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Antifertility Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Xylopia aethiopica on Male Reproductive Organ of Wistar Rats
American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ajmms.20120201.03
Abstract: The effects of ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica on male reproductive organ in Wistar rats was studied. A total of twenty-four adult male rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=8). Group 1 (control) was given rat chow and distilled water ad libitum, Group II and III received 0.5mls and 1.0mls of ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica once daily for a period of 28 days. The results showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent decrease in the semen parameters (count, motility) and a non significant decrease in the percentage of sperm with normal morphology. The testicular photomicrograph also shows dose dependent degenerative changes. Therefore, the extract may have some anti fertility effects which may be further explored for a possible use as male contraceptive agent.
Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l.) in male wistar rats
Shyam S Agrawal, Ashok Kumar, Sumeet Gullaiya, Vishal Dubey, Ashish Nagar, Poonam Tiwari, Parul Dhar, Varun Singh
DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2008-2231-20-94
Abstract: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of pregnancy, rapid restoration of fertility after withdrawal from treatment and its lipid correcting ability proving further beneficial effects.Higher use of contraceptive methods is a direct indicator of health, population, development and women's empowerment. It also serves as a proxy measure to access the reproductive health services that are essential for meeting many of the millennium development goals, especially for those concerned with child mortality, maternal health, HIV/AIDS, and gender equality [1]. The female contraceptive methods were always on higher priority and men willing to share in the responsibilities of family planning have fewer options of contraceptions which are effective, reversible, non irritating and highly expectable. A survey conducted by WHO showed that 61% of the males using contraceptive were motivated by problems of the female partner, including 35% who had experienced a contraceptive failure, or by the
Effect of Metronidazole on Spermatogenesis, Plasma Gonadotrophins and Testosterone in Male Rats
Davood Sohrabi,Mohsen Alipour,AwsatMellati
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2007,
Abstract: Metronidazole and it’s derivatives are drugs that have both antiprotozoal and anti bacterial effect.The reproductive toxicity of metronidazole has been shown in some studies. To investigate the effect of metronidazole on spermatogenesis in adult male rats, this study was designed.Eighteen wistar male rats (70-90days old) were randomly divided into three groups. Animals in group I (Control group) were administered the water. Animals in groups II, III were administered metronidazole at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day for 60 days. Different varieties of germ cells at stage VII seminiferous epithelium cycle, namely, type A spermatogonia (ASg), preleptotene spermatocytes (pLSc) and step 7 spermatids (7Sd) were quantitatively evaluated, along with radioimmunoassay of plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteiniging hormone (LH), testosterone assessment. In the 200 and 400 mg/kg groups, there were significant decreases in the testes and accessory sex organ weights, plasma concentrations of LH, FSH and testosterone with massive degeneration of all the germ cells at stage VII. It is concluded that metronidazole has a suppressive influence on spermatogenesis and sex hormones in rats.
Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment
, Rita de Cássia da Silveira e;Leite, Magda N.;Almeida, Reinaldo N. de;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2010005000007
Abstract: some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. mikania glomerata spreng., asteraceae, known as guaco in brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. this work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of m. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. thirty-day-old wistar rats were treated with m. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. no significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the m. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.
Antifertility activity evaluation of two derivatives of dihydropyridine compounds on male rats
M. Vosooghi,H. Sadeghipour Roodsari,A,Amini
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Background: The male antifertility activity of Gossypol, the active ingredient of cotton seed, inspired the idea for development of an agent with male contraceptive activity. The result of subsequent studies lead to the discovery of several class of compounds with antifertility activity. In this study the antifertility activity of iso-Propyl and iso-Butyl derivatives of dihydropridine were evaluated. Methods: The two aforementioned compounds were administered subcutaneously in (10 mg/kg/day) dose to male rats. The animals were treated and kept according to the TUMS committee recommendations on ethical and animal maintenance considerations. Sixty days after the first injection the following fertility and histological indices were evaluated, animal’s body weight difference (B.W.D), sperms motility, sperm viability, ESR (epididymal sperm reserve), DSP (daily sperm production), serum testosterone concentration, fertility index, GSI (gonado somatic index). Histological indices are respectively the area and circumference of seminiferous tubules, each testis and their crosswise dissections, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the number of seminiferous tubules per square millimeter, that were determined. Results: The values of the two test groups were determined and compared with the results of normal group that were using normal saline only and the blank that were receiving propyllenglycol only. Conclusion: The significant inhibitive activity of candidate compounds on animal's physiologic indices were in accordance of our pervious estimation of compounds activity as (lead compound) for synthesis and preparation of new compounds with male contraceptive activity
Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds Induces Reversible Contraception in Adult Male Wistar Rats  [cached]
Wilson O. Hamman,Sunday A. Musa,Daniel T. Ikyembe,Uduak E. Umana
British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2011,
Abstract: The quest for the development of an ideal male contraceptive has led to the discovery of the antifertility property of some species of C. papaya seed extracts. This study investigates the antifertility activity and reversibility of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds in sexually matured male Wistar rats. 30 adult males and 60 female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 220 g were used for the study. The male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Group I which served as control were orally administered distilled water while groups II and III received 100 and 250 mg/kg/day of ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds respectively for a period of 90 days. 5 males from each group were subjected to fertility test before they were sacrificed to harvest the testes for histopathological analysis. The administration of the extract was discontinued for another 90 days period and the remaining 5 males in each group were subjected to fertility test before they were sacrificed to obtain the testes for histopathological analysis. The results showed normal pregnancy outcome in the females paired with the control group, reduced and zero pregnancy outcome in the females paired with the 100 and 250 mg/kg groups respectively after 90-day administration of the extract. After 90 days of discontinued administration of extract, normal pregnancy outcome were recorded in both the control and treated groups. The result of the histopathological analysis showed a moderate and highly depleted germinal epithelium in the 100 and 250 mg/kg groups respectively after 90 day administration of the extract. The germinal epithelium seen in both the control and the experimental groups were normal after 90 days discontinued extract administration. The study concludes that ethanol extract of C. papaya seeds induces reversible male contraception in Wistar rats.
An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats
El-Din,Rania A. Salah; El-Shahat,Abd El-Rahman; Elmansy,Rasha Ahmed;
International Journal of Morphology , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022012000200051
Abstract: the present work was aimed at studying the antifertility potential of the commonly used herb, rosemary in the male albino rats using electron microscopy as the method of investigation. ethanolic extract of the rosmary prepared and administered orally in two different doses for a period of three months to the animals. at the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and testes removed. sections for the electrone microscopy prepared and changes were observed. the present results showed evident microscopic changes in the testis of the animals received higher dose of the drug. most of the seminiferous tubules were compressed, having irregular basement membrane and devoid of any spermatogenic cells. the present work revealed a clear morphological evidence of the dose dependent antifertility potential of the rosemary in the male albino rats.
Chronic Oral Administration of Ethanol Extract of Carica papaya Seeds Does not Affect the Histology of the Cauda Epididymis of Adult Male Wistar Rats  [cached]
Wilson O. Hamman,Sunday A. Musa,Daniel T. Ikyembe,Uduak E. Umana
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The role of the epididymis in male reproduction has been studied and it is well established that the spermatozoa are produced by the germinal epithelia of seminiferous tubules and are transported to the epididymis for onward transport, maturation and storage. The antifertility property of Carica papaya seed extracts have also been well documented in experimental animals. This study examines the effect of chronic oral administration of ethanol extract of C. papaya on the histology of adult male wistar rats. 15 apparently healthy adult male wistar rats were obtained from the animal house of the Department of Human Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and divided into 3 groups (I, II, III) of 5 each. 100 and 250 mg/kg/day of the extract was orally administered to groups II and III, respectively while group I which served as control received distilled water. The daily administration was carried out for a period of 90 days after which the animals were humanely sacrificed, the epididymis obtained and processed for light microscopy. Microscopic examination of the epididymis showed normal histology in both the control and experimental groups. This study concludes that the oral administration of the extract which has great potential in male fertility control does not affect the histology of the epididymis of adult male wistar rats.
Antifertility Effects of Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum in Male Albino Rats  [cached]
A C Onyeka,A U Aligwekwe,T S Olawuyi,A A Nwakanma
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products , 2012,
Abstract: Summary: The present study was conducted to investigate the antifertility activity of the ethanol root bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on sperm parameter and hormonal levels in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. The first group (A) received distilled water and served as control. The second and third group (B & C) of animals were administered the ethanol root bark extract daily at 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg decrease in the caudal epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm morphology was observed compared with the control. Serum gonadotrophins and testosterone were measured and C. albidum extract also caused a dose related significant reduction (p<0.05) of serum testosterone, Luteinizing hormones and FSH concentrations in all treatment groups as compared to the control. The result showed that ethanol extract of the root bark of C. albidum suppresses the hormonal levels and sperm production in rats and deserves to be further investigated as a potential male contraceptive agent. Industrial relevance: The unique advantages of this antifertility option is that they are safer, reliable, affordable, long-lasting, acceptable and can be taken without consulting a health worker in comparison to pharmaceutical drugs that are expensive and have negative side effect. Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum; Infertility; testosterone; gonadotrophin; testis
The effect of Indian liquorice on fertility potentials of male rats
Ligha A.E.,Oyibo A.C.
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/abs1201229l
Abstract: The use of herbs as an adjutant form of medical treatment is gaining popularity all over the world. This study is aimed at determining the effects of Indian liquorice on the fertility potentials of male Wistar rats. Fifty-five rats divided into seven groups were used in this study. Doses of 200 and 400mg/kg of the extract were used. The parameters considered were the weight of the testis, malondialdehyde concentration, hormonal levels, histological characteristics and sperm analysis. We observed a significant change in the weight of the testes, inhibition of testicular tissue peroxidation, testosterone levels, sperm concentration and motility were changed in comparison to the negative control. Obvious cellular changes were also observed in the liquorice-treated groups. These changes were brought back to almost pre-treatment values in the reversal groups. The changes observed in groups co-treated with vitamin E were minimal and statistically insignificant. The results suggest that the seed extract of Indian liquorice has a negative effect on the fertility potentials of the male rats and shows oxidative properties.
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