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In vitro Determination of Fusarium spp. Infection on Watermelon Seeds and their Localization  [PDF]
N. Boughalleb,M. El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, we used direct incubation of watermelon dissected seeds on Komada`s selective medium for Fusarium spp. and incubation of entire seed on the same medium or on 2% agar medium. Identification of fungi was based on morphological criteria and also according to Koch`s postulate. Isolates from dissected seed were identified as F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae. These fungi were found to be externally and internally seed borne in watermelon. This is the first report of localization of Fusarium spp. transmitted by watermelon seeds in Tunisia.
Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi
Raquel González-Fernández,Elena Prats,Jesús V. Jorrín-Novo
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/932527
Abstract: Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular) and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.
Conditionally pathogenic fungi in recreational waters  [PDF]
Matavulj Milan N.,Vuliki? Neboj?a,Gojkovi? Igor,Karaman Maja A.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0519149m
Abstract: The improvement of health and life conditions depends on various environmental factors. The exposition to organic and inorganic pollutants, as well as to the broad spectar of microorganisms is one of these factors. Medically important fungi have been increasing their number recently especially in urban and in recreational zones. Some of them, first of all molds and yeasts, are involved by different means in causing more or less serious diseases of man and animals. Frequency of alergic symptoms and human mycotic lesions increased significantly during last decades. Such phenomena have provoked more scientific attention recently. According to the available literature data, micro-fungi, causing mycoses and "environmental" fungi too could be considered as an important factor of health risk, being neglected and underestimated so far, especially in analyses of safe use of recreational waters and surrounding areas, among them swimming pools, river and sea beaches. On the basis of such statement there arises conclusion that water and ground of recreational zones could serve as vectors in transmission pathways of potentially or conditionally pathogenic fungi, being dangerous especially for immunocompromised individuals, which suggests inclusion of qualitative and quantitative composition of fungal community into a continual monitoring of hygienic status of recreational zones.
Identification of New Sphingomyelinases D in Pathogenic Fungi and Other Pathogenic Organisms  [PDF]
Camila Dias-Lopes, Izabella A. P. Neshich, Goran Neshich, José Miguel Ortega, Claude Granier, Carlos Chávez-Olortegui, Franck Molina, Liza Felicori
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079240
Abstract: Sphingomyelinases D (SMases D) or dermonecrotic toxins are well characterized in Loxosceles spider venoms and have been described in some strains of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Corynebacterium sp. After spider bites, the SMase D molecules cause skin necrosis and occasional severe systemic manifestations, such as acute renal failure. In this paper, we identified new SMase D amino acid sequences from various organisms belonging to 24 distinct genera, of which, 19 are new. These SMases D share a conserved active site and a C-terminal motif. We suggest that the C-terminal tail is responsible for stabilizing the entire internal structure of the SMase D Tim barrel and that it can be considered an SMase D hallmark in combination with the amino acid residues from the active site. Most of these enzyme sequences were discovered from fungi and the SMase D activity was experimentally confirmed in the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Because most of these novel SMases D are from organisms that are endowed with pathogenic properties similar to those evoked by these enzymes alone, they might be associated with their pathogenic mechanisms.
GROWTH INHIBITION OF PATHOGENIC ROOT FUNGI BY EXTRACTS OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI OR Picea glehnii INOCULATED WITH ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI  [cached]
MARIA CATARINA MEGUMI KASUYA,SATOSHI TAHARA,TSUNEO IGARASHI
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 1996,
Abstract: This work sought to verify the presence of compounds with antimicrobial properties in extracts of ectomycorrhizal fungi or in Picea glehnii inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Extracts from Pisolithus tinctorius, Scleroderma flavidum, Amanita pantherina and Paxillus sp., grown in liquid culture media, and from P. glehnii seedlings inoculated or not with the above ectomycorrhizal fungi and cultivated in in vitro condition, were processed to obtain two fractions, water and ethyl acetate solubles. These fractions were tested for the presence of inhibitory constituents against Fusarium roseum, Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Direct bioautography technique on TLC or paper disc technique was used, depending on the extract and pathogenic fungi tested. The results showed the production on inhibitory components, not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi, but also by P. glehnii inoculated or not with ectomycorrhizal fungi. The sensitivity varied considerably according to the type of fungus or extract.
ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE ISOLATE ON SOIL BORNE PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI  [cached]
Reena A* Anitha M, Aysha OS, Valli S, Nirmala P, Vinothkumar P
International Journal of Bioassays , 2013,
Abstract: The in vitro studies on the antagonism of Trichoderma viride on pathogenic fungi, viz., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Rhizopus sp., Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were carried out to test the ability of the antagonist fungi in inhibiting the growth of the experimental plant pathogens. The results of the activity assay of crude extracts of the antagonistic fungi Trichoderma viride at different concentrations on the radial mycelial growth and percent radial mycelial growth inhibition of different pathogenic fungi significantly varied among crude extract concentrations of the antagonist fungi and in between the plant pathogens. Further evaluation of Trichoderma bio-control potential in field condition was recommended.
Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response in Idiopathic Sudden Deafness: Pathogenic Implications  [PDF]
Miguel A. López-González,Antonio Abrante,Carmen López-Lorente,Antonio Gómez,Emilio Domínguez,Francisco Esteban
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/216592
Abstract: The acute-phase inflammatory response in the peripheral bloodstream can be an expression of transient cerebral ischaemia in idiopathic sudden deafness. For this, a neurological and otorhinolaryngological examination of each patient, performing tests on audiometry, and tympanometry, haemogram, and cranial magnetic resonance were performed. The acute-phase inflammatory response manifests as an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that is detected 48–72 hours after the appearance of sudden deafness. This study shows that there is an acute-phase response in the peripheral bloodstream with an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as an expression of an inflammatory process that can be caused by transient cerebral ischaemia in sudden deafness. In addition, the increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio can rule out a viral origin of sudden deafness, since a viral infection lowers the neutrophil count and increases the lymphocyte count, thus reducing the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. These findings aid in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms involved in sudden deafness and offer better treatment to the patient.
Can Insects Develop Resistance to Insect Pathogenic Fungi?  [PDF]
Ivan M. Dubovskiy, Miranda M. A. Whitten, Olga N. Yaroslavtseva, Carolyn Greig, Vadim Y. Kryukov, Ekaterina V. Grizanova, Krishnendu Mukherjee, Andreas Vilcinskas, Viktor V. Glupov, Tariq M. Butt
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060248
Abstract: Microevolutionary adaptations and mechanisms of fungal pathogen resistance were explored in a melanic population of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Under constant selective pressure from the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, 25th generation larvae exhibited significantly enhanced resistance, which was specific to this pathogen and not to another insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. Defense and stress management strategies of selected (resistant) and non-selected (susceptible) insect lines were compared to uncover mechanisms underpinning resistance, and the possible cost of those survival strategies. We hypothesize that the insects developed a transgenerationally primed resistance to the fungus B. bassiana, a costly trait that was achieved not by compromising life-history traits but rather by prioritizing and re-allocating pathogen-species-specific augmentations to integumental front-line defenses that are most likely to be encountered by invading fungi. Specifically during B. bassiana infection, systemic immune defenses are suppressed in favour of a more limited but targeted repertoire of enhanced responses in the cuticle and epidermis of the integument (e.g. expression of the fungal enzyme inhibitor IMPI, and cuticular phenoloxidase activity). A range of putative stress-management factors (e.g. antioxidants) is also activated during the specific response of selected insects to B. bassiana but not M. anisopliae. This too occurs primarily in the integument, and probably contributes to antifungal defense and/or helps ameliorate the damage inflicted by the fungus or the host’s own immune responses.
Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response in Idiopathic Sudden Deafness: Pathogenic Implications  [PDF]
Miguel A. López-González,Antonio Abrante,Carmen López-Lorente,Antonio Gómez,Emilio Domínguez,Francisco Esteban
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/216592
Abstract: The acute-phase inflammatory response in the peripheral bloodstream can be an expression of transient cerebral ischaemia in idiopathic sudden deafness. For this, a neurological and otorhinolaryngological examination of each patient, performing tests on audiometry, and tympanometry, haemogram, and cranial magnetic resonance were performed. The acute-phase inflammatory response manifests as an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that is detected 48–72 hours after the appearance of sudden deafness. This study shows that there is an acute-phase response in the peripheral bloodstream with an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as an expression of an inflammatory process that can be caused by transient cerebral ischaemia in sudden deafness. In addition, the increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio can rule out a viral origin of sudden deafness, since a viral infection lowers the neutrophil count and increases the lymphocyte count, thus reducing the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. These findings aid in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms involved in sudden deafness and offer better treatment to the patient. 1. Introduction Sudden deafness is usually unilateral and tends to be associated with vertigo and tinnitus. The origin of this condition remains unknown for the majority of cases, although several infectious, vascular, and immune causes have been proposed. A careful examination of the patient is required in order to exclude treatable causes and life-threatening situations such as vascular processes and tumour diseases. Approximately, half of all patients have complete recovery within two weeks. Several different treatments have been used, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, rheology, and oxygen therapy. Although no single treatment has demonstrated decisive results, a short schedule of oral corticosteroids is generally recommended [1]. Within the spectrum of possible causes of sudden deafness, vascular processes could be candidates for the pathogenesis of this condition because of their acute/abrupt nature and the audiovestibular symptoms (deafness, vertigo, tinnitus, sensation of ear fullness, and hyperacusis) that occur in ischaemia of the inner ear [2–5]. However, this has not been conclusively demonstrated. In a similar manner, an ischaemic process would explain the spontaneous recovery observed in over half of all cases [6], once vascular reperfusion is achieved. Cerebral ischaemia, even the transient one, is characterised by an acute inflammatory response in the ischaemic area, which, in turn, produces an acute-phase response in the
Biological Control of Faba Bean Pathogenic Fungi by Three Cyanobacterial Filtrates  [PDF]
Atef M. Abo-Shady,Behia A. Al-ghaffar,M.M.H. Rahhal,H.A. Abd-El Monem
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the biological control aptitude of the cyanobacteria, Anabaena subcylindrica, Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria angusta filtrates on the growth of the isolated pathogenic fungi from the different organs of Faba bean. Three caynobacterial (Anabaena subcylindrica, Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria angusta) filtrates were prepared in different concentrations and their effects on the isolated pathogenic fungi from leaves, stems and roots of Faba bean were studied. The study revealed high efficiency of the three algal filtrates on the control of the isolated pathogenic fungi from the three organs of Faba bean plants. The reduction in fungal mat growth diameter was greater than in that of the fungal dry weight showing inhibited fungal spread by greater rate. The reduction in the fungal dry weight was mostly linear and significantly correlated with the algal filtrate concentrations. The Efficient Algal Filtrate Concentration (EAFC) ranged between 104 and 461% for the three algal filtrates on the studied fungi dry weight. Complete control of the isolated fungi could be achieved by of a mixture of two algal filtrates in their EAFC and that of Nostoc muscorum + Oscillatoria angusta filtrates with an EAFC 368 and 194% were the best and economic mixture.
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