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Microorganisms Involved in Fulani Traditional Fermented Milk in Burkina Faso
Aly Savadogo,C.A.T. Ouattara,P.W. Savadogo,A.S. Ouattara
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: Thirty samples of traditional fermented milk were collected in northern Burkina from Fulani individual household. Microbial analysis was done by standard methods and with API 50 CH identification system. The predominant microflora was lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the genus Lactobacillus (32%), following by Leuconostoc (30%), Lactococcus (20%), Leuconostoc/ -bacterium (10%), Streptococcus (6%) and Enteroccoccus (2%) genus. Yeasts, molds and Enterobacteria were also isolated. Twenty representative lactic acid bacteria strains were identified to species level belonging to species Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus confusus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc lactis.
Genetic variations in genes involved in heparan sulphate biosynthesis are associated with Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: a familial study in Burkina Faso
Alexandre Atkinson, Séverine Garnier, Sarwat Afridi, Francis Fumoux, Pascal Rihet
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-108
Abstract: Polymorphisms within HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 were identified in 270 individuals belonging to 44 pedigrees and living in Burkina Faso. Linkage and association between parasitaemia and the polymorphisms were assessed with MERLIN and FBAT. A genetic interaction analysis was also conducted based on the PGMDR approach.Linkage between P. falciparum parasitaemia and the chromosomal region containing HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 was detected on the basis of the 20 SNPs identified. In addition, rs28470223 located within the promoter of HS3ST3A1 was associated with P. falciparum parasitaemia, whereas the PGMDR analysis revealed a genetic interaction between HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1. Seventy-three significant multi-locus models were identified after correcting for multiple tests; 37 significant multi-locus models included rs28470223, whereas 38 multi-locus models contained at least one mis-sense mutation within HS3ST3B1.Genetic variants of HS3ST3A1 and HS3ST3B1 are associated with P. falciparum parasitaemia. This suggests that those variants alter both the function of heparan sulphate proteoglycans and P. falciparum parasitaemia.Plasmodium falciparum malaria is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Sporozoites that have been injected into the skin migrate from the site of injection, and reach the liver, where they invade hepatocytes and change into merozoites; merozoites penetrate and replicate inside red blood cells. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) may play an important role in the biology of Plasmodium through their carbohydrate chains (heparan sulphate) in both the mammalian host and the vector. Anopheles heparan sulphate has been shown to bind circumsporozoite protein (CSP), suggesting a role for the carbohydrate chains within Anopheles salivary glands for infection and transmission of the parasite [1]. CSP also interacts with the HSPGs on host liver cells, and this interaction has been shown to determine the choice between migrating th
Emergence of Epidemic Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup X Meningitis in Togo and Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Isabelle Delrieu,Seydou Yaro,Tsidi A. S. Tamekloé,Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade,Haoua Tall,Philippe Jaillard,Macaire S. Ouedraogo,Kossi Badziklou,Oumarou Sanou,Aly Drabo,Bradford D. Gessner,Jean L. Kambou,Judith E. Mueller
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019513
Abstract: Serogroup X meningococci (NmX) historically have caused sporadic and clustered meningitis cases in sub-Saharan Africa. To study recent NmX epidemiology, we analyzed data from population-based, sentinel and passive surveillance, and outbreak investigations of bacterial meningitis in Togo and Burkina Faso during 2006–2010. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were analyzed by PCR. In Togo during 2006–2009, NmX accounted for 16% of the 702 confirmed bacterial meningitis cases. Kozah district experienced an NmX outbreak in March 2007 with an NmX seasonal cumulative incidence of 33/100,000. In Burkina Faso during 2007–2010, NmX accounted for 7% of the 778 confirmed bacterial meningitis cases, with an increase from 2009 to 2010 (4% to 35% of all confirmed cases, respectively). In 2010, NmX epidemics occurred in northern and central regions of Burkina Faso; the highest district cumulative incidence of NmX was estimated as 130/100,000 during March–April. Although limited to a few districts, we have documented NmX meningitis epidemics occurring with a seasonal incidence previously only reported in the meningitis belt for NmW135 and NmA, which argues for development of an NmX vaccine.
Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso
Karl Lorenz Dehane
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 1999,
Abstract: Knowledge and use of abortifacients were investigated in a remote ethnically heterogeneous area in the north of Burkina Faso. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 320 married women in 21 villages and supplemented with key informants' interviews, clinical observations at the provincial hospital, and observations in one of the villages. Almost half of the sampled women of all ethnic groups admitted to the existence of abortion carried out by their peers. Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects. Abortions were commonly induced by drinking a watery solution of the roots and leaves of a commonly found bush –– Securidaca longepedunculata. The plant contains uterine contraction stimulating ergot-alkaloids, but also strychnine-like toxic substances. It is reportedly effective in provoking abortions within one day of treatment, but its side-effects are severe and include heavy vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting, and death. There is a need for the rapid introduction of safer birth control methods in the region. (Afr J Reprod Health 1999; 3[2]: 40-50) Key Words: Burkina Faso, Fulbe, Gurmance, abortion, abortifacients, ergot-alkaloids
The rise of the “artist” in Burkina Faso
R Rousseau
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2007,
Abstract: It is only during the last twenty years that contemporary art has found actors in Burkina Faso. Thomas Sankara's revolutionary regime was the first to offer artists a frame to promote and perfect their technique. During the 1980s, the Semaine National de la Culture (National Week of Culture), the Pan-African Film Festival of Ouagadougou (Fespaco), and the Salon International de l'Artisanat de Ouagadougou (Ouagadougou International Handicraft Show) were the only major projects that allowed artists to learn new techniques and to be known. However, because Thomas Sankara's government expected the creators to participate in the revolutionary project, this left them little space for innovation and the expression of their artistic freedom. The early 1990s saw the rise of new events, which at last offered artists a space to practice their art, based on personal inspiration and competence in artistic technique. The Laongo symposium of granite sculpture, PIAMET (an event started by two well-known Burkinabè artists), and Ouaga'Art (organised by the French Cultural Centre of Ouagadougou) thus offered young artists the possibility of discovering the techniques of their colleagues from Africa and elsewhere in the world. However, except the Olorun Foundation, there is no permanent space dedicated to training and artistic exhibition. This lack is a source of obvious problems for the creator who, as a result, may find himself entrenched in a circuit where commercialism seems to dominate artistic research.
Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Kabore Fasnéwindé A,Zango Barnabé,Sanou Adama,Yameogo Clotaire
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-6-s2-s6
Abstract: Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE) result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB) were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106). The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86). Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59). Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60) had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58) had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.
Plants used in traditional beekeeping in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Schweitzer Paul, Nombré Issa, Aidoo Kwamé, Boussim I. Joseph
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.35040
Abstract:

Beekeeping is one of the recommended approaches in the implementation of poverty alleviation programs in rural areas of Burkina Faso. However, plants that are important in beekeeping have not been identified. The use of parts and organs of plants by beekeepers and their methods of harvesting remain unknown. These limit the conservation efforts of these important plants and affect beekeeping development. The study was carried out in the south-central, eastcentral regions and in Comoé and Boucle of Mouhoun regions ofBurkina Faso. The objective of the study was to identify the plants species used by traditional beekeepers, the different uses made of these plant parts and organs and then to discuss the impact of these activities on the survival of the plant resources. An ethnoapiculture survey was conducted in the main apiculture zone of Burkina Faso, using semi-structured interviews. The methodology of botanical coherence or convergence was applied to classify botanical species. Results showed that 35 botanical species were used in traditional beekeeping. The use of plant parts or organs in traditional hives construction represents 55%, attraction of wild swarms in new beehives is 37.50% and use as a torch or as a smoker, 7.50%. The barks are the organs most used. Trees are botanical type most used. The results are not exhaustive and therefore other additional studies need to be carried out. In order to sustain the use of these important plants, their growing in nursery and their planting in the field are recommended.

Molecular Variability and Genetic Structure of IYMV in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Moustapha Koala, Drissa Sérémé, Florence Vignols, Eric Lacombe, Martine Bantgratz, Bouma James Neya, Christophe Brugidou, Nicolas Barro, Oumar Traoré
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.92025
Abstract:

Imperata yellow mottle virus (IYMV, Sobemovirus) was first described in 2008 in the south-western region of Burkina Faso (West Africa). The genetic diversity of IYMV was not documented up to day. In this study, the variability of CP of IYMV was evaluated through the molecular characterization of 38 isolates collected in the western part of Burkina Faso. Comparison of sequences of these new isolates and one IYMV sequence available in GenBank revealed that the average nucleotide diversity was low. The ratio of non-synonymous over synonymous nucleotide substitutions per site was low, indicating a CP diversification under strong purifying selection. Despite of the low nucleotide diversity, phylogenetic analyses revealed segregation of IYMV isolates into six major clades. There was no correlation of phylogenetic grouping of isolates based on geographical location. This is the first study of the genetic diversity of IYMV.

Elderly Men Sexuality in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)  [PDF]
Brahima Kirakoya, Moussa Kabore, Fanéwendé Aristide Kabore, Abdoul Karim Pare, Abubakar Babagana Mustapha, Ky Bienvenue Désiré, Barnabé Zango
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2019.93007
Abstract: Background: In general, sexuality is a taboo subject. It is more so in elderly people, as it is believed that they do not complain about sexual disorder. Objective: To analyse the sexual activity of elderly men in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study on the sexual activity of men aged at least 60 years old. The study was carried out in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from 1st June to 31st August 2014. All consenting males who were aged 60 and above at the time of the study were included. Results: We contacted 652 men, but only 200 responded i.e. a response rate of 30.67%. The age of the respondents was between 60 years and 89 years with a mean age of 66.38 ± 5.72 years. 80.15% of the respondents had at least one sexual intercourse in a month. Erection was considered satisfactory or very satisfactory in 45.8% (60/131) of respondents and 63.36% of them always had orgasm during sexual intercourse. Premature ejaculation was noted in 23.66% of respondents, while a decline in libido was noted in 82.44% of them. Conclusion: This study which is the first of its kind in Burkina Faso has helped reveal the importance of sexuality in the lives of elderly men.
Evaluation of Enzymes Inhibition Activities of Medicinal Plant from Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Mindiediba Jean Bangou,Martin Kiendrebeogo,Nag-Tiero Roland Meda,Ahmed Yacouba Coulibaly
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate some enzymes inhibitory effects of 11 plant species belonging to 9 families from Burkina Faso. Methanolic extracts were used for their Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CES) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities at final concentration of 100 μg mL-1. The total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu, AlCl3 and ammonium citrate iron reagents, respectively. Among the 11 species tested, the best inhibitory percentages were found with Euphorbia hirta, Sclerocarya birrea and Scoparia dulcis (inhibition>40%) followed by Annona senegalensis, Annona squamosa, Polygala arenaria and Ceratotheca sesamoides (inhibition>25%). The best total phenolic and tannin contents were found with S. birrea with 56.10 mg GAE/100 mg extract and 47.75 mg TAE/100 mg extract, respectively. E hirta presented the higher total flavonoids (9.96 mg QE/100 mg extract). It's was found that Sclerocarya birrea has inhibited all enzymes at more than 30% and this activity is correlated to total tannins contents. Contrary to S. birrea, the enzymatic activities of E. hirta and S. dulcis are correlated to total flavonoids contents. Present findings suggest that the methanolic extracts of those plant species are potential inhibitors of GST, AChE, CES and XO and confirm their traditional uses in the treatment of mental disorders, gout, painful inflammations and cardiovascular diseases.
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