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Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.
S Anakalo, F Abdul, MG Anakalo
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were made in duplicates, containing zero (control), 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% chicken manure. The measurements included pH changes, organic matter digestibility as well as proximate analyses of Crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Crude fiber (CF). Fat and ash content of bagasse were determined before and after fermentation for 21 days. A further investigation involved in-sacco digestibility determination. Data was obtained by insertion of nylon bags containing various rations into a fistula of rumen fistulated animal and removed at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 72 and 96 hours. The bagasse used in had a moisture content which averaged 48 %.± 3.0 with an initial pH of 6.9 ±0.15.
JAN Barteczko,OLGA Lasek,ROMANA Augustyn
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2008,
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine nutrients digestibility and energy utilization of nine maize cultivars (Opoka, Boruta, Nysa, Smok, Pioneer PR39H64, Monada, Rustika Eurostar, Pionier G12, Arobase) in broiler chickens. Cultivars differed in a content of CP and EE. In vivo digestibility was measured by a standard method on ninety 42 days old broilers. CP digestibility was calculated using the α-amino nitrogen method. Furthermore, digestible energy (DE) and apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN) as well as nitrogen balance and retention were determined. Maize grain nutritive value and energy utilization in broiler chickens depended on the cultivars. The cultivars characterized by higher content of CP and EE had higher digestibility coeffi cient of these nutrients. The cultivar did not infl uence nitrogen balance and retention. It is recommended to take into a consideration the maize grain cultivars and their chemical composition when a broiler diet is being composed.
Physicochemical Content, Metabolizable Energy and In-vitro Protein Digestibility of Wheat Screening Diet on Growth Rate of Broiler  [PDF]
A.A. Saki,A. Alipana
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: In competitions by monogastric animal particular in poultry by consumption human food sources, high attempt should be made to find out new sources of feed that is not consumed by human. Wheat screening is one of the these sources of feed which need to be considered. Determination of physicochemical content, metabolizable energy (ME) and protein digestibility may lead to elucidate the quality of this feed as well as arrangement in feed formulation of broiler ration. Physical content of two types of wheat screening (W. S.) were tested by seed sorting system (grad 1 and 2), lots of straw, sand, dust, soil and none cereal seed were observed in wheat screening grads 2 compared with wheat screening grade 1. In addition 80% of wheat screening includes wheat screening grads 1 which content less Straw, soil, sand and none cereal seed. Otherwise metabolizable energy which was estimated by Sibbaled method was significantly higher (P<0.05), In W. S. grad 1 (2992.51 kcal/kg) than grad 2 (2212.72 kcal/kg). Based on these finding wheat screening grads 1 was selected for broiler feeding. Crude protein and crude fibre (11.4 and 4.14%) respectively in chemical composition of wheat screening grad 1 were determined by AOAC method. In-vitro protein digestibility 81.7% and digestible energy 2352.73 kcal/kg in wheat screening grad 1 were quiet desirable which evaluated by Fuller method. The effect of wheat screening grad 1 on growth rate of broiler, was examined by carried out an experiment which includes 320 day old unsexed Ross broiler chicken with (0, 10, 20 and 30% W. S.). No significantly differences were found in daily feed intake (DFI), daily growth rate (DGR), uniformity (UF) and production index (PI) in concern to different levels of wheat screening. The result of this study have shown that, it is possible to use wheat screening grad 1 in broiler ration, but the exact amount of this unconvencial feed source need to be clarify by further investigation.
Evaluation of the nutritive value of broiler and broiler parent stock litters after pelleting for ruminants
Tawadchai Suppadit
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Samples of poultry litter were collected in January-February 2009; 30 each from broiler and from broiler parent stock houses in the different parts of Thailand. The bedding material was rice hull. Both types of litter were pelleted as feed ingredient and nutritive values were analyzed. Results revealed that total ash (TA), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber(ADF) contents for pelleted broiler litter (PBL) were much lower than those for pelleted broiler parent stock litter (PBPSL)(P<0.05), while dry matter (DM) was not significant (P>0.05). The range of values in both groups was very large. Mean copper contents were very similar for both PBL and PBPSL samples (P>0.05). Estimations of metabolizable energy (ME) werepredicted from rumen fluid-pepsin in vitro digestible organic matter content of the DM (ME-IV), and organic matter loss during 72h rumen incubation (ME-RI). ME-IV value for PBL and PBPSL was not significant (P>0.05), while the corresponding difference of ME-RI values was significant (P<0.05). The ranges within each of these means were large. ME contents were closely correlated with the sum of TA and ADF, the correlation coefficient for ME-IV was -0.870, and for ME-RI, -0.910. Useful estimations of ME of the litter samples could be made utilizing regression equations for either ME-IV or ME-RI,ME-RI being preferred for its slightly greater correlation coefficient, ME-RI (MJ/kg DM) = 12.7-0.0105 (TA + ADF) (g/kg DM).
Consumption and Cooking Patterns of Chicken Meat in Hyderabad District  [PDF]
A. Memon,M.U. Malah,N. Rajput,A.S. Memon
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: In order to ascertain the consumption and cooking patterns of chicken meat in Hyderabad district, a survey based study was carried out during, 2006-2007. The sample size of 200 was comprised of 180 male and 20 female respondents having education from primary level to graduation, mostly married and all the respondents employed in public (40%) or private sector (60%) along with low monthly income in the range of 1000-10000 rupees (68%). The 85% respondents liked to purchase broiler meat, while only 15% respondents showed their liking in meat of desi hen (indigenous poultry breed). 38% respondents consumed once a week, while 36% consumed monthly. 73% respondents purchased upto 1 kilogram, while 15% purchased 1-1.5kg. 68% respondents were having current knowledge of nutritive value and 32% respondents did not showed their knowledge over the nutritive value of commercial poultry meat. It was noted that at 74% told that their wives were responsible for cooking, 11% their daughters and 8% their mother/sister. 47% liked to cooked and consumed fried chicken, while 33.00% preferred to cook chicken curry, 20.% liked to prepare broast, 72% liked whole chicken, 18% showed their liking for breast meat and only 10% respondents expressed their liking towards leg meat. While enquiring the respondents whether they consumed meat during out break of diseases especially in bird flu disease, 58% respondents responded positively and told that they feel no hesitation in consuming meat during outbreak of diseases. 72% respondents enhanced their consumption in winter season and remaining 36% respondents commented that they did not enhance their consumption. 86% respondents responded optimistically and perceived that the meat is consumed normally at their homes in summer season. The respondents were asked to express consumption of meat in case of increased prices and 61% respondents had positive response and 37% showed negative response to this aspect. 70% respondents preferred first to eat chicken meat, 15% had choice of fish and 10% showed preference for beef/mutton, while only 5% expressed their preference for vegetables.
Physics in the kitchen
Peter Barham
Flavour , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2044-7248-2-5
Abstract: During the meal, as we eat we note how good the food is, where there is room for improvement and what is particularly liked. In effect we analyse the results of the experiment – the good scientific cook will keep notes of these discussions and use them to draw preliminary conclusions about how to improve the recipe. After several more tests of the recipe, we may then begin to derive a model to explain our results and to understand how and why making small changes to the recipe produces different qualities in the final dish – we can then use that understanding and apply it to other recipes, so continually improving our cooking skills.This is nothing more than the application of the scientific method to cookery – simple but highly effective. If taken seriously and applied properly there is no excuse for any scientifically trained person not to become a superb cook.But is there more to physics in the kitchen than ensuring physicists are good cooks? Can physics help chefs with no scientific background improve their own cooking? Is this really an area that is worth the attention of serious physicists? Is there new physics to be learned from the study of gastronomy? My unsurprising opinion is that there is good physics to be learned in the kitchen and that investigating the science of cooking is a worthwhile academic pursuit – but of course I would believe that as I have been doing it for more than 25 years now. So perhaps it is time to examine more critically whether it is indeed a worthwhile occupation.One of the most basic kitchen operations is to heat food to change its texture or chemical make-up (or both). To ensure some degree of consistency between cooks there is a need to have some assurance that the temperatures used in different kitchens are closely similar (if not the same). Without the use of expensive scientific equipment the only easy way is to use a phase transition that occurs at a fixed temperature – and the simplest and most accessible of these is to us
Chicken Chicken
Sandra Sirangelo Maggio
Ilha do Desterro , 2008,
Abstract: Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics". Chicken consists of a collection of 38 gay poems written and illustrated by Seattle poet Dennis Kelly. Several kinds of gay poems are introduced here, all centered on the theme of young gay love. The author has already published Gay Sunshine & Fag Rag, and is working on a long gay epic called Cantos Northwest, whose ten first poems can also be found in Chicken. Kelly's language is simple and spontaneous, full of slang and word-games [which can be found in "Graphemics", where the real chicken is "awakened by the difference between syntax and semen/antics".
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2006,
Abstract: A review of the methods for balanced experiments for establishing of the metabolizable energy and the amino acids digestibility for waterfowl has been made. Systemizing the former experience in this fi eld, the author submits some innovations, regarding to the adaptation of the methods for experiments with geese. The results for metabolizable energy and true digestibility coeffi cients of some basic for the feeding of geese forages (established using the adapted methods) are given. A using of specifi ed for the different birds data for the nutritive values of the forages has been recommended. The offered innovations could be used for further efforts for establishing of standardizing methods for balanced experiments with waterfowl.
Kitchen Remedies for Common Maladies  [PDF]
B.Sandhya,T. Rambabu,Ravi Kumar Gupta,Pushpawathi Chaudary
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research , 2012,
Abstract: It is well-known that every country has traditional cures for common diseases. Similarly in India also home recipes are advocated by Vaidyas and Hakims since antiquity because of easy to prepare and free of side-effects as well as the availability of basic ingredients easily in and around our surroundings. In this study a sincere effort is made by the authors to create awareness in the minds of present-day generation about the medicinal utility of various commonly available home remedies. On critical analysis, it is observed that nearly 20 herbs viz. Ajamoda, Ardraka, Sunthi, Hingu, Haridra, Jeeraka, Methi, Rajika, Dhanyaka, Lasuna, Palandu, Curry leaf etc. are the commonly available in every kitchen. It is also observed that these herbs are useful for themanagement of more than 20 different conditions such as indigestion, abdominal colic, common cold, cough, fever, diarrhoea, joint pains, hyper-acidity, urticarial rash etc. Along with the classical references latest research findings of the enlisted herbs are also documented in the present study.
Differential Expression of IL-6 and IGF-II in Guinea Fowl and Chicken  [PDF]
G. Goyal,V. Upmanyu,S.K. Singh,S.K. Shukla
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: Differential expression of IL-6 and IGF-II genes were studied in guinea fowl and broiler chicken using semi-quantitative analysis. A 219 bp fragment of IL-6 and 215 bp fragment of IGF-II were amplified in guinea fowl and broiler chicken using chicken specific primers. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed the adjusted Integral Density of 0.853 and 0.051 for IL-6 band in guinea fowl and broiler chicken respectively, revealing 16.62 fold higher IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS induced PBMCs from guinea fowl as compared to that from broiler. However, adjusted Integral Density of IGF-II band was 0.082 and 1.106 for IGF-II band in guinea fowl and broiler chicken respectively, which revealed 13.43 fold increase in IGF-II mRNA expression in LPS induced PBMCs in broiler chicken as compared to that in guinea fowl. Hence, guinea fowl showed higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and lower expression of IGF-II in comparison to broiler chicken. These findings were as per expectation in view of much higher immuno-competence and lower growth rate in guinea fowl in comparison to chicken.
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