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Distribución geográfica y clave de las especies del género oritrophium (kunth) cuatrec.(asteraceae)
ARANGUREN B,Anairamiz; MORILLO,Gilberto; FARI?AS,Mario;
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2008,
Abstract: the genus oritrophium (asteraceae) is native of tropical and subtropical mountains from bolivia to mexico. an updated list and a species key are provided. illustrations of 13 species are included. a cluster analysis of the distribution by countries of the genus is presented. the 21 currently known species of the genus are found between 1500 and 5400 m asl. as a conclusion oritrophium has a disjunct distribution between north america and south america, with higher number of species and a higher endemism in ecuador, perú and venezuela.
A nomenclator for the frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae)
Mauricio Diazgranados
PhytoKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.16.3186
Abstract: The páramos and high Andean forests of the tropical Andes are largely dominated by frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae). These plants are ecologically and culturally essential for both ecosystems and local inhabitants. The frailejones have been studied for over two centuries, but the taxonomic knowledge is still sparse and incomplete. The inedited monograph by Cuatrecasas contains only ca. 70% of the species known today, and publications in the last decade disagree regarding the number of taxa within the group, with estimates ranging from 3 genera and 90 species to 8 genera and 154 species. Moreover the literature contains inexact information about their distribution. As part of a study of the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of the group, a thorough revision of the nomenclature was needed as a first step. Currently the subtribe has 8 recognized genera, 141 species, 17 subspecies, 22 varieties, 8 forms, 33 recognized hybrids, 142 synonyms and 5 invalid names, for a total of 368 names (autonyms not counted). The most current list of taxa is presented here, along with some notes and Spanish names. Tamananthus crinitus V.M.Badillo is not included within the subtribe. Various previous species or infraspecific taxa (i.e. Carramboa tachirensis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec., Espeletia algodonosa Aristeg., E. aurantia Aristeg., E. brassicoidea var. macroclada, E. brassicoidea var. pedunculata, E. garcibarrigae Cuatrec. and Espeletiopsis cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.) are proposed or confirmed as hybrids. Two new records for Colombia are mentioned: Ruilopezia cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., which is the first report of Ruilopezia for that country, and Espeletia steyermarkii Cuatrec. Observations regarding the frequency of hybrids in the subtribe are also given.
ACTIVIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA DE Diplostephium tolimense Cuatrec. (ASTERACEAE) FRENTE A Staphylococcus aureus ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Diplostephium tolimense Cuatrec. (ASTERACEAE) AGAINST Staphylococcus aures  [cached]
Liliana áVILA,Eduard BAQUERO,Amparo VI?A,Elizabeth MURILLO
Vitae , 2006,
Abstract: Se presenta el estudio de la actividad antibacteriana de la especie vegetal Diplostephium tolimense Cuatrec. (Asteraceae), colectada en el páramo del nevado del Tolima, la cual cuenta con pocos estudios químicos y farmacológicos, al igual que muchas otras especies de este ecosistema. A partir de un extracto etanólico crudo y mediante partición biodirigida se obtiene la fracción más simple de mayor actividad frente a Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). Paralelamente se realizan análisis fitoquímicos a las porciones de mayor bioactividad obtenidas durante todo el proceso. Se observa que la acción antibacteriana se incrementa al aumentar la simplicidad química del extracto y que terpenos y flavonoides parecen estar relacionados con la acción revelada. Se trata del primer reporte, hasta la fecha conocido, de actividad antibacteriana in vitro para D. tolimense. A study of antibacterial activity of the Diplostephium tolimense Cuatrec (Asteraceae) vegetal species, which was collected in the paramo of Tolima, is presented. This species, as many others of this ecosystem, has had few chemical and pharmacological studies. The simplest fraction with the largest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), is obtained starting from a raw ethanol extract and by means of bioassay guided partition. Parallelly, phytochemical analyses to the portions of greater bioactivity, obtained during the whole process, are carried out. It is observed that antibacterial action increases as the chemical simplicity increases and that the presence of terpenes and flavonoids seems to be related with this action. This is the first report, so far well-known, of in vitro antibacterial activity for D. tolimense.
ACTIVIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA DE Diplostephium tolimense Cuatrec. (ASTERACEAE) FRENTE A Staphylococcus aureus
áVILA,Liliana; BAQUERO,Eduard; VI?A,Amparo; MURILLO,Elizabeth;
Vitae , 2006,
Abstract: a study of antibacterial activity of the diplostephium tolimense cuatrec (asteraceae) vegetal species, which was collected in the paramo of tolima, is presented. this species, as many others of this ecosystem, has had few chemical and pharmacological studies. the simplest fraction with the largest activity against staphylococcus aureus (atcc 25923), is obtained starting from a raw ethanol extract and by means of bioassay guided partition. parallelly, phytochemical analyses to the portions of greater bioactivity, obtained during the whole process, are carried out. it is observed that antibacterial action increases as the chemical simplicity increases and that the presence of terpenes and flavonoids seems to be related with this action. this is the first report, so far well-known, of in vitro antibacterial activity for d. tolimense.
Estudo anat?mico de folha e caule de Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae)
Empinotti, Cláudia Bonissoni;Duarte, Márcia do Rocio;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2008000100020
Abstract: commonly known as erva-de-colégio in portuguese, elephantopus mollis kunth (asteraceae) is a perennial herb, with slightly lignified base, short branches and purple flowers. its leaves are used as emollient, vulnerary and diaphoretic, and to treat bronchitis, coughs and influenza in folk medicine. the aim of this work was to study leaf and stem anatomical characters, in order to expand the knowledge for this medicinal plant identification. adult leaves and stem fragments were fixed, sectioned and stained either with astra blue/basic fuchsine or toluidine blue. microchemical essays and scanning electron analysis were also carried out. the leaf has wavy-contoured cells in surface view, forming a single layer and coated with striate cuticle. non-glandular and glandular trichomes occur. the former is erect, multicellular and uniseriate. the glandular ones are capitate and biseriate. the mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib is traversed by collateral vascular bundles arranged in open arc. the stem, in initial secondary growth, has uniseriate epidermis coated with striate cuticle and trichomes similar to the leaf. in the cortex, annular collenchyma alternates with chlorenchyma and an endodermis with casparian strips is found. sclerenchymatic caps adjoin the phloem, which is formed outwards by the vascular cambia, while the xylem is produced inwards. the pith is parenchymatic. small calcium oxalate crystals are present in the leaf and stem.
EFECTO DEL GRADIENTE ALTITUDINAL SOBRE ASPECTOS AUTOECOLóGICOS DE ESPELETIA PYCNOPHYLLA ssp. ANGELENSIS CUATREC. (ASTERACEAE) EN EL PáRAMO EL INFIERNILLO (NARI O-COLOMBIA) THE EFFECT OF THE ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT ON AUTOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ESPELETIA PYCNOPHYLLA ssp. ANGELENSIS CUATREC. (ASTERACEAE) IN THE PARAMO 'EL INFIERNILLO' (NARI O-COLOMBIA)
Iván F. Benavides-Martínez,Diana L. Burbano-Martínez,Sandra M. Urbano-Apráez,María E. Solarte-Cruz
Actualidades Biológicas , 2007,
Abstract: Se estudió el efecto de la elevación sobre algunos aspectos autoecológicos de la especie Espeletia pycnophylla ssp. angelensis Cuatrec. (Asteraceae), tales como su estructura demográfica, densidad poblacional, patrón de distribución espacial, producción de estructuras reproductivas, morfometría de adultos y supervivencia, en un páramo seco del departamento de Nari o (Colombia). Las hipótesis propuestas por otros autores acerca del efecto lineal que la elevación produce sobre estas variables, fueron completamente rechazadas. La elevación induce un efecto coenoclínico sobre la densidad poblacional y ésta a su vez, se correlaciona negativamente con la producción de estructuras reproductivas y el tama o de los adultos, evidenciándose un efecto inequívoco del fenómeno de la densodependencia sobre el potencial biótico de la población. En la zona intermedia del gradiente, la densidad poblacional es máxima, pero los tama os corporales son reducidos, la producción de estructuras reproductivas es mínima y la probabilidad de que un juvenil alcance edades avanzadas es baja. Evidentemente, esta elevación intermedia estaría presentando condiciones ecológicas favorables para el establecimiento y supervivencia de plántulas, lo que a largo plazo conlleva a un aumento de la densidad poblacional. Se propone que las generalizaciones de otros autores acerca de la influencia de la elevación sobre la autoecología de estas plantas son inverosímiles y limitadas, ya que la historia particular de vida y disturbio del páramo y los aislamientos espaciales, ecológicos y genéticos, son factores explicativos que no pueden aislarse del contexto. Paralelamente, la población se ajustó al modelo demográfico logarítmico, revelando su temprano estado de regeneración frente a la última quema ocurrida en el 2003, y la similitud de las curvas de supervivencia entre todas las elevaciones, probó una alta estabilidad demográfica. Some autoecological features of Espeletia pycnophylla ssp. angelensis Cuatrec. such as its demographic structure, population density, spatial pattern of dispersion, production of reproductive structures, adult morphometry and survivorship, were studied in an altitudinal gradient on a dry paramo of Nari o (Colombia). Hypothesis proposed by other authors about a linear effect caused by the elevation on these variables were completely rejected. The elevation induces an ecoclinal effect on population density, and this density correlates negatively with both production of reproductive structures and adult sizes. These results elucidate an unequivocal effect of density-dependen
Immunomodulatory Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Sch Beep (Asteraceae) Leaf in Rabbits
FA Yapo, FH Yapi, H Ahiboh, M-L Hauhouot-Attounbre, NZ Guédé, JA Djaman, D Monnet
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: The leaves of Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Sch. Beep. or (syn: Conyza sumatrensis (Retz) E.K. Walker) (Asteraceae) are used by some traditional healers in West Africa in HIV/AIDS therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the immune-boosting properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Erigeron floribundus (Ef) by monitoring blood markers of cellular immunity in rabbit. Methods: Two sets each of five groups (six rabbits per group) were used in this study. The groups in the first set each received intraperitoneally a single dose of Ef (25, 50, 75 or 100 mg/kg) or 0.9 % NaCl (control). The groups in the second set received methylprednisolone (15 mg/kg, MP15) and mixtures of MP15 with Ef (50, 75 or 100 mg/kg), MP15 or isoprinosine 50 mg/kg (Ip50, reference standard). Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes from the marginal vein of the rabbit ear on Days 0, 3, 9, 15 and 21 after administration for the determination of CD4+ count by flow cytometry, and also of neutrophils and total lymphocytes in the blood. Results: Each plant extract dose tested (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) induced a significant increase in neutrophils (p < 0.001), total lymphocytes and TCD4+ (p < 0.0001) from the 3rd to 15th day after administration, compared to control (0.9 % NaCl). Furthermore, the same test extract doses significantly reversed the immunosuppressive effect of methylprednisolone (p < 0.001) to the same extent as isoprinosine. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of the leaves of Erigeron floribundus stimulated the increase of neutrophils, total lymphocytes and TCD4+ in rabbit blood and thus provides some justification for its use in the traditional treatment of AIDS.
Comparative profiles of Achyrocline alata (Kunth) DC. and A. satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae, applying HPLC-DAD-MS
Grassi-Zampieron, Rafaela;Fran?a, Leonardo V.;Carollo, Carlos A.;Vieira, Maria do Carmo;Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto;Siqueira, Jo?o M. de;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2010000400017
Abstract: a comparative analysis between the hydromethanolic extracts of achyrocline alata (kunth) dc. and a. satureioides (lam.) dc., asteraceae, was performed by the use of hplc-dad-ms. both plants were used without distinction and under the same indications in folk medicine in mato grosso do sul, brasil. while achyrocline alata ("jatei-ka-ha") is used in folk medicine of the brazilian state of mato grosso do sul, a. satureioides is predominantly used in other states. samples of both plants collected in different periods, 1996 and 2002, showed a very similar chemical profile. the results indicate that a alata could be used in phytotherapeutic preparations as substitue for a. satureioides, since they have similar chemical compositions of the polar extract.
Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae) presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia)  [cached]
Gómez Juan Carlos,Galeano Garcés Gloria Amparo
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2005,
Abstract: En el trabajo científico y práctico con plantas, identificar las especies es fundamental. Esta identificación se realiza con el uso de claves, las cuales proporcionan la identidad correcta de una especie a través de un proceso de eliminación por contraste. En este trabajo se planteó elaborar una clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae) reportados en la Reserva Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia), como herramienta para el reconocimiento de la flora local. Se obtuvo una clave interactiva en formato DELTA para los 31 géneros de la familia Asteraceae registrados en la reserva, con un listado de 173 caracteres diagnósticos para la familia, que engloban la variabilidad de las 57 especies estudiadas. Además, fue ilustrada con fotografías y dibujos de las especies y de los caracteres para facilitar el proceso de identificación, y se preparó para ser publicada en Internet de manera que pueda ser utilizada desde la red o quemada en un CD sin necesidad de conexión. La clave demostró ser eficiente para identificar los géneros de Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.
Composi??o química volátil e n?o-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae
Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.;Santos, Hélcio S. dos;Souza, Elnatan B. de;Silva, Rochanne M. da;Menezes, Jane Eire Silva A. de;Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L.;Braz-Filho, Raimundo;Costa, S?nia Maria O.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2010000400023
Abstract: this work describes the chemical composition of the essential oils and the isolation of eleven substances from eupatorium ballotifolium kunth, asteraceae. the essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by gc/ms and evaluated towards the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. the oils yield was of 0.11% for the leaves and 0.03% for the stems. the main constituents of the oils were the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (24.9 and 22.2%), spathulenol (17.7 and 12.4%) and epoxy-allo-aromadendrene (23.0 and 23.6%). from the hexane extract of the aerial part were isolated a mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol, its glucosides, and the triterpenes taraxasteryl acetate and taraxasterol, while from the ethanol extract were obtained the flavonoids nepetin and 3-o-glucoside-quercetin. the triterpenes epi-friedelanol and dammara-20,24-dien-3β-ol were obtained from the hexane extract of roots, while the coumarin 11-hydroxy-11,12-di-hydroobliquine was obtained from the ethanol extract. the structures of all compounds were determinate based on spectroscopic methods such as ir, ms and 1h and 13c nmr
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