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Anatomical Study of Salicornieae Dumort. (Chenopodiaceae Vent.) Native to Iran
Maryam Keshavarzi,Golshan Zare
International Journal of Botany , 2006,
Abstract: Tribe Salicornieae (Salicornioideae, Chenopodiaceae) includes halophyte plants. Five genera (6 species) of this tribe are distributed in different habitats of Iran. Members of this tribe have reduced vegetative parts, scale like leaves and articulated stems. The variation of anatomical characters of the tribe was studied in Iran using fresh and herbarium materials. In this study quantitative and qualitative anatomical characters for 36 accessions of tribe Salicornieae were evaluated. Morphological variation is fairly high and partly overlapping so they are not sufficient to distinguish these taxa. Despite some uniformity in stem and root transverse sections and stomata type, some anatomical variation is distinct. In epidermis there are some differences in stomata index, width and length of guard cells and papilla features between taxa. In the stem transverse sections the width of aquatic tissues and medullary zone, number of vascular bundles, shape of tracheid cells and papilla hairs show some variations. The great variability in anatomical characters of Salicornia species indicated that this taxon should be studied more carefully by molecular and histochemical methods further. Anatomical features of stem and epidermis are capable of resolving taxonomic problems of this tribe in Iran.
TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS SALICORNIA L. (CHENOPODIACEAE) IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN IRAN  [PDF]
HOSSEIN AKHANI
Pakistan Journal of Botany , 2008,
Abstract: Salicornia is a most complicated vascular plant group which its taxonomy and species circumscription is considered as a night-mare. This first revision of Iranian species is based on long-term field studies, co-cultivation of plants in the laboratory, ecological, cytological and molecular studies and determination of carbon isotope composition. In this paper the species of Central and Southern Iran are dealt with which will be followed by another paper on the Northern and Northwestern parts of Iran. In this paper the presence of four species, one subspecies and one putative hybrid in the area is accepted. In addition to recently described S. persica Akhani from Central Iran, four more new taxa and one new putative hybrid are described for science: (1) S. iranica Akhani spec. nov. is a diploid species widespread in central Iranian salines. This is characterized by erect habit and short opposite upper spikes; (2) S. sinus-persica Akhani spec. nov. is described from Southern Iran in Khuzestan, Bushehr and Hormozgan Provinces along the saline and brackish rivers running to the Persian Gulf and estuaries and coastal habitats. This is a diploid species characterized by yellowish colour and ascending to loosely prostrate and much branched habit; (3) S. perspolitana Akhani spec. nov. is related to S. persica which is described from South-Central Iranian salines around Tashk and Bakhtegan hypersaline lakes. This is a prostrate plant with leaf-like bracts, a character which is known for the first time in the genus Salicornia; (4) S. persica subsp. rudshurensis Akhani is a taxon found in North-Central Iran in Tehran province which differs from typical subspecies by slender spikes and obtuse central flowers; and (5) S. x tashkensis Akhani hybrid nov. is a putative hybrid found only in Tashk lake in South-Central Iran. The elongate and pendant fruiting spikes and absence of seeds in most flowers is distinctive in this taxon. The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of most species are given and the chromosome numbers (so far investigated) are reported. The ecology, threats and biogeographical importance of the species are discussed and photographs of living plants are provided. An identification key to the known species of Iranian Salicornia is given.
Genetic Properties of Milk Thistle Ecotypes from Iran for Morphological and Flavonolignans Characters  [PDF]
Majid Shokrpour,Mohammad Moghaddam,Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi,Seyed Ali Ziai
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic variation within and between 32 milk thistle ecotypes collected from northern (23 accessions) and southern (9 accessions) regions of Iran along with two introduced varieties, CN seeds and Budakalaszi, for morphological and flavonolignans properties. The two collections were assessed at separate field experiments. MANOVA for all the morphological traits showed significant difference between ecotypes. Univariate ANOVA verified these differences for most of the traits in the northern ecotypes (first collection) while for southern ecotypes no significant differences were obtained for the studied traits except seed yield. Among and within ecotypes genotypic coefficient of variation indicated higher level of variation among ecotypes than within ecotypes. In both of the experiments, there was a large genetic variation for silybin and silymarin quality and quantity. Cluster analysis of 34 accessions was performed for morphological traits and silymarin and silybin characteristics, separately. The resulting dendrogram based on silybin and silymarin characteristics revealed that the native accessions such as Dezfoul, Fereydounkenar and Nour, had highest flavonolignans and they were better than the foreign varieties. Also, there was no clear relationship between clustering based on morphological traits and flavonolignan compounds.
Systematic Study of Bromus danthoniae (Poaceae) Native to Iran
M. Keshavarzi,S. Direkvandy,F. Abivardi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In this study different varieties of Bromus danthoniae in Iran are considered. Qualitative and quantitative morphological characters were evaluated for 32 accessions. Epidermal features were also studied for these accessions. The most variable morphological characters in the species delimitation were also determined. The varieties show significant variations in features as Awn status, Spike and spikelet length, Nerve number of Upper Glume, Lemma, Palea and Caryopsis length. Diagnostic features based on studied characters are identified and the varieties relationships are discussed.
The Study of Morphological, Syntactic, and Semantic Errors Made by Native Speakers of Persian and English Children
Reza Kafipour,Laleh Khojasteh
Studies in Literature and Language , 2011, DOI: 10.3968/2164
Abstract: This study tried to analyze the errors made by Persian-speaking learners of English and English children learning English as their mother tongue. The researcher analyzed errors according to surface strategy taxonomy rather than comparative taxonomy. To do this study, the researcher selected 40 homogenous Persian-speaking learners of English and administered an elicitation test to the participants. The instrument for elicitation test were two pictures one related to US war against Iraq and Nouroz as the most popular national holiday in Iran. The participants were asked to write an essay type composition based on their background knowledge about the pictures. Then, the errors in their writing were extracted and analyzed. Descriptive statistics and chi-square were used to analyze data. According to the results, no significant difference was found among errors made by Persian-speakers learning English and English children learning English as their mother tongue. Key words: Morphological; Syntactic; Semantic; Native Speakers
ORIGIN,DIFFERENTIATION,AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHENOPODIACEAE
藜科植物的起源,分化和地理分布

Zhu Ge-lin,
朱格麟

植物分类学报 , 1996,
Abstract: : Numbers of species and genera, endemic genera, extant primitive genera, relationship and distribution patterns of presently living Chenopodiaceae (two subfamilies, 12 tribes, and 118 genera) are analyzed and compared for eight distributional areas, namely central Asia, Europe, the Mediterranean region, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and East Asia. The Central Asia, where the number of genera and diversity of taxa are greater than in other areas, appears to be the center of distribution of extant Chenopodiaceae. North America and Australia are two secondary centers of distribution. Eurasia has 11 tribes out of the 12, a total of 70 genera of extant chenopodiaceous plants, and, it contains ,the most primitive genera of every tribe. Archiatriplex of Atrip-liceae, Hablitzia of Hablitzeae, Corispermum of Corispermeae, Campharosma of Camphoros-maea, Kalidium of Salicornieae, Polecnemum of Polycnemeae, Alexandra of Suaedeae, and Nanophyton of Salsoleae, are all found in Eurasia. The Beteae is an Eurasian endemic tribe, demonstrating the antiquity of the Chenopodiaceae flora of Eurasia. Hence, Eurasia is likely the place of .origin of chenopodiaceous plants. The presence of chenopodiaceous plants is correlated with an arid climate. During the Cretaceous Period, most places of the continent of Eurasia were occupied by the ancient precursor to the Mediterranean, the Tethys Sea. At that time the area of the Tethys Sea had a dry and warm climate. Therefore, primitive Chenopodiaceae were likely present on the beaches of this ancient land. This arid climatic condition resulted in differentiation of the tribes Chenopodieae, Atripliceae, Comphorosmeae, Salicornieae, etc. , the main primitive tribes of the subfamily Cyclolobeae. Then following continental drift and the Laurasian and Gondwanan disintegration, the Chenopodiaceae were brought to every continent to propagate and develop, and experience the vicissitudes of climates, forming the main characteristics and distribution patterns of recent continental floras. The tribes Atripliceae, Chenopodieae, Camphorosmeae, and Salicornieae of recent Chenopodiaceae in Eurasia, North America, South America, southern Africa, and Australia all became strongly differentiated. However, Australia and South America, have no genera of Spirolobeae except for a few maritime Suaeda species. The Salsoleae and Suaedeae have not arrived in Australia and South America, which indicates that the subfamily Spirolobeae developed in Eurasia after Australia separated from the ancient South America- Africa continent, and South America had left Africa. The endemic tribe of North America, the tribe Sarcobateae, has a origin different from the tribes Salsoleae and Suaedeae of the subfamily Spirolobeae. Sarcobateae flowers diverged into unisexuality and absence of bractlets. Clearly they originated in North America after North America had left the Eurasian continent. North America and southern Africa have a few species of Sals
Evaluation of genetic diversity among some wild populations of Achillea bieberstenii Afan. from Iran using morphological and agronomical traits  [cached]
Seyed Fazel Mirahmadi,Mohammad Reza Hasandokht,Mohammad Esmail Hassani,Fatemeh Sefidkon
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, genetic diversity among 25 populations (each population 6 plants) of Achillea bieberstenii Afan. collected from 12 provinces of Iran using a total of 35 morphological and agronomical characteristics including 31 quantitative and 4 qualitative traits was evaluated as an important step for possible use in the breeding programs of this medicinal plant. According to the results of analysis of variance, there were significant differences among the studied populations for some important characters. Also, results of simple correlation analysis were shown the significant positive and negative correlations among some important characters. Factor analysis was also used for defining of the determinant factors and the characters constituted in each factor. In Principal component analysis (PCA), 10 main and independent factors with over Eigen values than two explained 85.36% of the total variation related to main effective characters. Based on the constructed dendrogram, 25 populations of A. biebersteinii were clearly divided into 11 main clusters. Groups mainly have differences in yield and yield components. In this investigation not only was observed high variation for studied morphological characteristics but also some native populations were clearly shown their valuable breeding potential in some agronomical traits for breeding programs and medicinal purposes.
Morphological Study of Honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) in Iran  [cached]
Gholam Hossein Tahmasebi,Rahim Ebadi,Morteza Esmaili,Jafar Kambousia
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 1998,
Abstract: The first step in fundamental breeding of any living organism is the determination of its genetic make-up. To investigate the genetic make-up of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) in Iran, some research attempts were made during the years 1992-1996 in which the bee's relationship with some exotic races were determined through the application of morphological methods. For this purpose 13000 samples of worker bees from 1320 colonies of 212 apiaries in 104 cities at 25 provinces were taken and twelve morphological characters were measured by using the international method (Ruttner, 1978). Furthermore, seven morphological characters of 900 drone samples taken from 403 colonies of 111 apiaries in 42 cities at 10 provinces were studied through the same method. The principle component analysis (PCA) was used for statistical analysis of the data obtained. The results indicated that the existing populations of honeybees under study were of the Iranian honeybee race (Apis mellifera meda) which were completely distinguishable from those of imported races such as A.m. carnica, A.m. ligustica, A.m. caucasica and exotic races such as A.m. anatoliaca, A.m. syriaca; A.m. yemenitica and A.m. lamarkii. The imported races had not had great genetic impact on the Iranian race, as the Iranian honeybees have had good consistency and stability. In addition, import of the exotic queens has been ceased in the last decade.
Morphological Variation and Taxonomic Conclusion of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. In Iran  [PDF]
Akram Nasiri,Hojjatollah Saeidi,Mohamad Reza Rahiminejad
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Cynodon dactylon is widely distributed in Iran in diverse habitats. In this study, morphological variation of 46 populations of this species was evaluated based on 52 qualitative and quantitative characters to reveal the true taxonomic situation of the species. High morphological variation with no significant correlation with geographical and ecological conditions was observed. Among the morphological characters, presence of hair on leaf and sheath surfaces and spike color had major role on groupings in dendrogram. Based on the results of this study, presence of pilose hairs on leaf surfaces and outer surface of leaf sheath were shown to be stable diagnostic characters in detecting infraspecific taxa and accordingly, the species C. dactylon present in Iran two varieties: var. dactylon and var. villosus Regel. A morphological description for this species and taxonomic key of the varieties are provided.
Neural Tube Defects in Native Fars Ethnicity in Northern Iran
MJ Golalipour,L Najafi,AA Keshtkar
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2010,
Abstract: "nBackground: Neural tube defects (NTD) are one of the leading causes of infant mortality worldwide. This study was de-signed to determine the prevalence of NTDs among native Fars ethnic groups during 1998-2005, and to identify maternal and demographic factors associated with NTDs. "nMethods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study in Dezyani Hospital, Gorgan, North of Iran, since January 1998 until December 2005. The design was based on a sample of 30,639 births of native Fars ethnic groups. Data were analyzed by using spss V13.5 software and were compared with the chi-square test."nResults: The prevalence of NTDs in Native Fars during the 8-year period was 25.4 per 10000 births (95% confidence inter-val: 20.1-31.8). The prevalence of NTDs was 20.6/10000 and 30.6/10000 in males and females respectively but this differ-ence was not significant. The prevalence of spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele were 12.7, 11.4 and 1.3 per 10000 respec-tively. The rate of NTD was 48.9/10000 in newborns with mothers aged > 35 years. The highest rate of NTDs and spina bi-fida was in 2002. The highest and lowest rate of anencephaly was in 2005 and 2003 respectively. Twenty eight percent of the parents had consanguineous marriages. Degree relatedness 3, 4, 5 and 6 of consanguineous marriages were 12.8%, 9%, 3.8%, 2.5%, respectively. Also 47.5% of the parents resided in rural areas. "nConclusion: This investigation showed that the rate of NTDs in Native Fars was higher in Iran. In addition, this rate is higher than the Canada and Ukraine and lower than Chinese people.
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