Fifteen children were compliant with the use of the AFO until skeletal maturity and 11 non-compliant. We compared the recurrence and the size of deformity between the two groups. The rate of recurrence, degree of equinus at recurrence and number of episodes of external fixation surgery showed statistical significant differences (P < 0.01) between the groups. The Ilizarov technique for treatment of acquired equinus deformity secondary to soft tissue scarring is a safe and effective technique. The use of an AFO until skeletal maturity can decrease the risk and degree of recurrence.
Gait Analysis before and after Gastrocnemius Fascia Lengthening for Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity in a 10-Year-Old Diplegic Child
Manuela Galli,Veronica Cimolin,Giorgio Cesare Santambrogio,Marcello Crivellini,Giorgio Albertini
Case Reports in Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/417806
Abstract: Purpose. This case study quantified kinematic and kinetic effects of gastrocnemius lengthening on gait in a Cerebral Palsy child with equinus foot. Methods. A 10-year-old diplegic child with Cerebral Palsy was evaluated with Gait Analysis (GA) before and after gastrocnemius fascia lengthening, investigating the lower limb joints kinematics and kinetics. Results. Kinematics improved at the level of distal joints, which are directly associated to gastrocnemius, and also at the proximal joint (like hip); improvements were found in ankle kinetics, too. Conclusions. This case study highlighted that GA was effective not only to quantify the results of the treatment but also to help preoperative decision making in dealing with CP child.
Evaluation of deformity and hand function in cerebral palsy patients
Karlen Law, Ellen Y Lee, Boris Fung, Lam Yan, Paata Gudushauri, Kwan Wang, Josephine Ip, Shew Chow
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1749-799x-3-52
Abstract: Thirty patients satisfying our inclusion criteria underwent physical, sensory, and functional assessment using a standard protocol. Physical assessment included documentation of the degree of spasticity, deformity and muscle control. Sensation was tested using static two-point discrimination test and stereognosis test. Melbourne Assessment of the Unilateral Upper Limb Function Test (MAULF), Functional Hand Grip Test (FHGT), and Functional Independence Measure for children (WeeFIM) were used to evaluate hand function. Deformity, spasticity, motor control, and sensation were analyzed for correlation with hand function using Pearson Correlation analysis. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Functional deficits of the hand increased with increasing severity of deformity and spasticity. Tetraplegics were most affected by spasticity, deformity, poor motor control, sensory and functional deficits. Triplegics, followed by diplegics had more functional upper limbs in terms of the MAULF and FHGT scores. Unilaterally affected patients (triplegics and hemiplegics) scored better in performance of activities of daily living. The MAULF and FHGT had a stronger correlation to deformity, spasticity and motor control compared to the WeeFIM.The degree of deformity, spasticity, sensory deficit, and motor control affected the hand function of a cerebral palsy patient significantly. The MAULF and FHGT more accurately represents hand function deficit in cerebral palsy patients.Cerebral palsy patients with upper limb involvement have difficulty in performing coordinated movements against spasticity [1]. Performances of hand tasks in these patients require gross and fine hand motion coordinated with visual perception and postural control to enable them to reach, grasp, release and manipulate objects.Recent published works on cerebral palsy were focused on the management of upper extremity deformity and spasticity [2-6]. Though various assessment tools had been
Development and treatment of spinal deformity in patients with cerebral palsy  [cached]
Tsirikos Athanasios
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2010,
Abstract: Scoliosis is a common deformity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. This is usually associated with pelvic obliquity due to extension of the curve to the sacrum. Sagittal plane deformity is less common and often develops along with scoliosis. Spinal deformity in patients with severe neurological handicaps can affect their ability to sit and cause significant back pain or pain due to rib impingement against the elevated side of the pelvis on the concavity of the curvature. Surgical correction followed by spinal arthrodesis is indicated in patients with progressive deformities which interfere with their level of function and quality of life. Spinal deformity correction is a major task in children with multiple medical co-morbidities and can be associated with a high risk of complications including death. A well-coordinated multidisciplinary approach is required in the assessment and treatment of this group of patients with the aim to minimize the complication rate and secure a satisfactory surgical outcome. Good knowledge of the surgical and instrumentation techniques, as well as the principles of management is needed to achieve optimum correction of the deformity and balancing of the spine and pelvis. Spinal fusion has a well-documented positive impact even in children with quadriplegia or total body involvement and is the only surgical procedure which has such a high satisfaction rate among parents and caregivers.
Quantitative Effects of Repeated Muscle Vibrations on Gait Pattern in a 5-Year-Old Child with Cerebral Palsy
Filippo Camerota,Manuela Galli,Claudia Celletti,Sara Vimercati,Veronica Cimolin,Nunzio Tenore,Guido M. Filippi,Giorgio Albertini
Case Reports in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/359126
Abstract: Objective. To investigate quantitatively and objectively the effects of repeated muscle vibration (rMV) of triceps surae on the gait pattern in a 5-year-old patient with Cerebral Palsy with equinus foot deformity due to calf spasticity. Methods. The patient was assessed before and one month after the rMV treatment using Gait Analysis. Results. rMV had positive effects on the patient's gait pattern, as for spatio-temporal parameters (the stance duration and the step length increased their values after the treatment) and kinematics. The pelvic tilt reduced its anteversion and the hip reduced the high flexion evidenced at baseline; the knee and the ankle gained a more physiological pattern bilaterally. The Gillette Gait Index showed a significant reduction of its value bilaterally, representing a global improvement of the child's gait pattern. Conclusions. The rMV technique seems to be an effective option for the gait pattern improvement in CP, which can be used also in very young patient. Significant improvements were displayed in terms of kinematics at all lower limb joints, not only at the joint directly involved by the treatment (i.e., ankle and knee joints) but also at proximal joints (i.e., pelvis and hip joint).
Medial rotation deformity of the hip in cerebral palsy: Surgical treatment by derotation femoral osteotomy  [PDF]
?obelji? Goran,?or?i? I.,Bajin Zoran,Vuka?inovi? Zoran
Acta Chirurgica Iugoslavica , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/aci0403029c
Abstract: Medial rotation deformity of the hip is a problem to patients handicapped by cerebral palsy who are able to walk, because the knees point inward during gait ("kissing patellae") and cause falls and frequent injuries, knee and ankle distorsions. The deformity is a result of an increased femoral neck anteversion. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of an original method of precise determination of the degree of rotation for derotation femoral osteotomy. Indications for this operation were set in pa- tients with spastic form of cerebral palsy over 10 years of age, able to walk, who had difficulties in gait and whose lateral rotation was less than 15 along with the medial rotation of over 70 in the hip on the side of the deformity. Twenty hips in 17 patients able to walk were operated on. The average age was 21 (11 - 42), the average follow-up was 11 years (3-17). The assessment of the results was based on the comparison of the rotational abilities of the hip and individual problems before and after the operation. Excellent result was achieved in 12 (70.6%) patients i.e. 15 (75%) hips; good result was achieved in 3 (17.6%) patients i.e. 3 (15%) hips; unsuccessful result in 2 (11.8%) patients i.e. 2 (10%) hips. Complications aroused in 6 patients i.e. 6 (30%) hips. The conclusion is that derotation osteotomy of the femur is a successful procedure for the treatment of the medial rotation deformity of the hip in patients with the spastic form of cerebral palsy who are able to walk. The above mentioned indications must be respected and the original method of determining the degree of derotation applied. Due to a relatively high percentage of complications, e.g. osteitis, the operation is suggested to patients aged 10 to 15 when possible complications can more easily be cured.
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