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Correlation of bacteriological quality of drinking water and sewage disposal in Zenica-Doboj Canton
Nino Hasanica,Fatima Smriko,Selma Uzunovi?
South Eastern Europe Health Sciences Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Aim To determine the bacteriological quality of drinking watersamples analyzed in the period between 1 January 2007 and 30June 2012 in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods The data were extracted from the Protocols of theLaboratory for Sanitary and Clinical Microbiology (CantonalPublic Health Institute Zenica). A total number of coliformbacteria, thermotolerant E. coli and aerobic mesophilic bacteriawere determined. Membrane filtration method (MFM)was used for the analysis the samples of drinking water. Theanalyses were performed according to standards and legal regulations.Results A total number of 14932 samples were analyzed, ofwhich 2276 (15.2%) samples did not meet the standards. Thetrend of drinking water quality was slightly increasing. Thehighest number of unsatisfactory samples was from wells, 2863(83.1%) samples, from which 46.1% of the Canton populationis supplied. There was a statistically significant correlationbetween bacteriological quality of water and quality of sewagesanitation systems in rural regions (Pearson correlation coefficientsof 0.449).Conclusion Poor sewage sanitation systems in rural regions isa cause of a high number of unsatisfactory samples of drinkingwater. Preventive activities and more frequent water samplingare necessary measures.
Bacteriological safety of smears of surfacesio in catering facilities and food industry in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2005-2007
Edina Garanovi?,Selma Uzunovi?
South Eastern Europe Health Sciences Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Aim To research bacteriological (hygienic) safety of surfaces(hands smear of staff involved in the process of work, smearof furniture used for work, smear from walls in offices) in thefacilities for production of meat and meat products (8), forproduction of milk and milk products (3), products of cakes(14), bakery and bakery products (4) sugar refinery and biscuits(1) and in objects of social sustenance in the territory of Zenica-Doboj Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina B&H) in period2005-2007 and to point out the importance of this analysis inproviding food safety for consumers.Methods: Data from the protocol of the Laboratory for Clinicaland Sanitary Microbiology,of the Cantonal Institute for PublicHealth Zenica were used. Samples of smears were inoculatedon MacConkey and blood agar. Results were interpreted inaccordance with applicable law in B&H.Results From 5051 analyzed smears, 190 (3,/%) were notsatisfactory. The largest number of unsatisfactory smears wasnoted in Zenica, 75 (39; 47%), Visoko 49 (25.8%) and Te anj37 (19.5%). From 190 unsatisfactory smears, 57 (30%)were smears from dishes, 43 (22.6%) from furniture and worksurfaces 42 (22,1%) and 41 (21.6%) smears from hands. Themost frequently isolated was Escherichia coli, in 25 (22.6%)smears from machines, and 34 (17.2%) smears from dishes.Unsatisfactory smears were mostly found in objects of publicmaintenance, 96 (50.5%) and in objects for production ofmeat, 82 (43.2%).Conclusion Regular control (monitoring), hygienic sutabilityqualityof smears in objects and education of employees toimprove hygienic measures for the purpose of the preventionof food contamination.
Microbiological quality of meat and ready-to-eat food in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2008-2010
Ilma ?aki?,Sanita Sejdinoska,Selma Uzunovi?
South Eastern Europe Health Sciences Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Aim To investigate the microbiological quality of meat, meatproducts and ready-to-eat food in Zenica-Doboj Canton inorder to point out the importance of food monitoring and toprovide safe food for consumers.Methods Using the protocols of bacteriological food analysisthe Laboratory for Sanitary and Clinical Microbiology, CantonalPublic Health Institute Zenica, retrospectively analyzed theresults of bacteriological testing of all samples of meat, meatproducts and ready-to-eat food samples submitted in the period2008 - 2010. The legal regulations of BiH were applied.Results Out of the total number of 2,534 meat and meat productssamples, 66 (2.6%) were relatively satisfactory, 11 (0.4%)did not satisfy. Out of 4,448 ready-to-eat food samples, 133(3.0%) did not satisfy the requirements of the regulations. Themost common cause of contamination of ready–to–eat foodsamples was total bacterial count> 20 000 in 39 (29.3%) samples;thermotolerant E. coli was found in 18 (13.5%) samples.The most common reason for improper quality of meat andmeat products was the presence of thermotolerant E. coli, in20 (26%), Proteus spp. in eight (10.4%) and Salmonella in two(2.6%) samples.Conclusion The most common cause of food borne diseases isa consequence of mistakes or ignorance in the process of foodhandling in the manufactures and sales facilities. Supervisionand monitoring of food quality is a powerful way to detect newdiseases, to determine the specific source, thus contributing tothe education of food handlers in order to prevent contamination.
Antibiotic resistance of coliform bacteria from community-acquired urinary tract infections in the Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina  [PDF]
Selma Uzunovi?-Kamberovi?,,Mersiha Odoba?i?,,Azra Huskovi?,,Aida Hutinovi?
Medicinski Glasnik , 2010,
Abstract: Aim To collect routine susceptibility data for coliform organismsisolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections(CAUTIs) in Zenica-Doboj Canton during 2004, with aview to guiding empiric therapy. Methods Consecutive urine samples were analyzed by standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fifteen antimicrobials was performed by disc-diffusion method according to causative agents (E. coli/non E. coli), age (0-6, 7-14, 15-19, 20-64,≥65) and gender of patients. Results E. coli and other coliforms (non-E. coli) were isolated from 2473 (11%) out of 22,451 urine samples submitted, 1,618(65.4%) and 856 (34.6%), respectively. Inclusion of non-E. coli significantly increased overall resistance rates in all tested antibiotics except for ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and it was significantly higher in males than in females in all analysedsubsets (p<0.05). Specific age resistance rates to nitrofurantoinwas in the range of 15-63% and 2-12% in males and females, respectively.Resistance rates to ciprofloxacin in the two oldest agegroups were 51% and 57% in males, and 11% i 17% in females.Conclusions Because of significant proportion of non-E. coli isolates,CAUTIs represent important problem in this region. Due tohigh ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance ratesfor all analysed subsets these drugs should be left for empirictherapy, and it is highly recommended to perform urinalysis in allpatients. Ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin should also be consideredas the first-line therapy in women above 20 years of age and in children, respectively. Continuous surveillance of antibiotic resistance of CAUTIs as well as introduction of drug prescribingcontrol is important.
Incidence of breast cancer in the five-year period (2001-2006) in patients treated surgically in the Cantonal Hospital in Zenica  [PDF]
H. Drljevi?
Medicinski Glasnik , 2006,
Abstract: Breast cancer is currently one of the most common malignant tumors of human race and at the same it is the most frequent cancer of female population. The war and post-war migrations of population have significantlychanged the demographic and age structure in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Absence of a National Cancer Register and a unique database on malignant diseases makes monitoring of breast cancer even more difficult.Theobjectiveof this retrospective study was to analyze the incidence of breast cancer in Zenica-Doboj Canton, to conduct a survey based on the age of patients in the five-year period starting from 1 January 2001 until 30 November 2005 and results of the study have been compared with 1990. All the patients were treated surgically with pre-surgical clinical examination, ultra-sound examination and mamography, and pathohistological verification of cancer and pathologically determined size of tumor. A total of 297 patients were treated out of the series of 583 breast surgeries.During this five-year survey a continuous increase of breast cancers in Zenica-Doboj Canton was noted.Therehas been an increased incidence of breast cancer in women aged 30-45, the average size of tumor has decreased, and there has been no change in the relationship between the pathohistological types of tumors and tendencies in surgical treatments to use breast conserving surgical methods. The program of early detection of breast cancer or screening of healthy women and search for “small” cancers (screening programs) will enable a wider use of breast conserving surgical methods and it requires a more active involvement of the state and society.
Community-acquired urinary tract infections by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina  [PDF]
S. Uzunovic-Kamberovic,D. Saric,S. Sestic
Medicinski Glasnik , 2006,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of ESBL-producing strains in the community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), which is necessary for antimicrobial therapy selection. From January 2003 to September 2004, 4,112 consecutive, non-duplicate coliform isolates from CAUTIs were analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fifteen antimicrobials was performed by disc-diffusion method. Double-disk synergy test (DDST) with amoxicillin-clavulanat, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and aztreonam, and Etest strips with PM/PML (AB Biodisk) was performed according to CLSI recommendation in order to detect the ESBL producers. The overall incidence of ESBL producing strains was 2.6% (108/4112), it was significantly higher in males, 8.4% (79/936) than in females, 0.9% (29/3176). The highest prevalence of ESBL producers was noted in the oldest and youngest age group: 4.8% (52/106) and 2.6% (27/1045), respectively. An increase from 2.2% (52/2402) to 3.3% (56/1710), and a shift of ESBL producers toward the age group 0-6 years (1.6% and 3.8%, respectively) in this period was observed. The incidence of ESBL producing strains among isolated Klebsiella spp. were 7.8% (83/1060), E. coli 0.7% (18/2561), Citrobacter spp. 0.6% (1/156), Enterobacter spp. 7.7% (3/39) and Proteus spp. 1.0% ( 3/297). Among ESBL producing isolates Klebsiella spp. predominated, 76.9% (83/108), followed by E. coli 16.7% (18/108). ESBL producing strains showed significantly higher resistance rates to all tested antibiotics as compared to to non-ESBL-producers. The increase and shift toward the youngest age group of the ESBL producer incidences is of our concern. Further studies are required to detect ESBL types in terms of highly different geographical dissemination of these isolates.
Comparison of the frequency and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from human infections, retail poultry meat and poultry in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina  [PDF]
Selma Uzunovi?-Kamberovi?,,Tina Zorman,,Ingrid Berce,,Lieve Herman
Medicinski Glasnik , 2009,
Abstract: Aim To compare the frequency of isolation and occurrence of antimicrobialresistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolated in humans,retail poultry meat and poultry.Methods Fifty-three human, 52 retail poultry meat and 15 poultryCampylobacter jejuni/coli isolates were investigated for antibioticsusceptibility to eight antimicrobials by disk-diffusion method.Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin susceptibility were further determinedby E-test, and additionally the MICs of erythromycinand ciprofloxacin were determined using the broth microdilutionmethod.Results Prevalence of C. coli in humans, retail poultry meat andpoultry was 28.3%, 56.9% and 53.3%, respectively. No significantdifferences were found in the overall resistance rates between C.jejuni and C. coli isolated from all three sources (p>0.05). Erythromycinand ciprofloxacin resistance was high and similar in humans,retail poultry meat and poultry (26.4%, 35.3%, 26.7%, and32.1%, 23.5%, 26.7%, respectively) (p>0.05). C. jejuni displayedhigher prevalence of resistance to erythromycin than C. coli inall investigated sources (p>0.05). All ciprofloxacin and 94.4% oferythromycin positive isolates were highly resistant (≥ 32 μg/mLand ≥128 μg/mL, respectively).Conclusion The high prevalence of C. coli isolates from humans,poultry meat and poultry and higher both overall and erythromycin-resistance in C. jejuni than in C. coli isolates suggests that theremay be a common source in the environment, which might be absentin other geographical regions. Further studies are requiredto determine the role of efflux mechanism in erythromycin- andciprofloxacin-resistance related to the level of resistance.
Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica  [cached]
Sonja Bijeljac,Hajrudin Skender,Zlatan Sari?
Mljekarstvo , 2004,
Abstract: Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid to quality of raw material for yoghurt manufacture. The quality of raw milk for yoghurt production was high. Average relative density was 1,030. Acidity varied from 6.11 to 6.64oSH, with mean value of 6.28oSH. Evaporating of milk and addition of skim milk dry powder were used for dry solids adjustment required for good quality yoghurtmanufacture. Milk for yoghurt manufacture, had relative density from 1.035 to 1.036 with average value of 1.035. Acidity ranged from 7.07 to 7.59oSH. Average acidity was 7.30oSH. Fat content was in range from 1.94 to 2.00% and 1.98% in average. Yoghurt starter culture showed high acidic activity, as indicated in its acidity value before inoculation of yoghurt milk. Mean value of acidity of starter culture was 40.36oSH with variations from 38.05 to 42.64oSH. The acidity of final product varied from 37.36 to 38.81oSH or 38.26oSH in average. The acidity of yoghurt in Dairy Industry Zenica was adjusted to be somewhat lower than usual in order to keep high quality of products during distribution and consuming chain.
Leptospirosis in Zenica coal miners: etiological, clinical and therapeutical overview  [PDF]
E. Had?i?,L. ?alki?,E. Drljevi?,N. Mu?i?
Medicinski Glasnik , 2007,
Abstract: This paper has shown an epidemics of leptospiroisis amongst employees of the Coal Mine in Zenica, with the emphasis on etiology, seriousness of clinical picture and laboratory tests. In average hospitalisation lasted for 18.2 days which included beta lactams for 14 days. A mild and less serious disease occured in 19 patients (86,36%) whereas 3 patients (13,64%) had severe form of the disease and there was one fatal outcome with Weil disease. The most common were febrile and hepatic and renal forms of the disease and one patient developed meningitis. The news in this epidemics was Leptospira interrogans serovar ballum which is rare in these areas.
Obesity and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Review of Pathophysiologic Mechanisms  [PDF]
Scott E. Friedman,Bruce W. Andrus
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/505274
Abstract: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially life-threatening condition arising from a wide variety of pathophysiologic mechanisms. Effective treatment requires a systematic diagnostic approach to identify all reversible mechanisms. Many of these mechanisms are relevant to those afflicted with obesity. The unique mechanisms of PH in the obese include obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anorexigen use, cardiomyopathy of obesity, and pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Novel mechanisms of PH in the obese include endothelial dysfunction and hyperuricemia. A wide range of effective therapies exist to mitigate the disability of PH in the obese.
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