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A checklist of spiders from Sovenga Hill, an inselberg in the Savanna Biome, Limpopo Province, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae)
M.A. Modiba,S.M. Dippenaar,A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2005, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v48i2.95
Abstract: The South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA) was initiated to make an inventory of the arachnid fauna of South Africa. Various projects are underway to prepare inventories of the spider fauna of the different floral biomes and provinces of South Africa. During April and May 2004 five different collecting methods were sed to sample spiders from four slopes on Sovenga Hill, an inselberg situated in the Savanna Biome, near Polokwane, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A total of 793 specimens represented by 29 families, 62 genera and 76 species were recorded over the twomonth period. The Thomisidae was the most abundant (n = 167) representing 21.1 % of all spiders sampled, followed by the Gnaphosidae (n = 101) with 12.7 % and the Lycosidae (n = 77) with 9.7 %. The most abundant species was a thomisid Tmarus comellini Garcia-Neto (n = 82), representing 10.3 % of the total, followed by a clubionid Clubiona godfreyi Lessert (n = 66) with 8.3 %. The Thomisidae was the most species-rich family with 12 species, followed by the Gnaphosidae with 11 species and the Araneidae with 10 species. Of the species collected 83.9 % were wandering spiders and 16.1 % web builders. This is the first quantitative survey of the Savanna Biome in the Polokwane area.
A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Polokwane Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa  [cached]
Susan M. Dippenaar,Ansie S. Dippenaar-Schoeman,Mogadi A. Modiba,Thembile T. Khoza
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2008, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v50i1.128
Abstract: As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA), spiders were collected from all the field layers in the Polokwane Nature Reserve (Limpopo Province, South Africa) over a period of a year (2005–2006) using four collecting methods. Six habitat types were sampled: Acacia tortillis open savanna; A. rehmanniana woodland, false grassland, riverine and sweet thorn thicket, granite outcrop; and Aloe marlothii thicket. A total of 13 821 spiders were collected (using sweep netting, tree beating, active searching and pitfall trapping) represented by 39 families, 156 determined genera and 275 species. The most diverse families are the Thomisidae (42 spp.), Araneidae (39 spp.) and Salticidae (29 spp.). A total of 84 spp. (30.5%) were web builders and 191 spp. (69.5%) wanderers. In the Polokwane Nature Reserve, 13.75% of South African species are presently protected.
Abundance of Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in Olive Orchards in Northern Part of Iran  [PDF]
Sahra Ghavami
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The current study investigated spiders fauna and abundance of olive orchards in Guilan, Ghazvin, Golestan, Mazandaran and Zanjan provinces during 2002-2003. Valid spider keys identification used for species determination. Four speices Frontinellina fruntetorum (C.L. Koch, 1981) (Linyphidae), Thyene imperialis (Rossi,1846), Salticus scenicus (Clerk, 1757) (Salticidae) and Thomisus onustus, Walkenaer, 1806 (Thomisidae) of spider of the collection determined as dominant species. Uniform distribution and dominant spider species only recorded for F. fruntetorum in all provinces. Spiders abundance researchs at three olive orchards in Guilan, Ghazvin and Zanjan provinces. Population abundance of spider recorded by stroking to 8 olive branches of 30 trees at 15 days interval wicth onset from May to October. Among collected natural enemies fauna insects and spiders fauna 42.8% was belong to spider specimens and their population flactuation was varied from 25.4 to 60.7% in month of May to October, respectively.
An annotated checklist of the planthoppers of Iran (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha) with distribution data  [cached]
Fariba Mozaffarian,Michael Wilson
ZooKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.145.1846
Abstract: A list of Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) of Iran is provided based primarily on literature records from 1902 to the present. In total 15 families and 235 species are recorded, with taxonomic details. Distribution data in Iran are given. Iranissus ephedinus Dlabola, 1980 is transferred from Issidae to Nogodinidae. To resolve nomenclatural difficulty the following new combinations in Issidae are given: Iranodus dumetorus (Dlabola, 1981), Iranodus khatunus (Dlabola, 1981) and Iranodus repandus (Dlabola, 1981). Due to published generic synonomy the following are new combinations: Duilius seticulosus (Lethierry, 1874), D. tamaricis (Puton & Lethierry, 1887), D. tamaricicola (Dubovsky, 1966) D. v-atrum (Dlabola, 1985).
Fauna and Checklist of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of East Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran
MR Abai,S Azari-Hamidian,H Ladonni,M Hakimi
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases , 2007,
Abstract: In order to study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of East Azerbaijan Province, some samplings were carried out by dipping method for the larvae and hand catch, night biting catch, total catch, and shelter pit collection as well as using window trap for the adults during June, July, and August 2004 plus July and August 2005. In total, 1305 adult mosquitoes and 603 larvae were collected. Seven genera and 15 species were identified in the prov ince including; Anopheles claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. maculipennis s.l., An. pseudopictus, An. sacharovi, An. superpictus, Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia richiardii, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. subo chrea, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., and Uranotaenia unguiculata. An. maculipennis complex, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. theileri were the most prevalent and widely dis tributed species. An. pseudopictus, Ae. vexans, and Cq. richiardii are reported for the first time in East Azerbaijan Province and a checklist for the mosquitoes of the province is also presented. Among the mosquitoes of the province, there are many potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens that their ecology needs to be studied extensively.
Larval Habitat Characteristics of the Genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and a Checklist of Mosquitoes in Guilan Province, Northern Iran  [PDF]
S Azari-Hamidian
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered pub-lished information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid), vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant), habitat type (natural or artificial), and water temperature. Results: In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologi-cally identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. su-perpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6oC (n=14) (16–25oC), 22.6oC (n=53) (12–33oC), 23.8oC (n=52) (10–33oC), 11.5oC (n=12) (9–21oC), and 20.4oC (n=7) (12–26oC), respectively. There was a signifi-cant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5oC) of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000). Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9%) such as river bed pools (46.4%) and rain pools (33.1%) with transient (98.3%), stagnant (99.5%) and clear (95.3%) water, with vegetation (69.9%), mud (42.0%) or gravel (39.7%) substrate in full sunlight (69.6%) or shaded (22.7%) area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided.Conclusion: The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and An. maculipennis s.l., in Guilan Province are: river bed pools, rain pools, and rice fields.
Yuri M. MARUSIK,Recep Sulhi ?ZKüTüK,Kadir Bo?a? KUNT,Rah?en S. KAYA
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology - C. Life Sciences and Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: New records are presented for a number of species collected from central and north-western parts of Turkey. Five species and one genus represent new records for Turkey (3 species in Hahniidae and 2species and one genus in Dictynidae): Hahnia candida Simon, 1875, H. helveola Simon, 1875, H.nava (Blackwall, 1841), Scotolathys simplex Simon, 1884 and Nigma puella (Simon, 1870). Notes on distribution and habitat preferences of the species are provided and briefly discussed.
Systematics, Bioecology, and Medical Importance of Widow Spiders (Lathrodectus spp.) in Khorasan Province, Iran
J Rafijenad,S Tirgari,F Biglarian,KH Shemshad
Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases , 2007,
Abstract: Following the hospitalization of 195 individuals due to the spider bite in 1995 and three cases of recorded death in the year of 1993 which were referred to Emam Reza Hospital in Mashad, the present study was undertaken on bionomics and medical importance of Lathrodectus spp in Khorasan Province, during 1995-2005. A total cases of 195 bites were studied composing of 70.8 % males and 29.2% females. The most prevalence cases were observed in mid age (20-55 years old) and par ticularly among farmers (36.4%). A total number of 216 adult widow spiders and 258 egg sacs were collected from their habitats in different localities of 15 counties in the province. The following species have been recognized: Lathrodectus tredecimgottatus (62%), L. dahli (32%), L. geometricus (5%) and L. pallidus (1%). Here is the first report on the occurrence of males of L. pallidus as well as both sexes of L. trdecimgottatus and L. geometricus in the country. The sex ratio among collected specimens was 88% and 12% female and male, respectively. Summer provides the most suitable and favorable climatic condition for the activities of these spiders. However 65% of spiders were collected in this season. Among different cit ies, Mashad had (60%) the most reported cases in the study area. Foot was more injured than other parts. 96.5% of pa tients exhib ited localized pain from which only 2% had no pain in the bitten part and 87% had a generalized pain in whole body.
A checklist of Iranian Vespinae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Vespidae)
Bagria?ik Nil,Samin Najmeh
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/abs1102487b
Abstract: A checklist of Iranian Vespinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is presented. The list is based on a detailed study of all available published data. Nine vespine species from three genera (Vespa Linnaeus, Vespula Thomson, Dolichovespula Rohwer) are currently recognized as occurring in Iran.
Molecular Spiders in One Dimension  [PDF]
Tibor Antal,P. L. Krapivsky,Kirone Mallick
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2007/08/P08027
Abstract: Molecular spiders are synthetic bio-molecular systems which have "legs" made of short single-stranded segments of DNA. Spiders move on a surface covered with single-stranded DNA segments complementary to legs. Different mappings are established between various models of spiders and simple exclusion processes. For spiders with simple gait and varying number of legs we compute the diffusion coefficient; when the hopping is biased we also compute their velocity.
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