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Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft
Taylor, G. Bernard;Moore, Robert D.;Miklos, John R.;Mattox, T. Fleming;
International braz j urol , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382008000100012
Abstract: objective: to compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. materials and methods: this was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage ii or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (pelvicoltm cr bard covington, ga usa). the incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence) was compared. a secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method tm 0133 and astm bending and resistance protocols. results: seventeen percent of patients (21/127) who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71) of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078). four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively). there was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20). conclusion: perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.
Acellular dermal graft for repair of abdominal wall defects in rabbits  [cached]
A.K. Gangwar,A.K. Sharma,Naveen Kumar,N. Kumar
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v77i2.349
Abstract: Sixteen clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were divided into 2 equal groups (I and II) of 8 animals each. Under thiopental sodium (2.5 %) anaesthesia a 2 — 3 cm full-thickness abdominal wall defect in the mid-ventral abdominal wall was created and repaired with an acellular dermal graft (ADG) in all the animals of group I (test group). In animals of group II (control group) a full-thickness linear midline abdominal muscular wall incision was made and repaired with a continuous suture pattern using 2-0 nylon.
Radiographic and histological study of perennial bone defect repair in rat calvaria after treatment with blocks of porous bovine organic graft material
Marins, Lucele Vieira;Cestari, Tania Mary;Sottovia, André Dotto;Granjeiro, José Mauro;Taga, Rumio;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572004000100012
Abstract: over the last few years, various bone graft materials of bovine origin to be used in oromaxillofacial surgeries have entered the market. in the present study, we determined the capacity of a block organic bone graft material (gen-ox, baumer sa, brazil) prepared from bovine cancellous bone to promote the repair of critical size bone injuries in rat calvaria. a transosseous defect measuring approximately 8mm in diameter was performed with a surgical trephine in the parietal bone of 25 rats. in 15 animals, the defects were filled with a block of graft material measuring 8mm in diameter and soaked in the animal's own blood, and in the other 10 animals the defects were only filled with blood clots. the calvariae of rats receiving the material were collected 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery, and those of animals receiving the blood clots were collected immediately and 6 months after surgery. during surgery, the graft material was found to be of easy handling and to adapt perfectly to the receptor bed after soaking in blood. the results showed that, in most animals treated, the material was slowly resorbed and served as a space filling and maintenance material, favoring angiogenesis, cell migration and adhesion, and bone neoformation from the borders of the lesion. however, a foreign body-type granulomatous reaction, with the presence of numerous giant cells preventing local bone neoformation, was observed in two animals of the 1-month subgroup and in one animal of the 3-month subgroup. these cases were interpreted as resulting from the absence of demineralization and the lack of removal of potential antigen factors during production of the biomaterial. we conclude that, with improvement in the quality control of the material production, block organic bone matrix will become a good alternative for bone defect repair in the oromaxillofacial region due to its high osteoconductive capacity.
Bone Regeneration Enhanced by Antigen-Extracted Xenogeneic Cancellous Bone Graft with rhBMP-2 in Rabbits Mandibular Defect Repair  [PDF]
Renfa Lai, Zejian Li, Ye Zhang, Zhiying Zhou
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B022

The effects of large piece xenogeneic bone which was separated from healthy pigs as a scaffold on repair of mandibular defect was investigated and the applicability of antigen-extracted xenogeneic cancellous bone (AXCB) soaked with rhBMP-2 in bone defect repair was assessed. Mandibular defects were created in 48 New Zealand Rabbits, and then randomly divided into 4 groups, which was grafted in the mandibular defects with AXCB, AXCB soaked with rhBMP-2, autograft bone, or blank. Equal number of animals from each group was classified into three time points (4, 8, and 12 weeks) after operation for gross pathological observation, hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining, radiographic examination, and bone density measurement. H & E staining revealed that the area percentage of bone regeneration in the group of AXCB/rhBMP-2 graft was 27.72 ± 4.68, 53.90 ± 21.92, and 77.35 ± 9.83 when at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, which was better than that of auto bone graft, prompting that the group of AXCB/rhBMP-2 graft had commendable osteogenic effect. And comparing with the AXCB without rhBMP-2, of which the area percentage of bone regeneration was only 14.03 ± 5.02, 28.49 ± 11.35, and 53.90 ± 21.92, the osteogenic effect of AXCB/rhBMP-2 graft was demonstrated to be much better. In the group of AXCB/rhBMP-2 graft, the area percentage of bone regeneration increased, and the implanted materials were gradually degraded and replaced by autogenous bone regeneration over time. We concluded that antigen-extracted xenogeneic cancellous bone (AXCB) graft soaked with rhBMP-2 had shown excellent osteogenic effect in repair of bone defects, with good biocompability.

Repair of Segmental Bone Defect Using Totally Vitalized Tissue Engineered Bone Graft by a Combined Perfusion Seeding and Culture System  [PDF]
Lin Wang, Xiang-Yu Ma, Yang Zhang, Ya-Fei Feng, Xiang Li, Yun-Yu Hu, Zhen Wang, Zhen-Sheng Ma, Wei Lei
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094276
Abstract: Background The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG) is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D) scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the “Totally Vitalized TEBG” (TV-TEBG) which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. Methods In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP) technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC) method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC) method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC) method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. Results Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and maxillofacial fields.
The Use of Dermal Autograft for Fascial Repair of TRAM Flap Donor Sites
Ali Arab Kheradmand,Neda Ranjbar Novin,Ramesh Omranipour
Acta Medica Iranica , 2010,
Abstract: Closure of fascia after transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap has usually been performed with direct closure or synthetic material. The dermal autograft was removed from zone IV of flap was an alternative to reinforce fascial closure. The dermal autograft was used in 34 patients after TRAM harvest for breast, head and neck reconstruction and Prolene mesh was used in 42 other patients for closure of fascial defect. All patients were followed by physical examinations. Average follow-up in the dermal autograft group was 27.3 versus 20.7 months in the second group. In the dermal autograft group, one patient complained of bulging of the anterior abdominal wall; one developed a wound infection. In the second group, one patients experienced true hernia. Dermal autografts are a useful alternative to mesh repair of fascial defects after TRAM flap harvest.
Application of meshy fascia encapsulating cancellous bone graft in repair of bone defect after limb fractures

- , 2018, DOI: 10.7507/1002-1892.201804071
Abstract: 目的 探讨筛网状筋膜包裹松质骨植骨治疗四肢骨折后骨缺损的效果。 方法 回顾分析 2011 年 6 月–2016 年 12 月,采用筛网状筋膜包裹松质骨植骨治疗的 21 例外伤性四肢骨折后骨缺损患者临床资料。男 13 例,女 8 例;年龄 14~64 岁,平均 40.1 岁。骨缺损部位:肱骨 3 例,桡骨 5 例,尺骨 4 例,股骨 2 例,胫骨 7 例。原发骨折 AO 分型:A 型 2 例,B 型 7 例,C 型 12 例。开放性骨折 14 例,闭合性骨折骨不连伴骨缺损 7 例。受伤至骨缺损修复时间为 5~165 d,平均 21.3 d。扩创后骨缺损长度 2.5~6.5 cm,平均 4.5 cm。 结果 手术时间 86~130 min,平均 101 min;术中出血量 185~647 mL,平均 316 mL。术后发生切口浅表感染 1 例,延期愈合 2 例;无神经血管损伤发生。21 例均获随访,随访时间 12~36 个月,平均 19 个月。骨折临床愈合时间为 2.5~7.0 个月,平均 5.4 个月,无延迟愈合和骨不连发生,愈合率为 100%。无深部感染或感染复发,无内固定物断裂和再骨折发生。末次随访时,骨缺损愈合分级均为优;患肢功能恢复分级为优 12 例、良 7 例、可 2 例,优良率 90.5%。 结论 筛网状筋膜包裹松质骨植骨治疗四肢骨折后骨缺损具有筋膜取材及手术操作简便、无不良反应、费用低、效果满意等优点。
Objective To investigate the effectiveness of meshy fascia encapsulating cancellous bone graft in repair of bone defect after limb fractures. Methods A clinical data of 21 cases of traumatic bone defect after limb fractures, who were treated with meshy fascia encapsulating cancellous bone graft between June 2011 and December 2016, was retrospectively analyzed. There were 13 males and 8 females, aged 14-64 years with an average of 40.1 years. The location of bone defect included humerus in 3 cases, radius in 5 cases, ulna in 4 cases, femur in 2 cases, and tibia in 7 cases. AO classification of primary fractures were type A in 2 cases, type B in 7 cases, and type C in 12 cases. There were 14 cases of open fracture, and 7 cases of closed fracture associated with bone defect. The time from injury to bone defect repair was 5-165 days (mean, 21.3 days). The length of bone defect was 2.5-6.5 cm with an average of 4.5 cm. Results The operation time was 86-130 minutes (mean, 101 minutes). The intraoperative blood loss was 185-647 mL (mean, 316 mL). One case of superficial infection and 2 cases of delayed healing of incision occurred after operation, and no neurovascular injury occurred. All the 21 patients were followed up 12-36 months (mean, 19 months). The clinical healing time was 2.5-7.0 months (mean, 5.4 months); no delayed healing and nonunion occurred, the bony healing rate was 100%. There was no deep infection, infection recurrence, broken of internal fixator, or refracture. At last follow-up, the grading of bony healing were all rated as excellent, and the functional recovery of the affected limb was excellent in 12 cases, good in 7 cases, and fair in 2 cases with an excellent and good rate of 90.5%. Conclusion Meshy fascia encapsulating cancellous bone graft in repair of bone defect after limb fracture is characterized by easy to harvest fascia, simplicity of operation, no adverse reaction, lower cost, and satisfactory results.
Repair of Compact Bone Critical Sized Defect with Natural Originated Scaffold in Rabbit
Kamran Kaveh,Rashid Ibrahim,Mohd Zuki Abu Bakar,Tengku Azmi Ibrahim
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The main aim of the present study was to investigate, the effect of combination of bone marrow as the primary origin of osteoblast and at the same time as the seed cell and corticocancellous bone graft as the natural scaffold in the repair of critical sized defect compact bone in rabbit. For the test group, bone marrow has been aspirated and seeded into the corticocancellous bone graft, which was used to repair critical size bone defect made in mid shaft femoral bone of the same rabbit. Corticocancellous bone graft itself was utilized as the control group. Radiographs were taken to observe the healing during the 8 weeks of study period. Rabbits were euthanized after 8 weeks. The femoral bone was removed for gross observation, histopathological and scanning electron microscope assessment and evaluation. New bone formation and osteogenesis was observed at the margins and centre of the test group. The bone formation pattern included osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteocunduction. In the implant of only corticocancellous autograft bone, the major new bone formation was at the margins of the defect and osteogenesis was not observed at the centre of the defect. The combination of bone marrow and corticocancellous bone autograft had better results than corticocancellous bone graft alone in osteogenesis. Bone formation capability and critical sized defect repair was faster in the test defect.
Bone Marrow Seeded Bone Graft Versus Bone Graft; Compact Bone Critical Sized Defect Healing Pattern in Rabbit
Kamran Kaveh,Rashid Ibrahim,Tengku Azmi Ibrahim,Mohd Zuki Abu Bakar
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.1588.1596
Abstract: The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of combination of bone marrow as the primary origin of osteoblast and at the same time as the seed cell and corticocancellous bone graft as the natural scaffold in repair of compact bone full thickness segmental critical sized defect in rabbits. Twelve rabbits had been divided into two groups; In Group one, fresh autogenous bone marrow aspirate has been seeded into the scaffold of autogenous corticocancellous bone graft which was utilized to repair critical size compact bone defect in mid shaft of radius. Corticocancellous bone graft alone was used as the Group 2 or control group. Up to 8 weeks, radiographs were taken to evaluate the level of osteogenicity in both groups. Rabbits were euthanized on week eight postoperative and the implants were harvested for gross, histological and scanning electron microscope observations. New bone formation and osteogenesis was observed at the margins and centre of the Group 1. Combination of mature and immature trabecullae covered the defect and bone formation pattern included osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteocunduction. In the implant of corticocancellous bone graft alone or group 2, the major new bone formation was at the margins of the defect and osteogenesis was not observed at the centre of the defect and the major bone formation pattern was creeping substitution. As the conclusion, combination of bone marrow and corticocancellous bone graft had better results than corticocancellous bone graft alone in osteogenesis potential. Bone formation capability and critical sized defect repair was faster and more efficient and successful in Group 2 defect.
Biocompatibility of acellular dermal matrix graft evaluated in culture of murine macrophages
Vendramini, Ana Paula;Melo, Rafaela Fernanda;Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici;Carlos, Iracilda Zepone;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572006000200001
Abstract: the acellular dermal matrix allograft has been used as an alternative to autogenous palatal mucosal graft. the aim of this study was the evaluation of the biocompatibility of an acellular dermal matrix (alloderm?) in culture of macrophages. for hydrogen peroxidase determination we used the method of pick & kesari, and the griess method for nitric oxide determination,. statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p < 0,05) in the release of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by the macrophages exposed to acellular dermal matrix and the negative control. the results suggest that acellular dermal matrix did not activate the cell inflammatory response.
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