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Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae  [PDF]
Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo,Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais,Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo de Morais
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11010233
Abstract: Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.
6-Sulphated Chondroitins Have a Positive Influence on Axonal Regeneration  [PDF]
Rachel Lin,Thomas W. Rosahl,Paul J. Whiting,James W. Fawcett,Jessica C. F. Kwok
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021499
Abstract: Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) upregulated in the glial scar inhibit axon regeneration via their sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 (C6ST-1) is upregulated after injury leading to an increase in 6-sulphated GAG. In this study, we ask if this increase in 6-sulphated GAG is responsible for the increased inhibition within the glial scar, or whether it represents a partial reversion to the permissive embryonic state dominated by 6-sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using C6ST-1 knockout mice (KO), we studied post-injury changes in chondroitin sulphotransferase (CSST) expression and the effect of chondroitin 6-sulphates on both central and peripheral axon regeneration. After CNS injury, wild-type animals (WT) showed an increase in mRNA for C6ST-1, C6ST-2 and C4ST-1, but KO did not upregulate any CSSTs. After PNS injury, while WT upregulated C6ST-1, KO showed an upregulation of C6ST-2. We examined regeneration of nigrostriatal axons, which demonstrate mild spontaneous axon regeneration in the WT. KO showed many fewer regenerating axons and more axonal retraction than WT. However, in the PNS, repair of the median and ulnar nerves led to similar and normal levels of axon regeneration in both WT and KO. Functional tests on plasticity after the repair also showed no evidence of enhanced plasticity in the KO. Our results suggest that the upregulation of 6-sulphated GAG after injury makes the extracellular matrix more permissive for axon regeneration, and that the balance of different CSs in the microenvironment around the lesion site is an important factor in determining the outcome of nervous system injury.
Role of sulphated polysaccharides from Sargassum Wightii in Cyclosporine A-induced oxidative liver injury in rats
Josephine Anthony,Nithya Kalaiselvam,Amudha Ganapathy,Veena Coothan
BMC Pharmacology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2210-8-4
Abstract: Background Seaweeds or marine algae have long been made up a key part of the Asian diet, and as an antioxidant, sulphated polysaccharides have piqued the interest of many researchers as one of the ocean's greatest treasures. The present investigation suggests the therapeutic potential of sulphated polysaccharides from marine brown algae "Sargassum wightii" in Cyclosporine A (CsA)- induced liver injury. CsA is a potent immunosuppressive agent used in the field of organ transplantations and various autoimmune disorders. However, hepatotoxicity due to CsA remains to be one of the major clinical challenges. Methods The effect of sulphated polysaccharides on CsA-induced hepatotoxicity was studied in adult male albino rats of Wistar strain, and the animals were randomized into four groups with six rats in each. Group I served as vehicle control. Group II rats were given CsA at a dosage of 25 mg/kg body weight, orally for 21 days. Group III rats were given sulphated polysaccharides at a dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously for 21 days. Group IV rats were given sulphated polysaccharides simultaneously along with CsA, as mentioned in Group II for 21 days. Results CsA provoked hepatotoxicity was evident from the decreased activities of hepatic marker enzymes. A significant rise in the level of oxidants, along with a striking decline in both the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants, marks the severity of oxidative stress in CsA-induced rats. This in turn led to enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine and protein carbonyls, along with a decrease in ATPase activities and alterations in lipid profile. Histopathological changes also strongly support the above aberrations. However, concomitant treatment with sulphated polysaccharides restored the above deformities to near control and prevented the morphological alterations significantly. Conclusion Thus, the present study highlights that sulphated polysaccharides can act therapeutically against CsA-induced hepatotoxicity. Key Words Cyclosporine A; hepatic markers; antioxidants; hyperlipidemia; macromolecules; sulphated polysaccharides.
Drug interactions with grapefruit juice  [cached]
Prasad Tandale
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Concomitant intake with grapefruit juice increases the concentrations of many drugs in humans. The effect seems to be mediated mainly by suppression of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4 in the small intestine wall. This results in a diminished first pass metabolism with higher bioavailability and increased maximal plasma concentrations of substrates of this enzyme. The effect was most pronounced in drugs with high first pass degradation. The components of grapefruit juice which are the most probable causes of the interaction are furanocoumarins derivatives, but the flavonoid naringenin may also contribute. Concomitant grapefruit juice intake does not generally decrease the variability of drug pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, it is recommended that patients abstain from drinking grapefruit juice when they are taking a drug that is extensively metabolised, unless a lack of interaction has already been demonstrated for that drug. It is also recommended that drugs possibly interacting with grapefruit juice should be appropriately labelled.
Neisseria meningitidis Opc Invasin Binds to the Sulphated Tyrosines of Activated Vitronectin to Attach to and Invade Human Brain Endothelial Cells  [PDF]
Claudia Sa E Cunha equal contributor,Natalie J. Griffiths equal contributor,Mumtaz Virji
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000911
Abstract: The host vasculature is believed to constitute the principal route of dissemination of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) throughout the body, resulting in septicaemia and meningitis in susceptible humans. In vitro, the Nm outer membrane protein Opc can enhance cellular entry and exit, utilising serum factors to anchor to endothelial integrins; but the mechanisms of binding to serum factors are poorly characterised. This study demonstrates that Nm Opc expressed in acapsulate as well as capsulate bacteria can increase human brain endothelial cell line (HBMEC) adhesion and entry by first binding to serum vitronectin and, to a lesser extent, fibronectin. This study also demonstrates that Opc binds preferentially to the activated form of human vitronectin, but not to native vitronectin unless the latter is treated to relax its closed conformation. The direct binding of vitronectin occurs at its Connecting Region (CR) requiring sulphated tyrosines Y56 and Y59. Accordingly, Opc/vitronectin interaction could be inhibited with a conformation-dependent monoclonal antibody 8E6 that targets the sulphotyrosines, and with synthetic sulphated (but not phosphorylated or unmodified) peptides spanning the vitronectin residues 43–68. Most importantly, the 26-mer sulphated peptide bearing the cell-binding domain 45RGD47 was sufficient for efficient meningococcal invasion of HBMECs. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the binding of a bacterial adhesin to sulphated tyrosines of the host receptor. Our data also show that a single region of Opc is likely to interact with the sulphated regions of both vitronectin and of heparin. As such, in the absence of heparin, Opc-expressing Nm interact directly at the CR but when precoated with heparin, they bind via heparin to the heparin-binding domain of the activated vitronectin, although with a lower affinity than at the CR. Such redundancy suggests the importance of Opc/vitronectin interaction in meningococcal pathogenesis and may enable the bacterium to harness the benefits of the physiological processes in which the host effector molecule participates.
Irreducibility of configurations  [PDF]
Klara Stokes
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In a paper from 1886, Martinetti enumerated small $v_3$-configurations. One of his tools was a construction that permits to produce a $(v+1)_3$-configuration from a $v_3$-configuration. He called configurations that were not constructible in this way irreducible configurations. According to his definition, the irreducible configurations are Pappus' configuration and four infinite families of configurations. In 2005, Boben defined a simpler and more general definition of irreducibility, for which only two $v_3$-configurations, the Fano plane and Pappus' configuration, remained irreducible. The present article gives a generalization of Boben's reduction for both balanced and unbalanced $(v_r,b_k)$-configurations, and proves several general results on augmentability and reducibility. Motivation for this work is found, for example, in the counting and enumeration of configurations.
Gastric juice for the diagnosis of H pylori infection in patients on proton pump inhibitors  [cached]
Javed Yakoob, Shahid Rasool, Zaigham Abbas, Wasim Jafri, Shahab Abid, Muhammad Islam, Zubair Ahmad
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: AIM: To determine the efficacy of gastric juice polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of H pylori infection in comparison with histology and gastric antral biopsy PCR in patients on a proton pump inhibitor (PPI).METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive patients with dyspeptic symptoms were enrolled. Gastric biopsies for histology, PCR and gastric juice were collected at endoscopy for PCR of the H pylori urease C gene (ure C). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), accuracy, positive and negative likelihood ratio for PCR of gastric juice for the H pylori ure C gene was compared to histology and gastric antral biopsy H pylori ure C PCR in patients with and without PPI.RESULTS: Gastric juice PCR was positive in 66 (78%) patients. Histology showed H pylori associated gastritis in 57 (67%). Gastric biopsy PCR was positive in 72 (85%). In patients not taking PPI, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, accuracy and positive and negative likelihood ratio for gastric juice PCR were 89%, 72%, 91%, 67%, 90%, 85%, 3.1 and 0.1 respectively. In patients on PPI these values were 86%, 100%%, 100%, 29%, 86%, 9.5 and 1.4, respectively.CONCLUSION: Gastric juice PCR for the diagnosis of H pylori infection has increased sensitivity compared to histology with PPI. The use of gastric juice PCR is recommended to confirm H pylori status in patients taking PPIs.
Clarification of pineapple juice by microfiltration
Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de;Silva, Carlos Alberto Bento da;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612010000300040
Abstract: in the present work, pineapple juice was first hydrolyzed with a commercial pectinase (ultrazym 100 g) and then clarified by microfiltration. a tubular polyethersulfone membrane with an average cut-off of 0.3 μm and a total effective filtration area of 0.05 m2 was applied. the transmembrane pressures were 1.5 and 3.0 bar, respectively, and the processes was conducted at room temperature. the results showed that the pineapple juice permeate fluxes were of 57.77 l/m2/hours (1.5 bar) and 46.85 l/m2/hours (3.0 bar). concentration polarization and possibly fouling occurred during the processes. the best clarified juice fluxes were obtained when low transmembrane pressures (1.5 bar) were applied.
Freeze concentration of lime juice
Ampawan Tansakul
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18 C) and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm) on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18 C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.
Improving probabilistic weather forecasts using seasonally varying calibration parameters  [PDF]
Stephen Jewson
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: We show that probabilistic weather forecasts of site specific temperatures can be dramatically improved by using seasonally varying rather than constant calibration parameters.
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