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Hepatotoxicity studies of sub-chronic administration of aqueous stem bark of khaya senegalensis in albino rats
M Abubakar, A Lawal, M Usman
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The effect of oral daily administration for twenty eight (28) days of stem bark aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis on alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotranferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and on the level of serum total bilirubin and total protein were investigated using Albino rats in three dose levels (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg body weight) plus a group serving as control. The result obtained indicated significant (p<0.05) increase in ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin level in comparison with control. However, significant (p<0.05) decrease was observed in the level of total protein in comparison to control. The result indicated that the aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis may possess toxic potential, at the dose levels studied.
Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the leaf and bark of Khaya senegalensis
MD Makut, SD Gyar, GRI Pennap, P Anthony
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Khaya senegalensis, a member of the family Meliaceae, is a plant commonly used by the local people of Nasarawa State of Nigeria for the treatment of dysentery, mucous diarrhoea and wound infections. The leaves and the bark of the plant were screened for their phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity. Ethanol was used for the extraction of the active compounds. The test organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Steptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Results of the phytochemical screening showed that saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, steriods, terpenoids and flavonoids were the active compounds present in the leaves and bark of the plant. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that S. aureus, S. feacalis and C. albicans were susceptible to both the leaf and bark extracts, while E. coli was not. The extracts were also found to be bactericidal to S. aureus and S. feacalis, and fungicidal to C. albicans. This study demonstrates the potentials of K. senegalensis as a source of antimicrobials that could be harness for use in the Health Care Delivery process.
Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats  [PDF]
A. Onu,Y. Saidu,M. J. Ladan,L. S. Bilbis,A. A. Aliero,S. M. Sahabi
Journal of Toxicology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/803835
Abstract: The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000?mg/kg?bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant ( ) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly ( ) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. 1. Introduction The therapeutic value of medicinal plants has long been exploited for the management of various disease conditions in traditional practice. This practice has gained appreciable acceptance in health care delivery in developing and developed nations with the notion that they are relatively harmless, but research is beginning to show that some of them may be toxic. Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (Family: Meliaceae) is a tree that is widely distributed in the sub-Saharan savannah from Senegal to Sudan and Uganda. It is a round evergreen crown of dark shiny foliage, pinnate leaves, and characteristic round capsules that grows up to 40?m high [1]. The therapeutic value of Khaya senegalensis has been recognized in different systems of traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions. The decoction of the stem bark extract is commonly used for treating jaundice, dermatoses, malaria, fever, mucous diarrhea, and venereal diseases as well as for hookworm infection and a taeniacide remedy [2, 3]. Khaya senegalensis extracts have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects [4] as well as anti-bacterial [5],
In vitro assessment of antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Khaya senegalensis
M Sale, N De, JH Doughari, MS Pukuma
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of Khaya senegalensis were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimen. The acetone extracts showed higher antibacterial activity compared to the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of acetone extracts was in the range of 6.5 to 12.5 mg/ml while the minimum bactericidal concentration ranges between 6.5 to 25.0 mg/ml. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was not significantly affected by heating at 100o C for 1 h but the activity was lost at pH 8.0.
Haemato-biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Khaya senegalensis Stem Bark on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats
S.M.A. El Badwi,A.O. Bakhiet,E.H. Abdel Gadir
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The haemato-biochemical effects of aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis were tested against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. All rats were treated orally for 8 days. Rats in group 1 served as control group and received distilled water at 2 mL kg-1 /day, group 2 received distilled water at 2 mL kg-1 and received gentamicin 100 mg kg-1 intramuscularly for the last 5 days, groups 3 and 4 received the aqueous extract of K. senegalensis stem bark orally at 500 and 250 mg kg-1, respectively and on the last 5 days they received gentamicin at 100 mg kg-1 intramuscularly. Groups 5 and 6 received the aqueous extract of K. senegalensis alone at 500 and 250 mg kg-1, respectively. Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, Haemoglobin (Hb), Haematocrit (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were determined. Measurement of urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were investigated. The kidney tissues were microscopically examined. Intramuscular administration of gentamicin to rats resulted in significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin with massive tubular necrosis and degeneration of renal cortical tubules. Oral administration of Khaya senegalensis at 250 and 500 mg kg-1 to rats significantly ameliorated the increase in serum urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin and similarly ameliorate the damage in the kidney tubules. This study suggested nephroprotective effect of Khaya senegalensis aqueous extract which may be due to antioxidant properties of the extract together with the phytochemical constituents of K. senegalensis.
In vivo activity of stem bark aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis against Trypanosoma brucei
MA Ibrahim, GC Njoku, AB Sallau
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae) stem bark was used to treat trypanosomiasis in rats in vivo and changes in levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were studied. The treatment involved oral infusion of the crude extract at 60 mg/kg body weight (b.w) simultaneously with Trypanosoma brucei infection, and 60 and 100 mg/kg b.w infusion of the extract 3 days post infection (p.i). In all the rats treated with the extract, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in parasitemia was recorded on day 6 p.i and there was also significant (P < 0.05) increase in the levels of AST and ALT when compared with rats that were neither infected nor given the infusion of the extract. It was concluded that orally infused K. senegalensis extract possessed in vivo activity against T. brucei but could not prevent the disease-induced liver damage.
Antidiarrheal Evaluation of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae) in Albino Rats
Ishaku L. Elisha, Micah S. Makoshi, Sunday Makama*, Christiana J. Dawurung, Nkechi V. Offiah§, Jurbe G. Gotep, Olusola O. Oladipo and David Shamaki
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2013,
Abstract: The stem bark of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae) is used traditionally in the treatment of malaria, intestinal worms, diarrhea, dysentery and venereal diseases. Despite the claim as an effective antidiarrheal remedy in both humans and animals, there is scarcity of documented scientific information of specific in vivo antidiarrheal test using extracts of this plant. The number of wet feces and the distance travelled by activated charcoal meal in rats orally given 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of K. senegalensis were evaluated in the castor oil induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal motility studies. The phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity test of the extracts were also tested using standard methods. Both extracts dose-dependently (P<0.05) reduced diarrhea induced by castor oil in rats, but did not significantly decrease (P>0.05) distance travelled by charcoal in the gastrointestinal motility test. The extracts were apparently safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight per os. Cardiac glycosides and flavonoids were present in both extracts, while tannins were present only in the ethanolic extract. The aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of K. senegalensis inhibits diarrhea, at least in part, by a mechanism other than inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. The antidiarrheal activity of K. senegalensis may be attributed to the flavonoid and tannin constituents present in the extracts. The ability of K. senegalensis to significantly protect against castor oil induced diarrhea justifies its use in traditional management of human and animal diarrhea.
Hyperglycemic effect and hypertotoxicity studies of stem bark of Khaya senegalensis and leaf extract of Camellia sinesis
A Gadanya, B Umar, M Atiku
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Hepatotoxic properties of the aqueous leaves of highland tea (Camellia sinesis) and aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis were studied in rats. This was done by assaying the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glucose and bilirubin in rats administered with 6.5mg/Kg (group A), 4.35mg/Kg (group B) and 3.0mg/Kg (group C) of the extract for seven (7) days respectively. The serum AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, bilirubin (total) and bilirubin (direct) in the control rats (group D) were found to be 7.62 + 1.78U/L, 11.2 + 0.38U/L , 144.9 + 23.90U/L , 4.39 + 0.08mmol/l, 0.14 + 0.03mg/dl and 0.18 + 0.04mg/dl respectively. The serum AST, ALT, glucose, bilirubin (total) and bilirubin (direct) in group A rats showed significant increase (P<0.05) compared to the levels in control rats. Serum AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, bilirubin (total and direct) showed significant increase (P<0.05) in groups B and C rats but were lower than those of group A. The results indicate that the extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark and highland (green) tea leaves caused increased activity of the liver enzymes studied which is an important biochemical symptoms of cytolysis and hepatotoxicity.In addition, administration of the extract led to increase in serum glucose in rats, indicating hyperglycemic effect.
Potency of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis against liver diseases in rats
MS Sule, RB Abdulraheem, BM Aminu
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: In order to assess the potency of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis (KS) against liver diseases, serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assayed in rats treated with two (2) different doses of the extract after the induction of liver damage in the rats using carbon tetrachloride, CCl4. The rats treated with a daily dose of 80mg/kg for six (6) days had serum liver enzymes activities not significantly different from those in control rats; whereas those treated with a daily dose of 200mg/kg for nine (9) days had serum liver enzymes activities significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in control rats. Thus, a dose of 80mg/kg aqueous bark extract of KS for 6 days could be potent against liver disease, but a higher dose of 200mg/kg for 9 days could induce liver toxicity.
Clonal Propagation of Khaya senegalensis: The Effects of Stem Length, Leaf Area, Auxins, Smoke Solution, and Stockplant Age  [PDF]
Catherine Ky-Dembele,Mulualem Tigabu,Jules Bayala,Patrice Savadogo,Issaka Joseph Boussim,Per Christer Odén
International Journal of Forestry Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/281269
Abstract: Khaya senegalensis is a multipurpose African timber species. The development of clonal propagation could improve plantation establishment, which is currently impeded by mahogany shoot borer. To examine its potential for clonal propagation, the effects of cutting length, leaf area, stockplant maturation, auxin, and smoke solution treatments were investigated. Leafy cuttings rooted well (up to 80%) compared to leafless cuttings (0%). Cuttings taken from seedlings rooted well (at least 95%), but cuttings obtained from older trees rooted poorly (5% maximum). The rooting ability of cuttings collected from older trees was improved (16% maximum) by pollarding. Auxin application enhanced root length and the number of roots while smoke solution did not improve cuttings' rooting ability. These results indicate that juvenile K. senegalensis is amenable to clonal propagation, but further work is required to improve the rooting of cuttings from mature trees. 1. Introduction Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae), commonly known as Senegal mahogany, is an evergreen tree that typically grows to a height of 15–20?m (up to 35?m on fertile soils) and has a diameter at breast height of 1.5?m, with a clean bole of 8–16?m. Its natural distribution extends from Mauritania and Senegal east to northern Uganda, within the rainfall range 650–1300?mm (and even up to 1800?mm) [1]. In Burkina Faso, the northern limit of the natural distribution of K. senegalensis is 13°55′?N within the South-Sahelian zone. It occurs in various habitat types, such as on river banks, and in fields, fallows, and protected woodlands, and its population density increases from North to South, reaching up to 17 trees per hectare [2]. K. senegalensis is a multipurpose tree with a variety of economic and environmental values [1]. It is one of the major timber species in West Africa owing to its hard and fungus- and termite-resistant red wood; it is highly valued for carpentry, joinery, furniture, ship building, and as a decorative veneer. The bark is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria, diarrhoea, dysentery, anaemia, and so forth. Recently, the stem bark has been found to contain chemicals (limonoids) that exhibit antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines [3]. It is also a good source of fodder for cattle, because of its high dry matter but relatively low crude protein content [4], it is also a source of edible and cosmetic oils [1]. In West Africa, the species has become an important urban amenity tree, commonly planted as a roadside or ornamental shade tree. It is also
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