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Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland
?opi? Sanja M.,Vidakovi? Ivana M.
Temida , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/tem0202019c
Abstract: In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal) assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes), which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.
Outcomes and costs of blunt trauma in England and Wales
Michael C Christensen, Saxon Ridley, Fiona E Lecky, Vicki Munro, Stephen Morris
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc6797
Abstract: Using the Trauma Audit Research Network database, we examined patient records for persons aged 18 years and older hospitalised for blunt trauma between January 2000 and December 2005. Patients were stratified by the Injury Severity Score (ISS).A total of 35,564 patients were identified; 60% with an ISS of 0 to 9, 17% with an ISS of 10 to 16, 12% with an ISS of 17 to 25, and 11% with an ISS of 26 to 75. The median age was 46 years and 63% of patients were men. Falls were the most common cause of injury (50%), followed by road traffic collisions (33%). Twenty-nine percent of patients were admitted to critical care for a median length of stay of 4 days. The median total hospital length of stay was 9 days, and 69% of patients underwent at least one surgical procedure. Seven percent of the patients died before discharge, with the highest proportion of deaths among those in the ISS 26–75 group (32%). The mean hospital cost per person was £9,530 (± 11,872). Costs varied significantly by Glasgow Coma Score, ISS, age, cause of injury, type of injury, hospital mortality, grade and specialty of doctor seen in the accident and emergency department, and year of admission.The acute treatment costs of blunt trauma in England and Wales vary significantly by injury severity and survival, and public health initiatives that aim to reduce both the incidence and severity of blunt trauma are likely to produce significant savings in acute trauma care. The largest component of acute hospital cost is determined by the length of stay, and measures designed to reduce length of admissions are likely to be the most effective in reducing the costs of blunt trauma care.Severe injury remains a common cause of death and permanent disability across all ages in the United Kingdom, and implies substantial costs to society in medical care, premature death, disability and use of social services [1,2]. Injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young people, representing the leading cause o
Is NHS dentistry in crisis? 'Traffic light' maps of dentists distribution in England and Wales
Maged Boulos, Guy Phillipps
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-3-10
Abstract: We used 'traffic light' maps to study the distribution of dentists per 1,000 population in all 304 English Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and 22 Welsh Local Health Boards (LHBs) using datasets of dentist numbers per PCT (as at 31 December 2002) and LHB (as at 26 February 2004) from the Dental Practice Board, and 2001 Census population figures for PCTs and LHBs from the Office for National Statistics. The overall NHS dentists per 1,000 population figures for England (0.374) and Wales (0.359) are low compared to many other countries, with less than 0.3 dentist per 1,000 people available to 24.1% of the total population of England (81 PCTs or 26.6% of all PCTs) and 26.1% of the total population of Wales (6 LHBs or 27.3% of all LHBs). A general shortage of NHS dentists can be observed at a glance across England and Wales on all the 'traffic light' maps in our study, even on those using a more "tolerant" classification and an additional orange-yellow class. The distribution of NHS dentists in England and Wales was also found to be not uniform, with some PCTs/LHBs, especially those located in some of the deprived or less populated urban and rural communities, suffering significantly more shortage of dentists than others (see http://healthcybermap.org/PCT/dentists/ webcite). These results confirm recent media reports of a shortage of NHS dentists in various parts of England and Wales.Suitable programmes are urgently needed to increase the numbers of NHS dentists across England and Wales. We have included a set of recommendations to dental health policymakers and planners, in addition to ideas for further work.The number of adults registered with a National Health Service (NHS) dentist in England and Wales has sharply declined over recent years. As of 2002, less than 50% of the population were registered with an NHS dentist. In some places today, no dentists will accept adult NHS patients, which is of particular concern to people with low incomes who have to pay higher, private
Estimates of mortality and population changes in England and Wales over the two World Wars  [cached]
Dmitri A. Jdanov,Evgueni Andreev,Domantas Jasilionis,Vladimir Shkolnikov
Demographic Research , 2005,
Abstract: Almost one million soldiers from England and Wales died during the First and Second World War whilst serving in the British Armed Forces. Although many articles and books have been published that commemorate the military efforts of the British Armed Forces, data on the demographic aspects of British army losses remain fragmentary. Official population statistics on England and Wales have provided continuous series on the civilian population, including mortality and fertility over the two war periods. The combatant population and combatant mortality have not been incorporated in the official statistics, which shows large out-migration at the beginning and large in-migration towards the end of the war periods. In order to estimate the dynamics of the total population and its excess mortality, we introduce in this paper a model of population flows and mortality in times of war operations. The model can be applied to a detailed reconstruction of war losses, using various shapes of the input data. This enables us to arrive at detailed estimates of war-related losses in England and Wales during the two world wars. Our results agree with elements of data provided by prior studies.
Public health in interwar England and Wales: did it fail?
Dynamis , 2008, DOI: 10.4321/S0211-95362008000100008
Abstract: british historians initially saw the interwar period as a "golden age" for public health in local government, with unprecedented preventive and curative powers wielded by medical officers of health (mosh). in the 1980s lewis and webster challenged this reading, arguing that mosh were overstretched, neglectful of their "watchdog" role and incapable of formulating a new philosophy of preventive medicine. the article first details this critique, then reappraises it in the light of recent demographic work. it then provides a case study of public health administration in south-west england. its conclusion is that some elements of the lewis/webster case now deserve to be revised.
Long-Term Trends in Given Name Frequencies in England and Wales  [PDF]
Douglas A. Galbi
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: The frequency distribution of personal given names offers important evidence about the information economy. This paper presents data on the popularity of the most frequent personal given names (first names) in England and Wales over the past millennium. The popularity of a name is its frequency relative to the total name instances sampled. The data show that the popularity distribution of names, like the popularity of other symbols and artifacts associated with the information economy, can be helpfully viewed as a power law. Moreover, the data on name popularity suggest that historically distinctive changes in the information economy occurred in conjunction with the Industrial Revolution.
Leading causes of certification for blindness and partial sight in England & Wales
Catey Bunce, Richard Wormald
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-58
Abstract: Registration as blind or partially-sighted in England and Wales is voluntary and is initiated by certification by a consultant ophthalmologist. From all certificates completed during the year April 1999 to March 2000, the main cause of visual loss was ascertained where possible and here we present information on the leading causes observed and comment on changes in the three leading causes since the last analysis conducted for 1990–1991 data.13788 people were certified as blind, 19107 were certified as partially sighted. The majority of certifications were in the older age groups. The most commonly recorded main cause of certifications for both blindness (57.2 %) and partial sight (56 %) was degeneration of the macula and posterior pole which largely comprises age-related macular degeneration. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy were the next most commonly recorded main causes. Overall, the age specific incidence of all three leading causes has increased since 1990–1991 – with changes in diabetic retinopathy being the most marked – particularly in the over 65's where figures have more than doubled.The numbers of individuals per 100,000 population being certified blind or partially sighted due to the three leading causes – AMD, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma have increased since 1990. This may to some extent be explained by improved ascertainment. The process of registration for severe visual impairment in England and Wales is currently undergoing review. Efforts must be made to ensure that routine collection of data on causes of severe visual impairment is continued, particularly in this age of improved technology, to allow such trends to be monitored and changes in policy to be informed.The number of blind people in Britain has been counted since 1851 and reports on the causes of low vision in England and Wales began in 1950 [1-6]. From the mid 1930's designated forms (BD8) signed by ophthalmologists were required in order to certify someone as blind or visually i
A new stochastic differential equation modelling incidence and prevalence with an application to systemic lupus erythematosus in England and Wales, 1995  [PDF]
Ralph Brinks
Quantitative Biology , 2012,
Abstract: This article reformulates a common illness-death model in terms of a new system of stochastical differential equations (SDEs). The SDEs are used to estimate epidemiological characteristics and burden of systemic lupus erythematosus in England and Wales in 1995.
Epidemiological Evidence That Garden Birds Are a Source of Human Salmonellosis in England and Wales  [PDF]
Becki Lawson, Elizabeth de Pinna, Robert A. Horton, Shaheed K. Macgregor, Shinto K. John, Julian Chantrey, J. Paul Duff, James K. Kirkwood, Victor R. Simpson, Robert A. Robinson, John Wain, Andrew A. Cunningham
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088968
Abstract: The importance of wild bird populations as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens is well established. Salmonellosis is a frequently diagnosed infectious cause of mortality of garden birds in England and Wales, predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage types 40, 56(v) and 160. In Britain, these phage types are considered highly host-adapted with a high degree of genetic similarity amongst isolates, and in some instances are clonal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, however, demonstrated minimal variation amongst matched DT40 and DT56(v) isolates derived from passerine and human incidents of salmonellosis across England in 2000–2007. Also, during the period 1993–2012, similar temporal and spatial trends of infection with these S. Typhimurium phage types occurred in both the British garden bird and human populations; 1.6% of all S. Typhimurium (0.2% of all Salmonella) isolates from humans in England and Wales over the period 2000–2010. These findings support the hypothesis that garden birds act as the primary reservoir of infection for these zoonotic bacteria. Most passerine salmonellosis outbreaks identified occurred at and around feeding stations, which are likely sites of public exposure to sick or dead garden birds and their faeces. We, therefore, advise the public to practise routine personal hygiene measures when feeding wild birds and especially when handling sick wild birds.
England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences  [cached]
Wendy Sigle-Rushton
Demographic Research , 2008,
Abstract: For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.
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