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The role of Ethics in the process of Technology Transfer and Development of 206 Peugeot
Aliakbar Mazlomi,Rosnah bt. Mohd. Yusuff
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Looking at the past history we find that the first phenomenon of technology transfer was taught by people who were traveling to another community and bring their technology, they move. After theindustrialization, transfer of knowledge from individuals to maintain their importance. However, now the situation for developing countries is controversial because it denied people with technical skills fromdeveloped countries to developing countries do not migrate, but the reverse is the professionals that are developing countries to developed countries loan go. Until developing countries can train your human resources specialist, they powerful companies overseas are the means of technology transfer, whether through direct investment, and whether through the sale of licenses and other means. (Noble, p. 105 - 106, 1367) Technology transfer is an important issue that should be given the capacity of countries to assess the possibility of application, absorption and its compatibility with local conditions to increase. Ie the transfer of technology and gain access to technology for its effective use for economic development and growth of countries relatively backward technology provides. (Archibugi, 2003) Today, the role of ethics in technology transfer and development is of great importance. The meaning of ethics and technology than are harvested, ethical values that have roles in the formation of modern technology. Another meaning of ethics and technology than is reached, that moral people who are dealing with technology, they must observe. It also includes technology to those that exist and sets it to those who apply and who are the analysis and criticism. In this article factors and ethical factors in the process of technology transfer and development for Peugeot 206 in Iran Khodro Company has been studied. For this purpose a questionnaire to determine and evaluate factors is designed and results are analyzed.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS: From Society to Schools
Behiye AKCAY
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2008,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to discuss the ethical issues in education in terms of teachers, students, schools, and software companies. Recent growth of the internet and World Wide Web allows new developments in the way instructors transfer knowledge to their students. Technology is a new tool in education that constantly changes and offers new opportunities for teaching and learning. Even so, old habits are hard to change. Typically, the effects of technology are complex, hard to estimate accurately and likely to have different values for different people at different times. Its effects depend upon people’s decisions about development and use.
Meru University of Science and Technology Research Ethics Review System: A SWOT Analysis  [PDF]
Joses Muthuri Kirigia, Rosenabi Deborah Karimi Muthuri, Newton Gitonga
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.612003
Abstract: The objectives of this article are as follows: 1) to propose a university research ethics system framework, 2) to provide a brief anatomy of the Meru University of Science and Technology (MUST) Institutional Research Ethics Review Committee (MIRERC), 3) to perform a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis of MIRERC, and 4) to make recommendations for improving its performance. The 13-member multi-disciplinary MIRERC was established in April 2017 to provide effective ethical oversight of research undertaken by the University’s scholarly community. Strengths of the MUST research ethics review system include a functional MIRERC, a pertinent national law and ethical guidelines, an Innovation and Enterprise Centre that could house a dedicated MIRERC Secretariat, and a supportive University Management Board. The weaknesses include lack of graduate schools to assure scientific rigor of proposals before submission to the MIRERC, lack of research ethics training in most school’s curricula, absence of a dedicated MIRERC Secretariat, undergraduate research proposals being not ethically reviewed, dearth of faculty trained in research ethics, and lack of an operating budget for MIRERC work. The opportunities include existence of about 22 accredited Institutional Research Ethics Review Committees (IRERC) in Kenya, existence of international standards and operational guidance for ethics review, availability of guidelines and codes of best ethical practices in research, existence of a free automated platform called Research for Health Innovation Organizer (RHInnO) Ethics for managing the ethics review process, and availability of external resources for strengthening IRERCs. In order to improve the performance and sustainability of the MUST research ethics system, there is need to include research ethics training in all undergraduate and post-graduate curricula, create a dynamic database of potential research ethics reviewers, allocate a percentage of the annual MUST research budget for MIRERC operations, charge a graduated fee for proposal ethics review, require all students’ and faculties’ internal and external research proposals be cleared by the MIRERC, and use the RHInnO Ethics platform to manage the ethics review process.
Research on Competitive Sports in the Visual Field of Science and Technology Ethics---Survey on “the Nature of Human Fades away” in Competitive Sports
Lanfang Liu,Te Bu
Modern Applied Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v4n12p151
Abstract: The Progress of Science and technology has substantially increased the development of Competitive sports. At the same time, it is changing the man in the natural balance. Based on the natural value of competitive sports, this essay makes a survey on “the nature of human fades away” in competitive sports and tries to find the mutual tolerance of binding site of competitive sports and science and technology: the use of science and technology in competitive sports should not only been limited properly but also realize the “soft landing” of science and technology ethics.
Special Article Ethics and Electronic Health Information Technology: Challenges for Evidence-Based Medicine and the Physician–Patient Relationship
ID Norman, MK Aikins, FN Binka
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), and the National Identification Authority (NIA), pose ethical challenges to the physician-patient relationship due to interoperability. This paper explores (1) the national legislation on Electronic Health Information Technology (EHIT), (2) the ethics of information technology and public health and (3) the effect on the Physician-patient relationship. Method: This study consisted of systematic literature and internet review of the legislation, information technology, the national health insurance program, and the physician-patient relationship. Result: The result shows that (1) EHIT have eroded a big part of the confidentiality between the physician and patient; (2) The encroachment on privacy is an inevitable outcome of EHIT; (3) Legislation on privacy, the collection, storage and uses of electronic health information is needed and; (4) the nexus between EHIT, NHIS, NHA, Ethics, the physicianpatient relationship and privacy. Conclusion: The study highlights the lack of protection for physician-patient relationship as medical practice transitions from the conventional to the modern, information technology driven domain.
Ethics of Living Technology: Design Principles for Proactive Home Environments
Frans M?yr?,Tere Vadén
Human IT: Tidskrift f?r Studier av IT ur ett Humanvetenskapligt Perspektiv , 2004,
Abstract: The entry of proactive technology into highly sensitive environments, such as the home, produces specific design challenges that are inextricably linked to ethical issues. Two design goals are presented and analysed: proactive solutions have to be both personalized and consistent. These requirements are partially contradictory, and need to be understood in the context of the socio-cognitive setting of the home. The embedding of proactive technology into a home environment has to provide the user with an awareness of the possibilities of control and play. These design goals are further developed with regard to different user cultures: here we concentrate on early adopters and elderly people.
ética, tecnología y clínica Ethics, technology and clinics
Miguel A Moreno Rodríguez
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública , 2006,
Abstract: Con la aparición y desarrollo de la revolución científico-técnica en la medicina, se asiste a un severo deterioro de la relación médico-paciente, a un abandono creciente del interrogatorio, del examen físico y del conocimiento clínico, así como una utilización y dependencia irracional y excesiva de los análisis complementarios por parte de un gran número de médicos, que configuran un verdadero fetichismo de la tecnología. Todo ello tiene muy importantes y sensibles implicaciones éticas en la práctica médica. En el presente trabajo se analizan, sucintamente, algunas razones de este fenómeno; se abordan las relaciones entre la clínica y la tecnología, se enfatiza la importancia del conocimiento clínico como componente esencial del diagnóstico y guía imprescindible para la indicación de los exámenes complementarios, a la vez que se destaca el gran valor de los análisis de laboratorio, los cambios que se han producido en el proceso del razonamiento clínico y la definitiva complementariedad de la clínica y el laboratorio como los dos componentes principales del método clínico With the emergence and development of the scientific-technical revolution in medicine, one witnesses severe deterioration of the physician-patient relationship, increasing neglect of questioning, physical exam and clinical knowledge as well as irrational and excessive use of & dependence on supplementary tests by a high number of phusicians,all of which shapes a real fetishism of technology. The above-mentioned has very important and sensitive ethical implications in medical practice. The present paper concisely analyzed some reasons for this phenomenon; addressed the relations between clinics and technology and it emphasized the importance of the clinical knowledge as an essential component of diagnosis and indispensable guide to prescribe supplementary tests. At the same time, the article outlined the great value of lab tests, the changes that have occured in the process of clinical reasoning and how clinics and the lab complement each other as the two main components of the clinical method
Towards an Ethics of Technology: Re-Exploring Teilhard de Chardin’s Theory of Technology and Evolution  [PDF]
Archimedes C. Articulo
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.44054
Abstract: Defining the mechanism of evolution is a controversial issue that, until now, divides the scientific community. Some have argued in the strictest Darwinian terms that evolution’s primary mechanism is necessity—“survival of the fittest”. Other evolutionists followed in the footsteps of Jacques Monod, the French biologist, who argued for a mixture of random chance and necessity. Teilhard de Chardin, it is widely believed, took Monod one step further by asserting that evolution is the fundamental motion of the entire universe, an ascent along a privileged and necessary pathway toward consciousness—thus, evolution was guided chance and necessity. However, if evolution is being guided, what is doing the guiding? And where, ultimately, is it going? His bold answers brought Teilhard to the heart of a widely perceived scientific, as well as religious, heresy. A heresy that was effectively silenced, and soon would re-emerge as the world began witnessing exponential advancements in Science and Technology (specifically, on computing, nano-technology, robotics and genetic engineering). Almost half a century after the publication of Phenomenology of Man, many futurist thinkers have began noticing that the super-fast acceleration in the passage of time for evolution is moving in a very different direction than that for the Universe from which it emerges. This paper puts forward the thesis that the philosophical underpinning of a “human-sponsored variant of evolution” (i.e. evolution towards convergence of biological and non-biological intelligence) finds support and meaning within Teilhard de Chardin’s theory of evolution (i.e. evolution towards consciousness). It specifically covers 1) the implications of advancing technologies in human evolution and consciousness within the context of Teilhard’s theory of evolution; 2) how, after homo sapiens silently emerged around 500,000 years ago (with larger brains, particularly in the area of the highly convoluted cortex responsible for rational thought), and after they develop computing, the story of evolution has progressed exponentially paving the way for the possibility of turning Teilhard’s controversial ideas (such as the Noosphere) more than a poetic image; and 3) how the grandest creations of evolution—consciousness and intelligence—provide for the very tool that may allow homo sapiens to take over the course and direction of their own evolution—without necessarily shedding their desire to search for spiritual truth in a secular universe.
The Struggle for Recognition in Hegel as a Prefiguration af Absolute
Carlos Emel Rendón
Ideas y Valores , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine, in those texts written by Hegel prior to the Phenomenology of Spirit, the way in which the struggle for recognition relates to the configuration of absolute ethical life, that is, the state in which the individual is recognized by another individual as well as by the community to which he/she belongs. With this in mind, some of the differences and continuities among the texts will be analyzed, in order to clarify and provide a better understanding of the concept of ethics underlying them.
Revisiting the Fact/Value Dichotomy: A Speech Act Approach to Improve the Integration of Ethics in Health Technology Assessment  [PDF]
Georges-Auguste Legault, Suzanne K.-Bédard, Christian A. Bellemare, Jean-Pierre Béland, Louise Bernier, Pierre Dagenais, Charles-étienne Daniel, Hubert Gagnon, Monelle Parent, Johane Patenaude
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.85042
Abstract: Philosophers engaged in the field of applied ethics are often challenged to revisit certain philosophical debates in order to clarify the background concepts involved in a given undertaking at stake. This is particularly evident in the field of Health Technological Assessment (HTA) where the integration of ethics has been a debate for many years. Interdisciplinary technological assessment involves a head-on discussion between the frame of reference of natural sciences and those of philosophy, which often reproduce the fact/value dichotomy debated in the field of philosophy. The challenge for a philosopher is then to explain how the fact/value dichotomy has been criticized by philosophers in such a way that the distinction between “verifiable facts” and “unverifiable values” cannot be accounted for anymore. The critiques of H. Putnam and S. E. Toulmin were the first steps towards the understanding of the dichotomy. A speech act approach, based on J. L. Austin illocutionary acts, can shed a new light on this issue by clarifying the difference between assertions, evaluations and prescriptions. By using a speech-act approach we can define the respective role of scientific evaluation and ethical evaluation in the HTA process and offer a better guide for the decision-makers on all aspects of adopting a technological development in health.
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