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Antifungal properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling homogenates
Grzegorz Koz?owski,Jean P. Métraux
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1999, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1999.025
Abstract: The presence of antimicrobials in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon homogenates of Norway spruce was studied using in vitro assays with soil-borne pathogens. For the studies presented here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as a typical host and forest tree and Pythium as a typical soil-bome pathogen were used. The highly virulent species Pythium ultimum and the less virulent species Pythium irregulare were chosen for all experiments. They are both the causal agents of damping-off disease, which can affect plants at a very early stage. The strongest antimicrobial effect was observed using medium prepared from older seedlings and containing extracts from cotyledons. The influence of various treatments on antimicrobials accumulation in spruce extracts was also tested. Seed coat shedding was observed to affect mortality of Picea abies seedlings infected by Pythium. Seedlings which had shed their seed coats were more resistant to Pythium attack. This phenomenon could be correlated with antimicrobial production in well developed cotyledons.
Preliminary results on allozyme diversity and differentiation of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Poland based on plus tree investigations
Andrzej Lewandowski,Jaros?aw Burczyk,W?adys?aw Cha?upka
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1997, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1997.025
Abstract: Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among Polish populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were studied analyzing allozyme variation at 24 loci. Presented investigations based on 81 clones represented 6 populations from three different regions: Sudety Mts., Beskid Mts. and North-East Poland. On average, the expected heterozygosity was 0.134, 52.8% of loci were polymorphic, and the number of alleles per locus was 1.8. Our data confirm the hypothesis that a lower level of variation of Picea abies exists in central Europe, compared to other regions of its natural distribution. Relatively small allozyme differentiation among regions was observed (Fst =0.027, and Nei's genetic distances ranged from 0.005 to 0.008). Reasons for the low genetic differentiation observed between Southern and Northern populations are briefly discussed.
Ozone fumigation effects on the morphology and biomass of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) saplings
Serafinaviciute B,Stakenas V
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2009, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0483-002
Abstract: The study examined Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings morphological and biomass sensitivity to ozone fumigation using closed indoor chambers of controlled environment. 4-year-old potted saplings were exposed to three different ozone concentrations: 80 (micro)g/m3, 160 (micro)g/m3, and 240 (micro)g/m3 (7 h/day, 5 days/week). Half of the saplings were harvested after the exposure, and the second half of the saplings were left in the pots in open field until next autumn. The reaction of the saplings of different timing of bud burst was also investigated. The terminal shoot length and the total current year shoot length of Norway spruce saplings after one month of ozone fumigation were significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed in all the treatments comparing to the control saplings. The needles of saplings fumigated with ozone were smaller than the needles of control saplings. No significant changes of the biomass of different fractions of Norway spruce saplings were determined right after the fumigation, as well as, in 14 month after the cessation of the fumigation. Norway spruce saplings of early and late timing of bud burst reacted differently to ozone fumigation during the active growth period. The formation of new needles and shoots of the saplings of late bud burst stage was more suppressed comparing to the saplings of the early bud burst stage. The results suggest that the generatively younger organs during their formation are more susceptible to ozone stress. The differences of the needle age between ozone affected and control saplings decreased in one year after the end of fumigation keeping affected Norway spruce saplings in the open field and thus indicating the start of the recovery process.
Root system and the decline of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.)  [cached]
Old?ich Mauer,Eva Palátová
?asopis Beskydy , 2010,
Abstract: The paper analyzes the growth and health condition of the root system in declining and healthy trees of Norway spruce in different parts of the Czech Republic. The analyses included stands of all age classes (from young plantations up to stands aged 90 years) from both artificial and natural regeneration. The root system analyses were combined with the analyses of soil chemical characteristics, assimilatory apparatus and weather behaviour. The analyses showed that a predisposition factor to decline in all studied areas was the recent change of weather behaviour. The reason of decline is a very small and conspicuously superficial root system deformed at planting or due to the stratigraphy of soil horizons and soil acidification, which induces negative changes in the nutrition, with magnesium in particular. Fertile sites in lower forest altitudinal vegetation zones exhibit aggressive infestation by honey fungus (Armilaria sp.). Trees from the natural regeneration are more susceptible to decline than trees from the artificial regeneration by planting (trees from natural regeneration have smaller root systems than planted trees of identical height).
Isoenzymatic variability in some of the Polish populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the IUFRO-1972 provenance trial
Jerzy Modrzyński,Wies?aw Prus-G?owacki
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1998, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1998.010
Abstract: The isoenzymatic studies performed on nine Picea abies H. Karst populations from Poland, indicated considerable genetic variation among investigated stands. Genetic similarities have demonstrated a clear pattern of geographic variability. Three of the nine studied populations (Zwierzyniec, Nowe Ramuki and Orawa) have shown markedly diverse characteristics compared to the remaining populations. The mountain populations have formed one group with two related subgroups. The mean number of alleles per locus (A / L = 2,22) and level of heterozygosity (Hp = 0,194) for the lowland populations are within the range of these parameters for other Norway spruce populations from Finland and Lithuania. The populations from Carpathians and Sudety mountains are geneticaly more polymorphic (Ho = 0,221, A / L = 2,34) than the others. This pattern of genetic variation suggests the existance of two gene pools, one from southern and one from northern Poland formed during the glacial period and differentiated further in southern Poland into two subpools.
Inter-Tracheid and Cross-Field Pitting in Compression Wood and Opposite Wood of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.)  [cached]
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2011,
Abstract: Inter-tracheid and cross-filed pit specifications in compression wood and opposite wood of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were determined. Fewer pits of a smaller size and a smaller aperture diameter were observed in compression wood. In contrast to the uniseriate arrangement of bordered pit pairs in compression wood, both uniseriate and biseriate pits were observed in opposite wood. In contrast to the circular view of the pit aperture in opposite wood, a slit-like pit aperture was often observed in compression wood. SEM images showed a number of helical fissures on the tracheid walls and bordered pits of compression wood along the microfibril angle in the S2 layer. The cross-field pits in compression wood were dominantly piceoid but sometimes cupressoid and occasionally taxodioid, whereas they were mostly piceoid and occasionally cupressoid in opposite wood. Overall, some significant differences in the inter-tracheid and cross-field pitting between the compression wood and opposite wood can give some explanations for their different air permeability and drying kinetics found in the previous studies.
The effect of ecotope on root system development in Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.)  [cached]
Old?ich Mauer,Eva Palátová,Franti?ek Beran
?asopis Beskydy , 2008,
Abstract: The paper brings an analysis of root system development (both skeletal and fine roots) of 19-year old Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.) of two provenances (from altitudes 320 m a.s.l. and 1100 m a.s.l.) growing on two provenance plots (540 m a.s.l., lowland, modal cambisol; 820 m a.s.l., slope, ranker podzol) by comparing 36 parameters and traits. Research results show that root system emergence is not affected by provenance but rather unambiguously by site, namely by soil type and terrain slope. The two provenances produced identical to uniform root systems: At the altitude of 540 m a.s.l. an anchoring root system of circular floor projection with a rooting depth of 80 cm; at the altitude of 820 m a.s.l. an elliptical superficial root system with a rooting depth of 45 cm. Provenances on the respective plots did not exhibit any differences either in the fine roots biomass, vitality, and specific length or in the type of functional mycorrhiza.
Norway Spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) Provenance Variation in Autumn Cold Hardiness: Adaptation or Acclimation?
Du an G m ry, Elena Foffová, Jaroslav Kme , Roman Longauer, Ivana Rom áková
Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10182-010-0022-8
Abstract: We tested autumn frost hardiness in three Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) provenances originating from different altitudes at two trial plots in Slovakia (Vel'ky Lom at 450 m a.s.l., Mútne-Zákamenné at 1,250 m a.s.l.) in a spinoff experiment of the IUFRO 1964/68 Inventory Provenance Experiment with Norway spruce. Two approaches were used to assess hardiness: the electrolyte-leakage method based on artificial freezing, and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The frost injury index at -20°C differed between provenances, with a significant provenance-by-plot interaction. In material from the lower-altitude Vel'ky Lom trial plot, the high-elevation TANAP provenance exhibited much lower frost injury than the middle-elevation Habovka and low-elevation Beňu provenances. In material from the high-altitude Mútne-Zákamenné trial plot, all three tested provenances showed approximately the same degree of frost injury. At -80°C no differences between provenances were observed, and the trees growing at the high-elevation site exhibited lower average frost injury than the trees at Vel'ky Lom. Most parameters of the kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence followed the same trends as frost injury, and differed significantly between plots. We suggest that the observed differences resulted from acclimation of trees to the conditions of the trial plots rather than from adaptation through natural selection.
Patterns of Nucleotide Diversity at Photoperiod Related Genes in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]  [PDF]
Thomas K?llman, Stéphane De Mita, Hanna Larsson, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Myriam Heuertz, Laura Parducci, Yoshihisa Suyama, Ulf Lagercrantz, Martin Lascoux
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095306
Abstract: The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce.
Conserved Function of Core Clock Proteins in the Gymnosperm Norway Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst)  [PDF]
Anna Karlgren, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Thomas K?llman, Ulf Lagercrantz
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060110
Abstract: From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

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