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Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Development in Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox)  [PDF]
Daofeng Liu, Shunzhao Sui, Jing Ma, Zhineng Li, Yulong Guo, Dengpan Luo, Jianfeng Yang, Mingyang Li
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086976
Abstract: Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data provided a useful database for further research of wintersweet and other Calycanthaceae family plants.
PASSIOMA: Exploring Expressed Sequence Tags during Flower Development in Passiflora spp.  [PDF]
Lucas Cutri,Marcelo Carnier Dornelas
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/510549
Abstract: The genus Passiflora provides a remarkable example of floral complexity and diversity. The extreme variation of Passiflora flower morphologies allowed a wide range of interactions with pollinators to evolve. We used the analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as an approach for the characterization of genes expressed during Passiflora reproductive development. Analyzing the Passiflora floral EST database (named PASSIOMA), we found sequences showing significant sequence similarity to genes known to be involved in reproductive development such as MADS-box genes. Some of these sequences were studied using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirming their expression during Passiflora flower development. The detection of these novel sequences can contribute to the development of EST-based markers for important agronomic traits as well as to the establishment of genomic tools to study the naturally occurring floral diversity among Passiflora species.
PASSIOMA: Exploring Expressed Sequence Tags during Flower Development in Passiflora spp.  [PDF]
Lucas Cutri,Marcelo Carnier Dornelas
International Journal of Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/510549
Abstract: The genus Passiflora provides a remarkable example of floral complexity and diversity. The extreme variation of Passiflora flower morphologies allowed a wide range of interactions with pollinators to evolve. We used the analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) as an approach for the characterization of genes expressed during Passiflora reproductive development. Analyzing the Passiflora floral EST database (named PASSIOMA), we found sequences showing significant sequence similarity to genes known to be involved in reproductive development such as MADS-box genes. Some of these sequences were studied using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirming their expression during Passiflora flower development. The detection of these novel sequences can contribute to the development of EST-based markers for important agronomic traits as well as to the establishment of genomic tools to study the naturally occurring floral diversity among Passiflora species. 1. Introduction The genus Passiflora comprises almost 600 species of vines, lianas, and small trees, and its diversity reaches a maximum in Central and South America [1, 2]. To the genus Passiflora belongs the passionfruit (Passiflora edulis Deg.) and other species producing ornamental flowers known collectively as “passionflowers.” Passionflowers are appreciated exactly due to a remarkable range of floral complexity and diversity. The flowers of Passiflora exhibits several unique floral features, including multiple series of brightly colored coronal filaments, diverse operculum morphology, an androgynophore, and elaborate floral nectary structures (Figure 1). The evolution of this extreme variation of flower morphologies is believed to be the result of interactions with a wide range of pollinators [2, 3]. Therefore, this genus is specially suited to any study on the evolution of pollination syndromes, especially those aiming to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptative steps. Figure 1: Longitudinal sections of Passiflora spp. flowers. (a) a large insect- (bumblebee) pollinated flower ( P. edulis); (b) a small insect- (wasp) pollinated flower ( P. suberosa); (c) a hummingbird-pollinated flower ( P. tulae); (d) a bat-pollinated flower ( P. setacea). co: corona; an: androgynophore; li: limen; op: operculum. Bars: (a), (c), and (d): 1?cm; (b): 0.2?cm. Accordingly, one of the major challenges of current plant biology is to understand the genetic basis and molecular mechanisms of all naturally occurring developmental variation. This analysis has begun to benefit from the ever growing number of
Phenology of flower and fruit development in Uncaria gambir Species  [PDF]
JAMSARI,YASWENDRI,MUSLIAR KASIM
Biodiversitas , 2007,
Abstract: A phenological study with the aim to elucidate flower and fruit development stages in species of Uncaria gambir was conducted in field trial of agricultural faculty of Andalas University-West Sumatra. Observation during flower and fruit organ development was done in eleven inflorescences. Quantitative and descriptive data were collected during one season of flowering time. Phenology of flower and fruit development could be classified in five stages, namely F0 (flower initiation), F1 (small bud scale), F2 (large bud scale), F3 (anthesis, flower opening) and F4 (fruit development). All these events had average completing time in 112 days, and could be detailed as follows: flower initiation stage (F0) took place in 20 days, small scale bud stage (F1) occurred in 27 days, and large scale bud and anthesis stage (F0 and F3) each took place in 5 days, meanwhile fruit development stage (F4=S0) would complete in 53 days. This result should be useful information especially for creating breeding programme in Uncaria gambir species.
An effective method for cloning of partial MADS-box genes related to flower development in groundnut  [PDF]
M Yuan,KK Sharma,V Anjaiah,LI Shuang-ling
Journal of SAT Agricultural Research , 2005,
Abstract: Based on the most conserved region of the MADS box, a pair of degenerate primers were designed and used to amplify the genomic DNA of groundnut (cv. JL 24). The results indicate that an amplified fragment, related to flower development, showed a high homology to the MADS-box protein of Arabidopsis thaliana. This study laid the foundation for obtaining the full length of the MADS-box gene in groundnut.
Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet
Le?o, Fernando Ferreira;Davide, Lisete Chamma;Campos, José Marcello Salabert de;Pereira, Antonio Vander;Bustamante, Fernanda de Oliveira;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2011000700006
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum) and pearl millet (p. glaucum). tetraploid (aaa'b) and pentaploid (aa'a'bb) chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (a'a'bb) and pearl millet (aa) were analyzed as to chromosome number and dna content. genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. pentaploid and tetraploid genomic combinations showed high level of mixoploidy, in discordance with the expected somatic chromosome set. the pentaploid chromosome number ranged from 20 to 34, and the tetraploid chromosome number from 16 to 28. chromosome number variation was higher in pentaploid genomic combinations than in tetraploid, and mixoploidy was observed among hexaploids. genomic combinations 4x and 5x are mixoploid, and the variation of chromosome number within chromosomal race 5x is greater than in 4x.
The tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer: elucidating molecular pathways for therapy development
Corn PG
Cancer Management and Research , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S32839
Abstract: umor microenvironment in prostate cancer: elucidating molecular pathways for therapy development Review (2185) Total Article Views Authors: Corn PG Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 183 - 193 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S32839 Received: 11 April 2012 Accepted: 02 May 2012 Published: 25 July 2012 Paul G Corn Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Mechanisms leading to the development of virulent prostate cancer are not confined to the cancer epithelial cell, but also involve the tumor microenvironment. Multiple signaling pathways exist between epithelial cells, stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix to support tumor progression from the primary site to regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. Prostate cancers preferentially metastasize to the skeleton, prompting considerable research effort into understanding the unique interaction between prostate cancer epithelial cells and the bone microenvironment. This effort has led to the discovery that signaling pathways involved in normal prostate and bone development become dysregulated in cancer. These pathways stimulate excessive cell growth and neovascularization, impart more invasive properties to epithelial cells, weaken antitumor immune surveillance, and promote the emergence of castrate-resistant disease. An improved understanding of the complex relationship between cancer epithelial cells and the organ-specific microenvironments with which they interact has created a powerful opportunity to develop novel therapies.
Comparative Transcriptional Profiling Provides Insights into the Evolution and Development of the Zygomorphic Flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae)  [PDF]
Zhipeng Liu, Lichao Ma, Zhibiao Nan, Yanrong Wang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057338
Abstract: Background Vicia sativa (the common vetch) possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. Conclusions/Significance Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.
Flower and fruit development of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae)
Piechowski, Daniel;Gottsberger, Gerhard;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062009000400025
Abstract: parkia pendula occurs in brazil in amazonia and in the northeastern atlantic forest. in the latter, its buds, nectar, and seedpod gum are discussed to be keystone resources for the mammalian fauna. to enhance the knowledge about these important nourishment sources, the aim of this study was to detect and describe distinct phases in the flower and pod development. the study was conducted in a 306 ha forest fragment in igarassu, pernambuco, northeastern brazil. six morphometrical variables were measured weekly at five inflorescences of two individuals from september 2003 to january 2004. eleven distinct developmental phases were identified in the 21 weeks lasting development from the very first inflorescences to mature pods and are described in detail. these phases are good predictors for the flowering and fruiting phenology of p. pendula, since they are easily distinguishable from the forest floor. furthermore, highly synchronized abortions of inflorescences, buds, and pods were observed which support the previously assumed predator satiation defense strategy in parkia.
Flower and fruit development of Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. & L.M. Perry  [PDF]
DEDEN MUDIANA,ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI
Biodiversitas , 2010,
Abstract: Mudiana D, Ariyanti EE (2010) Flower and fruit development of Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. & L.M. Perry. Biodiversitas 12: 124-128. Flower formation is a process of flowering plant in order to produce the next generation. Flower plays a major role in pollination and fertilization as early stage of fruit and seed formation. Syzygium pycnanthum is a member of family Myrtaceae or known as ‘Jambu-jambuan’ family. The research aim was to observe the development process of flowering and fruiting phase of S. pycnanthum at Purwodadi Botanical Garden. It has been noted that this species has ten (10) stages of flowering and fruit development, namely flower bud initiation, flower bud fully emerge, unfolding calyx, visible corolla, bud starts blooming, early blooming, perfectly blooming, perianths and anthers fall, early fruit structure and ripe fruit. All these stages require 80-89 days.
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