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The Process of Secularisation in Spanish Society  [PDF]
Alfonso Pérez-Agote Poveda
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2007,
Abstract: This article analyses the process of secularisation in Spain, primarily based on three interrelated social logics, the first two as result of historical processes and the third with a more recent point of departure: a) the logic of the secularisation of consciences; b) the logic of the secularisation of society and the State; and c) the logic that could be called the breaking up of cultural homogeneity, which started with the flow of transnational immigration that Spain began to receive very close to the end of the 20th century. For this, the author divides the process into three different waves of secularisation that go from the 19th century to the present day, and he demonstrates its evolution with statistics.
Secularisation from kenosis  [cached]
D.T. Williams
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2007, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v72i1.194
Abstract: Recent decades have witnessed the acceleration of the process of secularisation, along with related effects in society such as a decline in morals. Christians must wonder why God allows this to happen. The suggestion is that this is a result of God’s selflimitation, kenosis, allowing a process of which He does not approve for the sake of human free will. Kenosis follows as a possible result of a distinction between the divine and the created world, which permits secularisation. This is generally seen as a result of the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment, with effects in industrialisation and urbanisation; all of these can be linked with God’s kenosis. However, secularisation must not be seen as inevitable, but as having been exacerbated by the state of the church. If the result is a refining of the church, it could eventually lead to a resacralising of society.
Adam Smith’s contribution to secularisation
Petrus Simons
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/koers.v78i2.427
Abstract: This article examined several crucial themes in Adam Smith’s philosophy with the purpose of highlighting and assessing his contribution to the secularisation of Western society. The article, written from the perspective of reformational philosophy, begins with a brief biography and sketch of Adam Smith’s influence on modern society, followed by a summary of Ponti Venter’s view on Smith. This sets the scene for a discussion of Adam Smith’s project, his method of tackling it, and his views on systems, philosophy of history and the concept of philosophy.
The Holy Spirit and the early Church: The experience of the Spirit
Johannes van Oort
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/hts.v68i1.1154
Abstract: Firstly, the present article explored the occurrence of special gifts of the Holy Spirit (charismata) both in the New Testament and in a number of early Christian writers (e.g. Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian and Augustine). Secondly, it indicated how this experience of special charismata exerted its influence on the formulation of the most authoritative and ecumenical statement of belief, viz. the Creed of Nicaea-Constantinople (381). How to cite this article: Van Oort, J., 2012, ‘The Holy Spirit and the early Church: The experience of the Spirit’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 68(1), #Art. 1154, 7 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v68i1.1154
Return of the Spirit and the Demise of Politics  [cached]
Erdogan Yildirim
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2011,
Abstract: After Kant’s strict separation of the fields of pure reason and practical reason and his demonstration that reason cannot know anything apart from phenomena including the existence of God there was a continuous desire to reestablish the unity of both. The most successful attempt in that direction so far was Hegel’s phenomenology of the Spirit where he claimed he succeeded to establish the unity of the two as the Absolute. Yet, even this was problematic for it was the faith itself which supplied the basis of unity while the character of reason (pure insight) was particularity of the self-consciousness. In the late modernity where everything has imploded postmodern theory have successfully destroyed the metanarratives that hold the modernist ideals together. Under these conditions in which the assertion of any kind of subjectivity is impossible there is now a growing interest again in the theories trying to establish the basis of a post-secular society where finally faith and knowledge are hoped to be reconciled and supply a new meaning instead of the lost ones. Particularly the theories developed by Jacques Derrida and Jürgen Habermas try to legitimize the return of the spirit or the ‘religious’ under the aegis of a still secular state. However, such a desire remains problematical as in Hegel’s case for with its totalizing tendency the return of the spirit would tend to eradicate all difference as the basis of conflict and render the effective political action impossible.
Developing students’ entrepreneurial spirit
Gr?dinaru, E.,Boiciuc, G.,Constantin, C.
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Series V : Economic Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This paper contains a research study about the necessity to develop the entrepreneurial spirit in universities and how students could be involved in such initiatives. A qualitative research based on three focus groups was conducted, having as main objective to identify students’ opinions regarding the initiative to develop an on-line magazine for students and young people. The results reveal that students prefer the online media to the traditional ones and the pilot numbers of the magazine received good appreciations. A business plan for the future development of the magazine is also presented.
Death Mirrors the Spirit of Life
Gabriel Rossouw, David Russell
Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology , 2005,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to further an understanding of how a soul comes to despair and how the spirit of life is wounded. This question is approached from the perspective of death – in the form of death defying acts and voluntary death – as the dialectic aspect of being and non-being. Death can be a reflection of the life lived and the experience of who I am. The relation between ego and Self determines who I am. Two forms of misrelating between ego and Self will be considered. One causes a sense of omnipotence as the ego identifies with Self, and the other causes a sense of alienation as the ego renounces the Self to establish an intellectual vacuum, which becomes a substitute for lived experience. In both instances, there is a growing despair of inauthenticiy and the experience of non-being, which voluntary death and death defying acts attempt to put an end to. Both manifestations of death are attempts to resolve the imbalance between the eternal and temporal dimensions of being – to put an end to the despair of being unconscious of Self – and to affirm being. It is only when there is a conscious dialectic between ego and Self that an authentic existence becomes possible. An authentic existence represents the ongoing commitment to incarnate the human reality that exists between the world of imagination and the world as it appears to our senses. This, I argue, amounts to a spirit with soul. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Volume 5, Edition 2 December 2005
Perspectives on the changing spirit of GATT  [PDF]
Norbert Weinrichter
European Integration Online Papers , 1999,
Abstract: Traditionally, the ECJ has treated the international legal framework of the external trade law of the Community with judicial self restraint. Especially the GATT was perceived as a forum for interstate negotiations driven by the spirit of intergovernmental reciprocity. Thus, the ECJ has concluded that the GATT should be protected from intrusion by national authorities and cannot be invoked directly before the court. However, in the context of new developments, GATT and WTO-law are increasingly seen differently: International trade rules can serve as a quasi-constitutional constraint on excessive national trade policy. Basic principles such as the Most Favored Nation clause, the principle of non-discrimination and the prohibition of quantitative restrictions are reinterpreted as protection of economic rights of individuals rather than as protection of interstate reciprocity. Application of GATT-rules by national authorities is thus essential for the effective implementation of the spirit of GATT to fight a potential bias in favor of protectionism. This article comments on the historic conditions and the development of this fundamental change in the perception of the spitit of the GATT and tries to assess its consequences.
Perspectives on the changing spirit of GATT  [cached]
Norbert Weinrichter
European Integration Online Papers , 1999,
Abstract: Traditionally, the ECJ has treated the international legal framework of the external trade law of the Community with judicial self restraint. Especially the GATT was perceived as a forum for interstate negotiations driven by the spirit of intergovernmental reciprocity. Thus, the ECJ has concluded that the GATT should be protected from intrusion by national authorities and cannot be invoked directly before the court. However, in the context of new developments, GATT and WTO-law are increasingly seen differently: International trade rules can serve as a quasi-constitutional constraint on excessive national trade policy. Basic principles such as the Most Favored Nation clause, the principle of non-discrimination and the prohibition of quantitative restrictions are reinterpreted as protection of economic rights of individuals rather than as protection of interstate reciprocity. Application of GATT-rules by national authorities is thus essential for the effective implementation of the spirit of GATT to fight a potential bias in favor of protectionism. This article comments on the historic conditions and the development of this fundamental change in the perception of the spitit of the GATT and tries to assess its consequences.
Technology and the Spirit of Alchemy
Giuseppe Del Re
Hyle : International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry , 1997,
Abstract: A historical perspective can throw light on problematic aspects of technology, regarded as part of the scientific approach to Nature. The master reference in this respect is chemistry, a science which still gives priority, as its mother alchemy, to the practical imitation and emulation of Nature's most secret operations. Now, the transition from the fogs of alchemy to the rigor of chemistry is often attributed to the abandonment of the religious foundations of the alchemical 'philosophy'. In this paper, we argue that, on the contrary, the complete elimination of the 'spirit of alchemy' was an unjustified loss and a premise for the misuses of technology now seriously dreaded.
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