Abstract:
Slow-roll inflation is studied in theories where the inflaton field is conformally coupled to the Ricci scalar. In particular, the case of Higgs field inflation in the context of the noncommutative spectral action is analyzed. It is shown that while the Higgs potential can lead to the slow-roll conditions being satisfied once the running of the self-coupling at two-loops is included, the constraints imposed from the CMB data make the predictions of such a scenario incompatible with the measured value of the top quark mass. We also analyze the role of an additional conformally coupled massless scalar field, which arises naturally in the context of noncommutative geometry, for inflationary scenarios.

Abstract:
It is showed by a conformal rescaling that the inflationary background can be dual to a slowly expanding background, which is almost Minkowski and described by a conformal field theory conformally coupled to gravity. It is proved that the primordial curvature perturbation and tensor perturbation generated during these two conformally equivalent backgrounds are completely equal, and the scale invariance of perturbations is determined by the conformal invariance of field theory in slowly expanding background. In dual slowly expanding scenario, the primordial universe is asymptotical to a static state in infinite past. We discuss the implication of the results obtained.

Abstract:
Dark matter is obtained from a scalar field coupled conformally to gravitation; the scalar being a relict of Dirac's gauge function. This conformally coupled dark matter includes a gas of very light ($m\approx 2.25\times 10^{-34} eV$) neutral bosons having spin 0, as well as a time-dependent global scalar field, both pervading all of the cosmic space. The time-development of this dark matter in the expanding F-R-W universe is investigated, and an acceptable cosmological behaviour is obtained.

Abstract:
It is found that conformally coupled induced gravity with gradient torsion gives a dilaton gravity in Riemann geometry. In the Einstein frame of the dilaton gravity the conformal symmetry is hidden and a non-vanishing cosmological constant is not plausible due to the constraint of the conformal coupling.

Abstract:
We have found that the conformally coupled induced gravity can be an infrared fixed point of induced gravity with Yukawa couplings with matter. The late time cosmology with a uniform mean matter distribution can be described by the conformally coupled induced gravity, which has an emergent global conformal symmetry in the cosmic scale. Aiming to resolve the puzzles for the dark energy, we have obtained exact cosmological equations and determined the dark energy density, the matter density, and the jerk parameter in the present universe based on the recent observational cosmic expansion data for $a/H^{2}$.

Abstract:
We formulate new conformal models of inflation and dark energy which generalise the Higgs-Dilaton scenario. We embed these models in unimodular gravity whose effect is to break scale invariance in the late time Universe. In the early Universe, inflation occurs close to a maximum of both the scalar potential and the scalar coupling to the Ricci scalar in the Jordan frame. At late times, the dilaton, which decouples from the dynamics during inflation, receives a potential term from unimodular gravity and leads to the acceleration of the Universe. We address two central issues in this scenario. First we show that the Damour-Polyalov mechanism, when non-relativistic matter is present prior to the start of inflation, sets the initial conditions for inflation at the maximum of the scalar potential. We then show that conformal invariance implies that matter particles are not coupled to the dilaton in the late Universe at the classical level. When fermions acquire masses at low energy, scale invariance is broken and quantum corrections induce a coupling between the dilaton and matter which is still small enough to evade the gravitational constraints in the solar system.

Abstract:
We study an effective four-dimensional theory with an action with two scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity, and with a matter action which couples to the two scalar fields via an overall field-dependent coefficient in the action. Such a theory could arise from a dimensional reduction of supergravity coupled to a gas of branes winding the compactified dimensions. We show the existence of solutions corresponding to power-law inflation. The graceful exit from inflation can be obtained by postulating the decay of the branes, as would occur if the branes are unstable in the vacuum and stabilized at high densities by plasma effects. This construction provides an avenue for connecting string gas cosmology and the late-time universe.

Abstract:
We explore the possibility of describing our universe with a singularity--free, closed, spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model, using only general relativity and a suitable equation of state which produces an inflationary era. A phase transition to a radiation--dominated era occurs as a consequence of boundary conditions expressing the assumption that the temperature cannot exceed the Planck value. We find that over a broad range of initial conditions, the predicted value of the Hubble parameter is approximately $47$ km$\cdot$~s$^{-1}\cdot$~Mpc$^{-1}$. Inflation is driven by a scalar field, which must be conformally coupled to the curvature if the Einstein equivalence principle has to be satisfied. The form of the scalar field potential is derived, instead of being assumed a priori.

Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a non-minimally conformally coupled scalar field and dark matter in F(T) cosmology and study their dynamics. We investigate the stability and phase space behavior of the parameters of the scalar field by choosing an exponential potential and cosmologically viable form of F(T). We found that the dynamical system of equations admits two unstable critical points; thus no attractor solutions exist in this cosmology. Furthermore, taking into account the scalar field mimicking quintessence and phantom energy, we discuss the corresponding cosmic evolution for both small and large times. We investigate the cosmological implications of the model via the equation of state and deceleration parameters of our model and show that the late-time Universe will be dominated by phantom energy and, moreover, phantom crossing is possible. Our results do not lead to explicit predictions for inflation and the early Universe era.

Abstract:
Because the source term for the equations of motion of a conformally coupled scalar field, such as the dilaton, is given by the trace of the matter energy momentum tensor, it is commonly assumed to vanish during the radiation dominated epoch in the early universe. As a consequence, such fields are generally frozen in the early universe. Here we compute the finite temperature radiative correction to the source term and discuss its consequences on the evolution of such fields in the early universe. We discuss in particular, the case of scalar tensor theories of gravity which have general relativity as an attractor solution. We show that, in some cases, the universe can experience an early phase of contraction, followed by a non-singular bounce, and standard expansion. This can have interesting consequences for the abundance of thermal relics; for instance, it can provide a solution to the gravitino problem. We conclude by discussing the possible consequences of the quantum corrections to the evolution of the dilaton.