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Power and precision of replicated helicopter surveys in mixed bushveld  [cached]
B.K. Reilly,R.H. Emslie
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1998, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v41i1.245
Abstract: It is well known that aerial game counts in South Africa are often applied in a non-standardised, unreplicated fashion. They contribute to poor management decisions based on their results as they may be subject to large statistical Type I and II errors. Replicate counts of large herbivores were conducted in a 8 500 ha sample site in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve in July 1991. These data were used to estimate precision of the counts and estimate statistical power to detect population changes for different combinations of replications and significance levels.
Rate of Decline of the Oriental White-Backed Vulture Population in India Estimated from a Survey of Diclofenac Residues in Carcasses of Ungulates  [PDF]
Rhys E. Green, Mark A. Taggart, Kalu Ram Senacha, Bindu Raghavan, Deborah J. Pain, Yadvendradev Jhala, Richard Cuthbert
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000686
Abstract: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is a major cause of the rapid declines in the Indian subcontinent of three species of vultures endemic to South Asia. The drug causes kidney failure and death in vultures. Exposure probably arises through vultures feeding on carcasses of domesticated ungulates treated with the drug. However, before the study reported here, it had not been established from field surveys of ungulate carcasses that a sufficient proportion was contaminated to cause the observed declines. We surveyed diclofenac concentrations in samples of liver from carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India in 2004–2005. We estimated the concentration of diclofenac in tissues available to vultures, relative to that in liver, and the proportion of vultures killed after feeding on a carcass with a known level of contamination. We assessed the impact of this mortality on vulture population trend with a population model. We expected levels of diclofenac found in ungulate carcasses in 2004–2005 to cause oriental white-backed vulture population declines of 80–99% per year, depending upon the assumptions used in the model. This compares with an observed rate of decline, from road transect counts, of 48% per year in 2000–2003. The precision of the estimate based upon carcass surveys is low and the two types of estimate were not significantly different. Our analyses indicate that the level of diclofenac contamination found in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in 2004–2005 was sufficient to account for the observed rapid decline of the oriental white-backed vulture in India. The methods we describe could be used again to assess changes in the effect on vulture population trend of diclofenac and similar drugs. In this way, the effectiveness of the recent ban in India on the manufacture and importation of diclofenac for veterinary use could be monitored.
Plant communities of the Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld  [cached]
Theo H.C. Mostert,George J. Bredenkamp,Rachel E. Mostert
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.687
Abstract: The Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld is one of eight major vegetation types (MVT) described for the Soutpansberg-Blouberg region. The plant communities of this MVT are described in detail. Main ecological drivers of the vegetation structure and species composition of these communities are discussed and some conservation recommendations are made. Phytosociological data from a subset of 72 Braun-Blanquet sample plots collected in the Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld were classified using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and ordinated using a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA). The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun-Blanquet floristic-sociological approach to vegetation classification using the computer software MEGATAB and JUICE. Eight plant communities were identified and described as Commiphora tenuipetiolata-Adansonia digitata short open woodland, Ledebouria ovatifolia-Commiphora mollis short bushland, Phyllanthus reticulatus-Acacia nigrescens short bushland, Tinnea rhodesiana-Combretum apiculatum short bushland, Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. africana-Spirostachys africana low thickets, Themeda triandra-Pterocarpus rotundifolius short closed grassland on steep basaltic slopes, Cyperus albostriatus-Syzygium cordatum sandveld wetlands, and Sesamothamnus lugardii-Catophractes alexandri tall sparse shrubland. These plant communities are event-driven ecosystems, predominantly infl uenced by frequent droughts, exposure to desiccation and unpredictable rainfall events. The complex topography of the Soutpansberg further contributes to the aridity of these ecosystems. The classifi cation and ordination analyses show similar groupings in the vegetation of the Soutpansberg Arid Mountain Bushveld. This confi rms the usefulness of complimentary analysis, using both classifi cation and ordination methods on a single data set in order to examine patterns and to search for group structure. Conservation implications: The results from this study will alter existing regional vegetation maps profoundly. The described plant communities of these arid event-driven ecosystems should be used as benchmark examples of the region’s primary vegetation. Conservation and management planning should be based on these vegetation units. How to cite this article: Mostert, T.H.C., Bredenkamp, G.J. & Mostert, R.E., 2009, ‘Plant communities of the Soutspanberg Arid Northern Bushveld’, Koedoe 51(1), Art. #687, 11 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.687
The ungulates of northern China
Wu Jia-yan
Rangifer , 1994,
Abstract: Presently, thirty five species of ungulates occur in northern China. Some species are threatened or endangered. There are three species of Equidae (E. przewalskii, E. hemionus, E. kiang), one of Suidae (Sus scrofa), one of Camelidae (Camelus bactrianus), 14 species of Cervidae (with the genera Moschus, Elaphus, Cervus, Elaphurus, Alces, Rangifer, Capreolus) and 16 species of Bovidae (within the genera Bos, Gazella, Procapra, Pantholops, Saiga, Nemorhaedus, Capricornis, Budorcas, Capra, Pseudois, Ovis). They inhabit different biotopes, i.e. temperate mountain forest and steppe, temperate desert and semi-desert, and vast alpine ranges. Ungulate fossils are widespread in China evidencing that Asia was an evolutionary centre for some ungulates. Although new data have been gathered through research efforts in China since 1949 it is a fact that some ungulate species have suffered serious population set-backs and some have become endangered or even extinct. Detailed studies of ungulate populations and protection of habitats are now most important future research needs.
Ungulates [pp. 321-288]
Hystrix Editor
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2008, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-18.0-4383
Abstract: Proceedings of the 5th European Congress of Mammalogy - Siena, Italy, 21-26 September 2007 Part V [pp. 321-288] -- Ungulates
Are arctic ungulates physiologically unique?
James M. Suttie,James R. Webster
Rangifer , 1998,
Abstract: Reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are the arctic ungulates. Few studies have been carried out to directly compare their level of physiological uniqueness with similar species in the same family. The approach adopted in this review has been to compare data within family for physiological parameters including reproduction, nutrition and growth, to attempt to place the adaptations of reindeer/caribou and muskoxen in context. It is concluded that both species have unique adaptations to their environment which are likely to be specific to the Arctic. An hypothesis is advanced that some adaptations are constrained not only by the long intense winters, but also by the need to exploit the brief summers. The review has highlighted considerable gaps in understanding of some key physiological parameters for many species. This incompleteness in some ways mitigated the original goal of the project, but provisional conclusions are presented.
Survival strategies in arctic ungulates
N. J. C. Tyler,A. S. Blix
Rangifer , 1990,
Abstract: Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators) is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.
Geo-Spatial Mapping of the Northern Bushveld Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) in South Africa  [PDF]
O. A. Bamisaiye, P. G. Eriksson, J. L. Van Rooy, H. M. Brynard, S. Foya
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.65026
Abstract: The focus of this paper is on determination of the geometry and stratigraphic contact pattern of the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) in the Northern Bushveld Complex area using available borehole data and trend surface analysis technique. This technique was used to analyse over one hundred borehole log data in the Northern Bushveld Complex in order to describe the geometric pattern and trends of the RLS rocks. The results demonstrate the usefulness of this technique in identifying structural features. Regional trends of each of the stratigraphic units reveal the presence of regional structures that were not obvious at the surface. This first part of the paper focused on the Northern Bushveld Complex, while the second and the third part focused on the eastern and western Bushveld limbs respectively.
Geo-Spatial Mapping of the Eastern Bushveld Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) in South Africa  [PDF]
O. A. Bamisaiye, P. G. Eriksson, J. L. Van Rooy, H. M. Brynard, S. Foya
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.65025
Abstract: This paper focused on the results of the Trend Surface Analysis (TSA) of the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) within the three major limbs of the Bushveld Complex. This second part focused on the Eastern Bushveld Complex and discussed the major trends, geometry and age relationship of the various structures within the Complex. The trend surface analysis of the Eastern Bushveld reveals that most of the residual positive structures occur as isolated closures with dome shape and are consistent with the location of the diapiric structures previously identified by geophysical and field mapping techniques.
Viral diseases of northern ungulates
K. Fr?lich
Rangifer , 2000,
Abstract: This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama) in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE) is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), Dall sheep (Ovis dalli), chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra), muskox {Ovibos moschatus) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces), designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably has a multi-factorial etiology. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can infect deer and many other wild artiodactyls. Moose, roe deer and the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) are the main hosts of FMDV in the Russian Federation. In addition, serological evidence of a FMD infection without clinical disease was detected in red deer in France. Epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer (EHD) and bluetongue (BT) are acute non-contagious viral diseases of wild ruminants characterised by extensive haemorrhage. Culicoides insects are the main vectors. EHD and BT only play a minor role in Europe but both diseases a
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