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Effect of Duration of Cooking of Lablab purpureus Beans on the Performance Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Shika-brown Pullet Chicks  [PDF]
F.O. Abeke,S.O. Ogundipe,S. Oladele,A.A. Sekoni
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The effect of duration of cooking of Lablab purpureus beans on the performance, organ weight and haematological parameters of Shika-brown pullet chicks from 0-8 weeks was investigated. Eight dietary treatments of which seven in which Lablab purpureus beans cooked for 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) was included and a control (Corn-Soyacake-Groundnut-cake based diet) were formulated. These were replicated three times with 25 birds per replicate in a complete randomized design. The birds were managed under the deep litter system. Results obtained showed that cooking time had significant (p< 0.05) improvement on performance characteristics such as final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and percent mortality. Organ weights such as the liver, the heart and the pancreas decreased as the duration of cooking increased while haematological parameters such as the Total Protein (TP) the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and the Haemoglobin (Hb) increased slightly, (although not significantly) in the blood up to about 30 min of cooking before decreasing as the duration of cooking continued to increase. These observations are indications that higher durations of cooking up to about 30 min render the nutrients in the raw lablab seeds more available for utilization by the birds.
Net requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals for weight gain of grazing beef cattle castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation
Rocha, Anilza Andréia da;Paulino, Mário Fonseca;Fernandes, Henrique Jorge;Barros, Lívia Vieira de;Lopes, Sidnei Antonio;Galon, Leandro;Silva, Aline Gomes da;Almeida, Daniel Mageste de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000200025
Abstract: the objective of this experiment was to estimate the requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals of grazing crossbreds calves, in brachiaria decumbens stapf pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. forty-seven young calves at initial age of 120±30.1 days and 115.3±1.97 kg of live weight were used. to estimate net energy requirements for weight gain, a regression equation between energy retained in the gain and empty body weight gain and metabolic empty body weight was obtained. for estimation of net protein requirements for weight gain, a regression equation was adjusted between protein retained in gain and empty body weight gain and energy content of this gain. net requirements of ca, p, mg and na for weight gain were determined by the equation y' = a.b. xb-1, in which a and b represent the intercept and the coefficient of the alometric equation of macromineral body content prediction, respectively. neither castration nor concentrate supplementation affects body weight gain net requirements, except the ones of ca, which were higher for non-castrated animals.
Body composition and net protein and energy requirements for weight gain of crossbred dairy cattle in grazing
Andrade, Dulciene Karla Bezerra de;Véras, Antonia Sherlanea Chaves;Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade;Santos, Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos;Melo, Wellington Samay de;Pereira, Kedes Paulo;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982009000400022
Abstract: the body composition and net protein and energy requirements for weight gain of 5/8 hostein-zebu crossbred cattle raised in brachiaria decumbens spaft pasture were evaluated. in total, 16 bulls with 10 months of age and body weight (bw) of 180 ± 19.95 kg were used. the animals were kept with free access to pasture or with restricted grazing (from 6 to 10 h). four animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experimental period to estimate the empty body weight (ebw) and the initial body composition of the remaining animals. the other animals were slaughtered at the end of the 84-day trial period. the logarithm equations of the protein and energy body content were adjusted according to the logarithm of the empty body weight ebw. from these equations, the net protein and energy requirements for weight gain were estimated. there was an increase in fat (from 37.17 to 59.08 g/kg ebw) and energy (from 1.68 to 1.94 mcal/kg ebw) concentrations, with increase in body weight from 150 to 250 kg. the protein and energy requirements for gaining 1 kg of ebw increased with the increase in body weight or empty body weight. the relationship between fat concentration in gain and protein requirements also increased, indicating that as the bw or ebw increase, more fat deposition in the gain is observed.
Body composition and net requirements of protein and energy for weight gain of Nellore and crossbreed steers finished under grazing
Sant′Ana, N.F.;Fontes, C.A.A.;Silva, R.S.T.;Garcia, C.S.;Vieira, R.A.M.;Rocha, T.C.;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000400028
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate body composition and net requirements of protein and energy for weight gain of nellore and crossbred f1 limousin-nellore steers finished on mombasa grass pastures. mombasa grass (panicum maximum) pastures were managed under intermitent stocking during the rainy season, with a forage offer of 8% of the body weight (bw) based on the dry matter of green leaves. twenty-four steers were used: 12 were nellore (386 kg sbw) and 12 were f1 limousin-nellore (397 kg sbw). changes in body composition in a 104-day experimental period were evaluated according to the comparative slaughter method. after slaughter, all body components were weighed and representative samples of carcass (hh section) and non-carcass tissues were collected, processed and chemically analyzed to determine body contents of protein, fat and energy in each animal. linearized allometric equations were fitted to describe the pattern of growth of body components as a function of empty body weight of the animals. the obtained equations were derived to predict net requirements of protein and energy for weight gain. there were no differences between nellore and crossbreed steers regarding to protein deposition. nellore animals tended to a greater deposition of energy on weight compared to crossbred animals. it is possible to obtain well finished carcass in nellore and crossbred steers with a greater weight on tropical pastures with an adequate supply of leaves.
Effect of complete feed starch banana weevil pea stone on the beans goats system in vivo against carcass weight and carcass part  [cached]
A. Aswandi,C. I. Sutrisno,M. Arifin,Joelal Achmadi
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v3i1.3010
Abstract: The objective of this research is to study the value of benefits in favor of complete feed production performance and carcass weight of any part of the carcass part-goat nuts. The design used in this study. Random Draft Complete. The material used in this study of 12 male goats Nuts averaging initial body weight (15.58 ± 2.601 kg) with a CV: 16.69%, age 10-15 months. At the end of the study 12 goats to know the weight of nuts cut carcass and parts of the carcass. Results of analysis of variance showed that treatment of complete feed on a significantly different (P <0.05) on carcass weight produced goat nuts. Results of analysis of variance showed that treatment of complete feed on a significantly different (P <0.05) against the weight of all the parts ice nuts goat carcass neck, shoulder, breast, leg chump on, ribs, loin, fore shank and the weight of the flank. CF0 and CF3 treatment effects did not provide a very real difference to the weight of carcass parts, but the weight of the carcass are treated CF3 higher than the CF0. This is in line with the expressed [Keywords— banana weevil stone, complete feed goat bean]
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 2000,
Abstract: The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa bean s quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of £. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% were placed in ventilated plastic jars (Ikg/jar) and stored for 6 months under room conditions. Seven larvae of £. cautella instar IV (2 males and 5 females) were introduced in each jar at the beginning of storage. Untreated jars contained only cocoa beans. Population of £. cautella on fermented cocoa beans with either initial moisture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The population either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 7% was lower than that of 9%, and the population of all treatments increased during storage. Moisture content of all treatments either on cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% had the same pattern. The percentage of insect-damaged beans on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented cocoa beans after 5 to 6 months of storage. The damaged beans on fermented cocoa after 6 months of storage was not different than on unfermented beans after 4 months of storage. The weig ht loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 9% was higher than that with initial moisture content of 7%. The weight loss on fermented cocoa beans either with mois ture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The weight loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans increased during storage. The percentage of mouldy beans on cocoa infested with £. cautella tended to increase during storage, while on beans not infested with the insect it fluctuated during storage. The highest percentage of mouldy beans was on unfermented and infested cocoa beans. Twenty-one fungal species were isolated from all treatments of coco a beans during storage. The total fungal population on fermented and unfermented beans had the same pattern. The population on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented beans. Total lipid content on fermented cocoa beans either infested or not with £. cautella having initial moisture content of 7 or 9%, was lower than that of unfermented beans. The content either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans and either infested or no
Gilda Carrasco,Jaime Tapia,Miguel Urrestarazu
IDESIA , 2006,
Abstract: Se estudió el contenido de nitrato en lechugas cultivadas en sistemas hidropónicos. Altos niveles de nitrato pueden ser da inos a la salud humana. La Comisión Europea indica que las plantas de lechuga cultivadas en invernadero en período invernal deberían contener una concentración de nitrato foliar menor a 4.500 mg/kg (peso fresco). En este estudio se determinaron los contenidos de nitrato de lechugas cultivadas en los sistemas hidropónicos de mesa flotante y nutrient film technique (NFT), en invernadero no calefaccionado y en invierno. Cuatro experimentos se realizaron en Talca, Chile, en período invernal (mayo a septiembre). Tres cultivares de lechuga tipo Espa ola (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) fueron evaluados: “Loreto”, “Floresta” y “Esmeralda”. En el sistema flotante, el contenido de nitrato foliar fluctuó entre 1.344 y 3.839 mg/kg y desde 1.754 a 2.157 mg/kg a inicios y término del período invernal, respectivamente. Los contenidos de nitrato en cultivares de lechuga cultivados en el sistema NFT fluctuaron desde 2.552 a 2.818 mg/kg y entre 2.676 a 3.100 mg/kg a inicios y fin del invierno, respectivamente. Ninguno de los cultivares de lechuga sobrepasó el contenido máximo estipulado por la Comisión Europea y tampoco existieron diferencias consistentes entre ellas. The nitrate content in leafy vegetables grown in hydroponic systems was studied. High levels of nitrate may be hazardous to human health. The European Commission indicates that lettuce plants grown in a greenhouse in winter should contain a nitrate concentration below 4,500 mg/kg (fresh weight). This study determined the nitrate contents of lettuces grown by float and nutrient film technique (NFT) in hydroponic systems, in greenhouse without a heating system at winter time. Four trials were carried out in Talca, Chile (south hemisphere) from May to September. Three cultivars of type butterhead lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata): “Loreto”, “Floresta” and “Esmeralda” were evaluated. In the float system, the leafy nitrate content fluctuated between 1,344 and 3,839 mg/ kg and from 1,754 to 2,157 mg/kg at beginning and end of winter, respectively. The nitrate contents in lettuces grown in NFT, fluctuated from 2,552 to 2,818 mg/kg and between 2,676 to 3,100 mg/kg at beginning and end of winter time, respectively. Neither of lettuce cultivars surpassed the maximum nitrate content stipulated by the European Commission, nor were there consistent differences among them.
The Grey Number Evaluation of Road Net based on Trigonometry Whitening Weight(TWW) Function

LIU Jun-juan,WANG Wei,CHENG Lin,

系统工程理论与实践 , 2007,
Abstract: With road developing,the road net plays more and mose roles in economy development.In fact,connotation and extension of the road net is blurry,it is a grey system.Consider revising actuality of the road net and comparable principle,using grey system theory in the road net integration evaluation.This paper presents gray number based on classical grey system theory and introduces its grey clustering evaluation.Grey number formula for trigonometry whitening weight(TWW) function is set up,and introduces possibility idea of compare interval number into grey number compare.And then,an evaluation model of grey number based on TWW function is established.Last,the validity and practicability are substantiated with an example of road net evaluation.
Cocoa Beans and Cocoa Derivatives from Cote-D’Ivoire: Investigating Ochratoxin A Level and Assessing Dietary Intake Adults  [cached]
Adama Coulibaly,Godi Henri Marius Biego,Ardjouma Dembele,Kouassi Maxime Bohoussou
Sustainable Agriculture Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/sar.v2n1p173
Abstract: The aim of this study was the determination of the level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa beans and derived products along with the estimation of the dietary intake in adults. Throughout harvesting seasons from 2005 to 2009, as many as 1895 samples of cocoa beans were collected at ports and areas of cocoa production and thereafter analyzed. OTA concentrations were determined by HPLC according to the standards of the European Communities (CE 401/2006). OTA intakes were assessed using data obtained from the analysis and the estimated Ivorian adult daily consumptions of cocoa beans and chocolate. Average OTA levels depending on cocoa grades were as follows: 0.64±0.53 μg/kg for marketable beans, 1.90±1.87 μg/kg for non-marketable beans and 1.40±1.32 μg/kg for total beans). As regards the types of beans, OTA concentrations ranged from 0.19±0.16 μg/kg (shelled beans) to 1.90±1.87 μg/kg (unshelled beans). OTA levels in beans were below the maximum concentration of OTA allowed (2 μg/kg of beans). Besides, OTA concentrations obtained from chocolate were comprised between 0.048±0.040 μg/kg for sweet chocolate made from marketable shelled beans and 0.66±0.65 μg/kg for dark chocolate made from non-marketable unshelled beans. Dietary intakes were respectively equal to 3.70±3.00 pg/kg body weight/day for the marketable shelled beans and 36.5±34.0 pg/kg body weight/day for the unshelled non-marketable beans. Those dietary intakes appeared to be by far lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake set by the Scientific Committee o Food (5000 pg/kg body weight/day). However, in view of the toxicity of OTA, it is imperative to foster best practices of harvesting, pod breaking, drying and storage of the beans for the total elimination of OTA from Ivorian cocoa beans.
Changes of physical properties of coffee beans during roasting
Jokanovi? Marija R.,D?ini? Natalija R.,Cvetkovi? Biljana R.,Gruji? Slavica
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/apt1243021j
Abstract: The effects of heating time on physical changes (weight, volume, texture and colour) of coffee beans (Outspan and Guaxupe coffee) were investigated. The roasting temperature of both samples was 170°C and samples for analysis were taken at the intervals of 7 minutes during 40 minutes of roasting. Total weight loss at the end of the roasting process was 14.43 % (light roasted) and 17.15 % (medium to dark roasted) for Outspan and Guaxupe coffee beans, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) changes in the coffee bean breaking force values were noted between the 7th and 14th minutes, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05) between the 35th and 40th minutes of the roasting. According to the L* colour parameter as a criterion for the classification of roasted coffee colour (light, medium, dark), the Outspan sample was medium and Guaxupe sample was dark roasted.
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