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The antifungal effect of six commercial extracts of Chilean propolis on Candida spp
Herrera,Christian L; Alvear,Marysol; Barrientos,Leticia; Montenegro,Gloria; Salazar,Luis A;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202010000100007
Abstract: propolis has been used in traditional medicine for many centuries because of its benefcial health properties, including its antimicrobial capacity. prosthesis stomatitis affects a signifcant percentage of users of removable dentures; candida albicans is the most common fungal species associated with the development of this pathology. thus, the objectives of this study were: a. to evaluate the antifungal activity of six commercial propolis extracts against candida spp. that was isolated from the oral cavity of removable dentures users, and b. to determine chemical characteristics of the propolis extracts evaluated. among the results, we note that these concentrations of polyphenols varied between 9 ± 0.3 and 85 ± 2.1 mg ml-1. chromatographic analysis was able to detect 35 compounds, among which were caffeic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, pinocembrin, galangin, and caffeic acid phenyl ester (cape). all strains tested were inhibited by the liquid extracts of propolis. the mid ranged between 1:40 and 1:1280, and the mic for c. albicans ranged from 197 μg ml-1 to 441 μg ml-1. from the results obtained in this investigation, we can conclude that all propolis extracts evaluated are capable of inhibiting the development of candida spp. however, they show signifcant differences in the concentration of polyphenols present and in antifungal activity.
Seasonal effect of brazilian propolis on Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-79302001000100009
Abstract: recently, propolis has been attracting the attention of researchers due to various biological activities and therapeutic properties. in brazil, propolis is produced all year long, so there may be some seasonal variations. this work was carried out in order to compare propolis collected during the four seasons by its in vitro antimicrobial activity on yeast pathogens isolated from human infections. propolis was produced by africanized honeybees in botucatu, s?o paulo state, collected throughout a year and pooled by season. hydroalcoholic solutions of propolis were prepared with each pool and diluted in agar, using serial concentrations of propolis from each pool. a determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) was performed. the results show that candida tropicalis and candida albicans were susceptible to low concentrations of propolis, the latter showing a higher susceptibility. no differences were seen in relation to seasonal effects in the minimal inhibitory concentration of propolis.
In vitro comparison of the effect of Iranian nystatin and chlorhexidine mouthwashes with foreign samples on standard and local isolated strains of Candida albicans
Ataei Z,Abdollahi H,Salarzadeh M
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Chlorhexidine is a mouthwash with known antibacterial effect but its antifungal effect is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of nystatin and chlorhexidine mouthwashes (one Iranian product and the other, commercial) on Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the strains of Candida albicans used consisted of one standard strain (PTCC 5027) and ten local isolates. The latter were obtained from patients referred to different dental clinics in Kerman city. The specimens were taken from the gum and palate area by sterile swabs and dipped into Stewards transport medium, transferred to the laboratory within one hour, and cultured on Sabauraud dextrose Agar. Colonies showing the characteristic appearance of Candida were further cultured and routine differential tests including germ tube formation were performed to confirm the diagnosis of C.albicans. These were used to prepare a microbial cell suspension of 0.5 Mc Farland concentration. Each cell suspension was inoculated over duplicate plates of SDA and 4 wells of 5 mm diameter were made using sterile cork borers. Each previously coded mouthwash was placed in corresponding well and incubated for 24-48 hours and the diameter of inhibition zone was measured with ruler. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each mouthwash for each isolate of Candida albicans was determined using dilution tube technique. Data were analyzed by SPSS package using proper statistical tests with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: There was a significant difference between the antimicrobial effects of the four tested mouthwashes. The results indicated that Iranian nystatin mouthwash had the greatest effect and the average inhibition zone from the highest to the lowest was associated with Iranian nystatin, foreign nystatin, Iranian chlorhexidine and foreign chlorhexidine respectively. The MIC determination revealed that generally nystatin was more effective than chlorhexidine. No statistical difference was seen between the Iranian and foreign samples. Conclusions: Despite the antifungal effects of chlorhexidine, more investigations on different strains of C.albicans is required before recommending its cilinical application.
In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Species from Iranian HIV Infected Patients
F Katiraee,AR Khosravi,V Khalaj,M Hajiabdolbaghi
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis and antifungal drug resistance are major problems in HIV positive patients. The increased reports of antifungal resistance and expanding therapeutic options prompted the determination of antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolates in Iranian patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the present study. Methods: One hundred fifty oral samples from Iranian HIV positive patients were obtained and cultured on CHROMagar and Sabourauds dextrose agar. All isolates were identified according to assimilation profile, germ tube, colony color and other conventional methods. Disk diffusion testing and Broth Microdilution of six antifungal agents were performed according to the methods described in CLSI. Results: Candida albicans (50.2%) was the most frequent isolated yeast, followed by C. glabrata (22%). Non-Candida albicans species were isolated from 71 (61%) positive cultures. 25.7% of Candida albicans isolates were resistant to fluconazole (MIC≥64 μg/ml) as were 21.9% and 16.4% to ketoconazole and clotrimazole (MIC>0.125 μg/ml), respectively. Resistance to polyene antifungals including amphotericin B and nystatin, and caspofungin were scarce. 57.7% of candida glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 31% to ketoconazole and 35% to clotrimazole. Conclusion: Screening for antifungal resistant candida isolates by disk diffusion or broth dilution methods in clinical laboratories is an ideal surveillance measure in the management of oral thrush in patients with HIV/AIDS. Although nystatin is widely used in clinical practice for HIV positive patients, there was no evidence of enhanced resistance to it. Regarding no resistance to caspofungin, its administration is suggested.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Iranian and Korean Injectable Intracanal Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, In vitro
Neda Rafiei,Behrooz Eftekhar,Abdollah Rafiei,Mahdi Pourmahdi Borujeni
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Candida albicans is one of the mouth normal flora which may cause failures in endodontics. The resistance of C. albicans to intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide could reduce success rate root canal treatments .Objectives: Due to recivening some reports regarding resistance of C. albicans to calcium hydroxide from different parts of the world, the aim of this study was to evaluate anti candidal effects of Iranian and Korean made injectable calcium hydroxide and to compare the results.Materials and Methods: In the present research, the antifungal effects of calcium hydroxide on seven clinical isolates and one standard strain of C. albicans were evaluated. For this evaluation, two methods were used including: inhibition zone and colony count. In all experiments distilled water and clotrimazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In order to evaluate the effects of exposure time of calcium hydroxide on C. albicans growth, 30” , 5’ , 1 and 24 hours of incubation periods were applied. In addition, to evaluate role the effect of calcium hydroxide concentration samples with saturated, 1/10, 1/100 and 1/1000 dilutions and also a saturated one were used.Results: According to inhibition zone method, the mean diameters of C. albicans for Iranian and Korean made calcium hydroxide and clotrimazole were 17, 13 and 22 mm, respectively. Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide did not show any anti candidal effects. By colony counting method, it was found that in longer exposure time, Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide have more anti candidal effects , but no significant difference was observed between the two. Saturated and all other dilutions of calcium hydroxide base material indicated a significant statistical difference in anti candidal effect after 24 hours exposure in comparison with other periods.Conclusions: The Current study, confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Iranian and Korean calcium hydroxide on C. albicans, up to 24 hours is within low range . Higher concentrations of base calcium hydroxide, showed greater inhibition zone on C. albicans ..--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:The results of present study indicated uncomplete compatibility of susceptibility of C. albicans strains to calcium hydroxide, therefoe, it seems continious evaluation is necessary in different geographical region..Please cite this paper as:Rafiei N, Eftekhar B, Rafiei A, Pourmahdi Borujeni M, Zarrin M. Evaluating the Effectiven
Antifungal Effect of Echinophora Platyloba’ s Extract against Candida albicans
Majid Avijgan,Massoud Hafizi,Mehdi Saadat,Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2006,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of Echinophora platyloba DC. on Candida albicans. Using the agar dilution method, the growth condition of standard Candida albicans ATCC 10231, cultured on the media containing plant extracts at different concentrations(1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 mg/ml) was studied. The results were recorded twenty one days after the incubation period, maximum time for the growth of fungi. Results showed that the extract of Echinophora platyloba, equal or above the concentration of 2mg/ml, effectively inhibits the growth of Candida albicans. In other words it shows growth on media containing 1mg/ml of the extract. Results of the present study revealed a great promise in the application of Echinophora platyloba extract against Candida albicans. It is concluded that the plant studied could be a good antifungal source.
Pawar Harshal Ashok,D’mello Priscilla M
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Fungal infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in medicine and the emergence of new antifungal agents. Treatment of these infections is a real challenge to health professionals. The available antifungal drugs produce many adverse effects, show recurrence or lead to development of resistance. To overcome these problems, the development of newer antifungal compound against new targets is the matter of urgency. The present investigation was aimed at evaluation of antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora leaves. The extract was prepared by hot continuous percolation method in Soxhlet apparatus using 90% methanol as an extracting solvent. The cup plate method was used to investigate the antifungal activity. The methanolic extract of Cassia tora leaves demonstrated significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans.The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be 2mg/ml.Amphotericine-B was used as standard to compare the activity.
Hsp21 Potentiates Antifungal Drug Tolerance in Candida albicans  [PDF]
Fran?ois L. Mayer, Duncan Wilson, Bernhard Hube
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060417
Abstract: Systemic infections of humans with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans are associated with a high mortality rate. Currently, efficient treatment of these infections is hampered by the relatively low number of available antifungal drugs. We recently identified the small heat shock protein Hsp21 in C. albicans and demonstrated its fundamental role for environmental stress adaptation and fungal virulence. Hsp21 was found in several pathogenic Candida species but not in humans. This prompted us to investigate the effects of a broad range of different antifungal drugs on an Hsp21-null C. albicans mutant strain. Our results indicate that combinatorial therapy targeting Hsp21, together with specific antifungal drug targets, has strong synergistic potential. In addition, we demonstrate that Hsp21 is required for tolerance to ethanol-induced stress and induction of filamentation in response to pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90. These findings might pave the way for the development of new treatment strategies against Candida infections.
S. Nishanth Kumar*, J. V. Siji, Bala Nambisan and C. Mohandas
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Candida albicans is one of the most important fungi associated with oral candidiasis and the treatment of this fungi is a serious problem today because of the resistance of these fungi against conventionally used drugs. So, there is an urgent need of alternative antifungal substances especially from the natural sources. The study was conducted to examine the MFC and time kill activity of two stilbenes [3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene (1) and 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene (2)] purified from a bacterium associated with entomopathgenic nematode against C. albicans. The activity was also compared to amphotericin B. The cytotoxicity of stilbenes was also tested against normal human cell lines (L231 lung epithelial and FS normal fibroblast). Results showed that stilbenes was effective against C. albicans with MIC and MFC of 64 and 128 μg/ml for compound 1 and 32 and 64 μg/ml for compound 2. The time kill assay of stilbenes against C. albicans was more effective than amphotericin B. No cytotoxicity was recorded for stilbenes upto 200 μg/ml. The strong antifungal activity and low cytotoxicity of stilbenes make it a promising agent for the treatment of Candida.
Sensitization of Candida albicans biofilms to various antifungal drugs by cyclosporine A  [cached]
Shinde Ravikumar B,Chauhan Nitin M,Raut Jayant S,Karuppayil Sankunny M
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-11-27
Abstract: Background Biofilms formed by Candida albicans are resistant towards most of the available antifungal drugs. Therefore, infections associated with Candida biofilms are considered as a threat to immunocompromised patients. Combinatorial drug therapy may be a good strategy to combat C. albicans biofilms. Methods Combinations of five antifungal drugs- fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VOR), caspofungin (CSP), amphotericin B (AmB) and nystatin (NYT) with cyclosporine A (CSA) were tested in vitro against planktonic and biofilm growth of C. albicans. Standard broth micro dilution method was used to study planktonic growth, while biofilms were studied in an in vitro biofilm model. A chequerboard format was used to determine fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) of combination effects. Biofilm growth was analyzed using XTT-metabolic assay. Results MICs of various antifungal drugs for planktonic growth of C. albicans were lowered in combination with CSA by 2 to 16 fold. Activity against biofilm development with FIC indices of 0.26, 0.28, 0.31 and 0.25 indicated synergistic interactions between FLC-CSA, VOR-CSA, CSP-CSA and AmB-CSA, respectively. Increase in efficacy of the drugs FLC, VOR and CSP against mature biofilms after addition of 62.5 μg/ml of CSA was evident with FIC indices 0.06, 0.14 and 0.37, respectively. Conclusions The combinations with CSA resulted in increased susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. Combination of antifungal drugs with CSA would be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated C. albicans infections.
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