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MULTICAST ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS
V.Mallaiah,Dr.A.VinayaBabu,K.Madhukar,,.Nagaprasad
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The use of multicasting with the network has many benefits. Multicasting reduces the communication cost for applications that sends the same data to many recipients instead of sending via multiple unicast. This paper proposes Multicast Zone Routing Protocol (MZRP) for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). MZRP applies on-demandprocedures to dynamically establish mesh-based multicast routing zones along the path from the multicast source node to the multicast receivers. Control packet flooding is employed inside multicast zones, thus multicast overhead is vastly reduced, and good scalability can be achieved. Moreover, we also propose the Reliable Adaptive Congestion Controlled multicast (ReAct) transport layer protocol for reliable and timely multicast delivery on top of the MZRP. To recover from the different types of losses that may occur in MANETs, ReAct uses both source based and Zone local recovery mechanism. In every overlapping zone one feedback receiver is identified. Our simulation result shows that ReAct is the best performer in terms of reliability. Moreover, ReAct’s local recovery mechanism, manages to prevent the source from reducing its rate unnecessarily, thus achieving maximum throughput.
Zone Based Routing Protocol for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network
S. Taruna,Jain Kusum Lata,Purohit G.N
International Journal of Ad Hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing , 2011,
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks, are made of low-cost, low-power, small in size, and multifunctional sensornodes. The efficient energy utilization is one of the important performance factors for wireless sensornetworks survivability be-cause nodes operate with limited battery power. In this paper we propose andanalyze a new approach of zone based clustering head selection algorithm for wireless sensor network ofhomogeneous nodes. Nodes in the network are uniformly distributed. In this clustering algorithm, networkperformance is improved by selecting cluster heads on the basis of the residual energy of existing clusterheads, and nearest hop distance of the node. In this paper we evaluate various performance metrics likeenergy consumption, network life time, number of channel heads metrics in each round and compare thesewith respect to random algorithm i.e. LEACH. We conclude that proposed protocol effectively extends thenetwork lifetime without degrading the other critical overheads and perform-ance metrics.
HYBRID ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS  [PDF]
Dilli Ravilla,V.Sumalatha,Chandra Shekar Reddy Putta
International Journal of Ad Hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing , 2012,
Abstract: An ad hoc wireless network has a dynamic nature that leads to constant changes in its network topology.As a consequence, the routing problem becomes more complex and challengeable, and it probably is themost addressed and studied problem in ad hoc networks. Based on the routing information updatemechanism Ad hoc wireless networks routing protocols are classified into Proactive, Reactive and HybridRouting Protocols. Out of these, Hybrid Routing Protocol combines the best futures of the first twocategories. The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) is one of the hybrid routing protocols in which everynetwork node proactively maintaining routing information about its routing zone, while reactivelyacquiring routes to destinations beyond the routing zone. In this paper, we proposed the Independent ZoneRouting Protocol (IZRP) an enhancement of the Zone Routing Protocol which allows adaptive anddistributed configuration for the optimal size of each node’s routing zone, on per-node basis. Wedemonstrate the performance of IZRP with various performance metrics. Furthermore, we compared theperformance of IZRP and ZRP by considering performance metrics Packet Delivery Fraction, NormalizedRouting Overhead and End-to-End Delay.
Implementation Study of a Centralized Routing Protocol for Data Acquisition in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Trung Hieu Pham, Xue Jun Li, Wai Yee Leong, Peter Han Joo Chong
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2011.35019
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) attract considerable amount of research efforts from both industry and academia. With limited power and computational capability available on a sensor node, robustness and efficiency are the main concerns when designing a routing protocol for WSNs with low complexity. There are various existing design approaches, such as data-centric approach, hierarchical approach and location-based approach, which were designed for a particular application with specific requirements. In this paper, we study the design and implementation of a routing protocol for data acquisition in WSNs. The designed routing protocol is named Centralized Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (CSPIN), which essentially combines the advertise-request-transfer process and a routing distribution mechanism. Implementation is realized and demonstrated with the Crossbow MicaZ hardware using nesC/TinyOS. It was our intention to provide a hand-on study of implementation of centralized routing protocol for WSNs.
Eccentricity in Zone Routing Protocol for MANET  [PDF]
Mrs Komal Nair
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a decentralized network of autonomous mobile nodes, able to communicate with each other over wireless links. Due to the mobility of the nodes, the topology ofthe network changes spontaneously, therefore use of conventional routing tables maintained at fixed points (routers) is not suggested. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion. There are variousrouting protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, DSDV and ZRP .The zone routing protocol (ZRP) is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routes within a localregion of the network. ZRP can be configured for a particular network through adjustment of a single parameter, the routing zone radius. In this paper, we address the issue of configuring the ZRP to providethe best performance for a particular network at any time with the concept of eccentricity. The results illustrate the important characteristics of different protocols based on their performance and thus suggest some improvements in the respective protocol. The tools used for the simulation are NS2 which is the main simulator, NAM (Network Animator) and Tracegraph which is used for preparing the graphs from the trace files.
Analyzing Zone Routing Protocol in MANET Applying Authentic Parameter  [PDF]
Kamaljit I. Lakhtaria
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Routing is the main part of wireless adhoc network conventionally there are two approaches first one is Proactive and another one is Reactive. Both these approaches have some substantial disadvantage and to overcome hybrid routing protocols designed. ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol) is one of the hybrid routing protocols, it takes advantage of proactive approach by providing reliability within the scalable zone, and for beyond the scalable zone it looks for the reactive approach. It (ZRP) uses the proactive and the reactive routing according to the need of the application at that particular instance of time depending upon the prevailing scenario. This work revolves around the performance of ZRP against realistic parameters by varying various attributes such as Zone Radius of ZRP in different node density. Results vary as we change the node density on Qualnet 4.0 network simulator.
Mitigating Congestion Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
B. Pruthvi raj, O.Srinivasa Rao#2, Dr MHM Krishna Prasad*3
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: - Energy efficient protocol is very important in wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) because the nodes in WSNs are usually battery operated sensing devices with limited energy resources and replacing the batteries is usually not an option. We propose a class of algorithms that enforce differentiated routing based on the congested areas of a network and data priority. The basic protocol, called Congestion-Aware Routing (CAR), discovers the congested zone of the network that exists between highpriority data sources and the data sink and, using simple forwarding rules, dedicates this portion of the network to forwarding primarily high-priority traffic. Since CAR requires some overhead for establishing the high-priority routing zone, it is unsuitable for highly mobile data sources. Congestion occurrence in network nodes leads to increase packet loss and energy consumption. Another parameter which affects routing protocol efficiency is providing fairness in nodes energy consumption. When fairness is not considered in routing process, network will be partitioned very soon and then the network performance will be decreased. To overcome these issues, an Index Base Congestion aware Routing Protocol (ICRP) proposed. The proposed protocol is energy efficient routing protocols which try to control congestion and to provide fairness in network. The main goal in ICRP provides solution for better energy utilization of a node and better Quality of Services (QoS).
Adaptive Receiver Power Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Network  [cached]
Lawal Bello,Panos Bakalis,Predrag Rapajic,Kwashie A. Anang
Journal of Communications , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jcm.6.7.571-580
Abstract: In this paper, an Adaptive Receiver Power Routing (ARPR) protocol technique for Mobile Ad Hoc wireless network is proposed. The adaptive receiver power routing (ARPR) protocol evaluates the effect of environment, and signal path loss on a mobile ad hoc wireless network quality of service (QoS) and throughput performance. The proposed technique is incorporated into Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. Mathematical analysis supported by computer simulations is used to validate the scalability of the proposed technique. The simulation results showed that when ARPR is incorpo In this paper, an Adaptive Receiver Power Routing (ARPR) protocol technique for Mobile Ad Hoc wireless network is proposed. The adaptive receiver power routing (ARPR) protocol evaluates the effect of environment, and signal path loss on a mobile ad hoc wireless network quality of service (QoS) and throughput performance. The proposed technique is incorporated into Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. Mathematical analysis supported by computer simulations is used to validate the scalability of the proposed technique. The simulation results showed that when ARPR is incorporated into DSR the throughput performance increased by 62.5 %, compared to the conventional DSR protocol model, without ARPR. The simulation result also showed that the average received power for individual nodes was 1.0 × 10 10 watt for the proposed ARPR model and 5.0 × 10 2 watt for conventional model. rated into DSR the throughput performance % , compared to the conventional DSR protocol model, without ARPR. The simulation result also showed that the average received power for individual nodes was 1.0× 10-10 watt for the proposed ARPR model and 5.0 × 10-2 watt for conventional model.
Scalability of Zone Routing Protocol Extensions for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks  [PDF]
Muhammad Bilal Nazir,Malik Sikander Hayat Khiyal,Tauseef Ur Rahman
Information Technology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This study is a modification of the research by Dr. Sinha, which explains the scalability of ZRP for unidirectional links. Ad-Hoc Networks are the mobile nodes that communicate with each other. An ad-hoc network neither not have any infrastructures nor it posses any fixed topology. The routing of data between such networks is quite a difficult task. Several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless ad-hoc networks. Most of the proposed are assumed to be of bi-directional links but in actual the ad-hoc networks have different transmission range and routing capabilities. The Zone routing Protocol is designed keeping the unidirectional behavior of nodes in the networks. The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routes within a local region of the network (which we refer to as the routing zone). Knowledge of this routing zone topology is leveraged by the ZRP to improve the efficiency of a reactive route query/reply mechanism. The ZRP can be configured for a particular network through adjustment of a single parameter, the routing zone radius. In this study, we address the issue of configuring the ZRP to provide the best performance for a particular network at any time. Previous study has demonstrated that an optimally configured ZRP operates at least as efficiently as traditional reactive flood-search or proactive distance vector/link state routing protocols (and in many cases, much more efficiently)
A Robust Zone Disjoint Multipath Routing Protocol  [PDF]
M. Arvind,Dr. M. Sugumaran
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: A new multipath routing protocol which is disjoint at the zone level is proposed. The proposed routing protocol is based on the hybrid Zone based Hierarchical Link State Routing Protocol (ZHLS). The proposed work establishes multiple zone disjoint paths between the source and the destination zones. The establishment of multiple paths between the source and the destination zones helps in increasing the network lifetime and also in reducing the network congestion and overhead. The proposed protocol is simulated using the Network Simulator (ns-2.34).
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