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Kataract Phacoemulsification in the Treatment of Patients with Combined Lens Pathology
I.G. Smetankin
Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: There have been discussed present principles and strategic approaches in cataract treatment in patients with combined lens pathology (glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative syndrome, lens subluxation, syndrome of rigid iris) as the most troublesome group of patients whose frequency of intra- and postoperative complications after cataract extraction has remained relatively high. Turn to extracapsular phacoemulsification of lens contributes to reduction of complication rate in this group of patients though does not make it possible to exclude them completely. There has been given the review of current techniques and some technical aspects of cataract surgical treatment, and have been drawn up the ways to improve the technology phacoemulsification in this complicated group of patients.
Prophylactic role of combined treatment with wheat germ oil and ginseng against radiation injury in male rats
S.M. Abdel Fattah*, Th. M. Fahim* and N.M. El-Fatih
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background: This study was designed to investigate the possible ameliorating effect of combined treatment of rats with wheat germ oil [a rich source of vitamin E, octacosanol, policosanol and the essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic)] and the antioxidant properties of panax quinquefolium ginseng on radiation-induced oxidative body damage. Materials and Methods: Animals received wheat germ oil by gavage at a dose of 80 mg/kg body wt and panax ginseng was intraperitioneally injected with 100 mg/kg body wt for 10 successive days pre as well as during irradiation and supplementation was extended during the period of radiation exposure of rats to fractionated doses 8 Gy (4 x2Gy). Results: Experimental investigations were performed at 7th and 10th days after the last dose of irradiation revealed that whole body -irradiation of rats produced a significant rise in the activities of serum markers for liver damage as aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alaninetransaminase (ALAT), ammonia and buytryl cholinestase associated with decrease in the serum content of total protein, albumin (A), golublin (G) and A/G ratio indicating acute hepato-toxicity, at the 7th and 10th days post-irradiation. Also, radiation-induced biochemical disorders manifested by significant elvation in serum creatinine and urea levels. Serum lipid profile as total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholestrol (LDL-C) levels were significantly higher than normal control rats associated with significant decrease in HDL/LDL ratio. Radiation induced an elevation of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TARS) in plasma and liver. The rats that received combined treatment with wheat germ oil and panax ginseng supplement showed significantly less severe damage and remarkable improvement in all of the measured parameters when compared to irradiated rats. According to the results obtained it could be concluded that combined treatment with whole germ oil and panax ginseng might be a useful candidate against radiation-induced oxidative stress and metabolic disorders without any toxicity.
Arterial hypertension associated with somatic pathology in present-day practice of internal diseases  [PDF]
Yurii A. Nikolaev, Igor M. Mitrofanov, Vladimir Ya. Polyakov, Nina. A. Dolgova
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.61015
Abstract: Dynamics of regional and gender features of occurrence of arterial hypertension associated with diseases of gallbladder, biliary ducts and pancreas for 2003-2011 was analyzed. There researched 23,310 patients (9111 males and 14,188 females) treated in clinic of scientific centre of clinical and experimental medicine SB RAMS. Occurrence of such combination, depending on gender, residence (the Novosibirsk region (NR) or Yakutia) as well as in age subgroups (16-39, 40-59 and over 60) was estimated. Occurrence of arterial hypertension associated with diseases of gallbladder, biliary ducts and pancreas was observed more in male of Subgroup I, living in NR and Yakutia. In 2003-2008 in female of Subgroup III, living in NR comorbidity pathology was observed more frequently than in male. In Subgroup III in female of NR occurrence of combined pathology was maximum (36.6%) 2006-2008, in female of Yakutia38.5% in 2003-2005. Dependence of occurrence of combined pathology on residence was observed in male. In 2003-2011 in male of Yakutia combined pathology was observed frequently than in male of NR. Occurrence of comorbidity pathology, depending on gender and age was typical for inhabitants of NR. In Group I comorbidity pathology was frequently observed in male, in Group IIIin female. It is necessary to develop regional strategies for observing patients with combined pathologies to improve prevention, rehabilitation and treatment of patients with arterial hypertension associated with diseases of gallbladder, biliary ducts and pancreas.
Operative Treatment of a Choledoch Cyst and Correction of Attendant Pathology in Children
G.M. Lukoyanova,V.P. Obryadov,P.P. Potekhin,V.E. Shelyakhin
Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: The results of a surgical treatment of a general biliary duct cystic malformation as well as a combined and attendant pathology of the biliopancreatoduodenal zone organs are presented. A partial dissection of a cyst wall with a cystoduodenoanastomosis plus cholecystectomy application was a selection method of a general biliary duct cyst treatment. A clinicofunctional state of the liver, pancreas, stomach and duodenum is investigated; the simultaneous operations of a combined and attendant pathology are made according to indications. The remote results of the used operative methods (in the dates up to 20 years), permitting to achieve a recovery and improvement of the operated patient life quality, are presented.
An Exploratory Study of Male Adolescent Sexuality in Zimbabwe: The Case of Adolescents in Kuwadzana Extension, Harare  [PDF]
Sandra Bhatasara,Tafadzwa Chevo,Talent Changadeya
Journal of Anthropology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/298670
Abstract: Although young people in Zimbabwe are becoming sexually active at a very early age, there is no unified body of knowledge on how they regard sex and construct sexuality and relationships. In many circumstances adolescence sexual agency is denied and silenced. This study explored adolescents’ discourses on sexuality, factors affecting adolescent sexuality, and sexual health. Fusing a social constructionist standpoint and an active view of agency, we argue that the way male adolescents perceive and experience sexuality and construct sexual identities is mediated by the sociocultural context in which they live in and their own agency. Although adolescents are mistakenly regarded as sexual innocents by society, we argue that male adolescents are active social agents in constructing their own sexual realities and identities. At the same time, dominant structural and interactional factors have a bearing on how male adolescents experience and generate sexuality. 1. Introduction This study explores empirically adolescents’ construction of sexuality. According to Nyanzi [1] sexuality is constructed as the domain exclusive to adults with preconditions of physical and social maturity. Thus, notions of child sexuality are often viewed as taboo, antithetical, nonissues, or even dangerous and cause for moral panic. Such perceptions of “unknowledgeable or ill-informed adolescents” and “high-risk adolescents” are rife in the literature on youth and HIV/AIDS [2]. Adult sexual cultures and religious and moral discourses are deployed or implicated in positioning adolescent sexuality as taboo. Putting sexuality and children together remains problematic and morally troubling regardless of policy efforts to change this [3]. As noted by Renold [4], underlying this trouble are familiar ideologies that associate school-going learners with sexual innocence which creates the myth of an asexual child who must be protected from corrupting sexual information, producing a regulatory mechanism through which morality, sexuality, and young people at school are framed. Longstanding tropes of sexual innocence position the child as an object of concern, thwarting sexual curiosity [5]. In spite of such narrow conceptualizations of children, a number of studies demonstrate that adolescents are active sexual beings. Against representations that associate children with sexual innocence, this study examined adolescents’ discourses on notions of sexuality as well as their sexual health as it has been demonstrated that their needs are different from those of adults. The focus of the study is
Serum AMH in Physiology and Pathology of Male Gonads  [PDF]
Ewa Matuszczak,Adam Hermanowicz,Marta Komarowska,Wojciech Debek
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/128907
Abstract: AMH is secreted by immature Sertoli cells (SC) and is responsible for the regression of Müllerian ducts in the male fetus as part of the sexual differentiation process. AMH is also involved in testicular development and function. AMHs are at their lowest levels in the first days after birth but increase after the first week, likely reflecting active SC proliferation. AMH rises rapidly in concentration in boys during the first month, reaching a peak level at about 6 months of age, and then slowly declines during childhood, falling to low levels in puberty. Basal and FSH-stimulated levels of AMH, might become a useful predictive marker of the spermatogenic response to gonadotropic treatment in young patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After puberty, AMH is released preferentially by the apical pole of the SC towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, resulting in higher concentrations in the seminal plasma than in the serum. Defects in AMH production and insensitivity to AMH due to receptor defects result in the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. A measurable value of AMH in a boy with bilateral cryptorchidism is predictive of undescended testes, while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia or ovaries, as would be the case in girls with female pseudohermaphroditism and pure gonadal dysgenesis. Lower serum AMH concentrations in otherwise healthy boys with cryptorchidism, who were compared with their age-matched counterparts with palpable testes, have been reported previously. AMH levels are higher in prepubertal patients with varicocele than in controls. This altered serum profile of AMH in boys with varicoceles may indicate an early abnormality in the regulation of the seminiferous epithelial function. Serum AMH is known to be valuable in assessing gonadal function. As compared to testing involving the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, the measurement of AMH is more sensitive and equally specific. Measurement of AMH is very useful in young children, because serum gonadotropin concentrations in those who are agonadal are nondiagnostic in midchildhood and serum testosterone concentrations may fail to increase with provocative testing in children with abdominal testes. 1. Introduction Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), also named Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), is a tissue-specific TGF-beta superfamily growth factor. AMH is secreted by immature Sertoli cells (SC) and is responsible for the regression of Müllerian ducts in the male fetus as part of the sexual differentiation process [1, 2]. AMH is also involved in
Pemetrexed Combined with Cisplatin or Carboplatin Regimen in the Treatment of Advanced Recurrent or Metastasis Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of 63 Cases  [PDF]
Wei WANG,Liqun SHANG,Xuechang LI,Jun LI
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2011,
Abstract: Background and objective Since the poor outcome for advanced lung cancer with first-line chemotherapy, more efforts should be paid for treatment of advanced recurrent or metastasis non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Pemetrexed, as a multi-target antifolate chemotherapeutic drug, was approved for the second-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of pemetrexed combined with cisplatin/carboplatin in the treatment of advanced recurrent or metastasis NSCLC. Methods Sixty-three advanced recurrent or metastasis NSCLC patients confirmed with pathology or cytology were enrolled in this study. Among them, 40 cases were male and 23 were female, with 62 years of median age. The combination regimen was patients received pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 on day 1 and cisplatin 30 mg/m2 on day 1, day 2 and day 3 or carboplatin 300 mg/m2 on day 1 by intravenous infusion, with 21 days as one cycle. All patients who received 2 or more cycles could be evaluated. Results Only 1 case got complete response, with 5 cases partial response, 36 stable and 21 cases progressive. The overal control rate was 66.7% (42/63). The median survival time was 9.0 months, while the median progression-free survival was 5.0 months (3.0 months in squamous cell carcinoma; 5.5 months in adenocarcinoma). There was a significant difference between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (P=0.017). The common adverse effects were leucopenia, anemia and gastrointestinal response. Conclusion Pemetrexed combined with cisplatin/carboplatin is effective and feasible for advanced recurrent or metastasis NSCLC.
M. Saviano
Jurnalul de Chirurgie , 2010,
Abstract: Total thyroidectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy performed in benign pathology of thyroid? Methods: To answer this question we performed a retrospective study on 1103 cases with this pathology: 1082 cases first intervention and 51 cases for relapse pathology. Preoperative diagnosis included: evaluation of the functionality of the thyroid by lab tests, endocrinology exam, ORL exam, anhéstesiologique exam, chest radiograph, CT/MRI neck and thorax, ultrasound, scintigraphy, fine-needle aspiration cytologic diagnoses. Results: Preoperative diagnosis was multinodular goiter (1040 cs.) and Basedow (63 cs.) and surgical procedures performed were total thyroidectomy in 865 cs and subtotal thyroidectomy in 238 cs. In 92 cs were diving goiter and in 157 patients were diagnosed with large nodular goiter (>100 gr). The surgery made by 123 patients with thyroid carcinoma and 980 patients with benign pathology. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 2.5 days. In the group of 1032 patients without preoperative suspicion of neoplasia (cytology not performed preoperatively or negative) hidden carcinomas were 11.7% (121 patients) what requiring 11 surgical reinterventions for radicalization of subtotal thyroidectomy. In the group of 71 patients with preoperative suspicion of neoplasia by fine-needle aspiration papillary carcinoma were 2.8%, the rest being benign thyroid pathology. In the postoperative complications, recurrent nerve lesions were encountered in 78 cs (3.76% of 2206 nerves at risk). Bilateral paralysis immediate was encountered in 5 cs (0.4%): 2 cs after total thyroidectomy and 3 cs after subtotal thyroidectomy with permanent bilateral paralysis in all cases. The immediate unilateral paralysis was encountered in 73 patients, (6.6%/3.3% nerves): 40 cs (4.6%) after total thyroidectomy and 33 cs (13.8%) after subtotal thyroidectomy (p <0.0001). But permanent unilateral paralysis was recorded in 16 patients (1.4%/0.7% nerves): 9 cs (1.0%/0.5% nerves) after total thyroidectomy and 7 (2.9%/1.4% nerves) after subtotal thyroidectomy with insignificant p 0.030. Postoperative hypocalcemia secondary lesions of parathyroid glands was recorded in 222 patients. The permanent hypocalcemia was encountered in 52 cs (6%) after total thyroidectomy and 14 cs (5.8%) after subtotal thyroidectomy with insignificant p 0.8311. Conclusions: The incidence of recurrent nerve lesions, not higher even than in the total thyroidectomy versus subtotal thyroidectomy. The incidence of residual permanent hypoparathyroidism superimposable between the two techniques. The high incidence of carcinomas
Gonadotropin Treatment in Male Infertility  [PDF]
Zitzmann M,Behre HM,Kliesch S
Journal für Reproduktionsmedizin und Endokrinologie , 2013,
Abstract: Male hypogonadism is often associated with impaired fertility. In special cases, treatment with gonadotropins can induce, maintain or augment spermatogenesis. Patients responsive to such regimens are men with secondary hypogonadism, lacking gonadotropin secretion due to pituitary disorders or hypothalamic insufficiency. Such diseases may be inherited or acquired. Available substances are recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin (substituting activity of luteinizing hormone). Recommendation based on current research is that treatment should last at least 2 years. Successful induction of spermatogenesis is more likely in men with pituitary disorders than in those lacking hypothalamic GnRH secretion (e.g. patients with Kallman Syndrome).
Sexuality, Social Marginalization and Wounded Masculinity: A Male Sex Worker’s Case  [PDF]
Artūras Tere?kinas
Culture and Society : Journal of Social Research , 2011,
Abstract: A great number of men affected by rapid social, economic and political developments suffer severe marginalization due to their age, class, sexuality, disability and ethnicity in Lithuania. This paper examines the intersection of social marginalization, sexuality and masculinity. Using a Lithuanian male sex worker’s case, it argues that a dysfunctional family, poor employment and educational history and low socioeconomic status made his choice of sex work the means of survival. Differently from studies conducted in Europe and North America that suggest that enjoyment of sex was, in many cases, a reason for working as an escort, pleasurable sexual interactions with clients were not a critical reason for involvement in escorting in this case. The paper is based on an extensive semi-structured interview with a 27-year old male escort. The interview demonstrates that the Lithuanian sex worker both confirms and deconstructs the traditional male sexual script of erotic adventures (Gagnon and Simon 1973, 1984). On the one hand, he plays an active role both in sexual and non-sexual encounters and tries to look and act like a real man aspiring to the institutional gender script of hegemonic masculinity. On the other hand, he minimizes the risk in dealing with clients by not engaging in an unsafe sex, declining unwanted sexual practices and rejecting drugs. Besides pleasant memories of his generously paying clients who bolstered his sense of self, the escort is susceptible to societal condemnation, stigma, and self-doubt because he clearly considers his work as a conscious deviation from sexual and gender norms. Othering himself, the respondent expresses a subjective feeling of hopelessness and powerlessness that makes him miserable. Both powerlessness and the lack of imaginable future create a sense of his wounded and injured masculinity.
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