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HLA-A, -B and -DR Allele and Haplotype Frequencies in the European American, African American, and Hispanic Populations in Dallas, Texas: Relatedness to the North American Population  [cached]
G?kay Bozkurt
Balkan Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: In the United States of America (USA) population, several studies focusing on frequencies of HLA alleles and their haplotypes have been reported, but HLA data in the USA population living in Dallas, Texas, are reported here for the first time. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HLA in the populations of African American, European American, and Hispanic of Dallas, Texas and its genetic relatedness to the USA populations. Material and Methods: We present the HLA data available from the Transplant Donor Program database of Southwestern Medical Center at the University of Texas at Dallas. The comparative study of their allele frequencies, characteristic haplotypes, genetic distances with other Americans residing in the USA is complemented by neighbor-joining dendrogram and correspondence analysis. Results: The results of our study reflect a predominance of European and also Asian rather than African Ancestry for the Hispanic sample, especially those living in South of USA. Conclusion: As new information, our study results show that the largest genetic distances between all USA groups were those of the African Americans compared with each of the other groups in four major races.
Temperature and Violent Crime in Dallas, Texas: Relationships and Implications of Climate Change
Janet L. Gamble,Jeremy J. Hess
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: To investigate relationships between ambient temperatures and violent crimes to determine whether those relationships are consistent across different crime categories and whether they are best described as increasing linear functions, or as curvilinear functions that decrease beyond some temperature threshold. A secondary objective was to consider the implications of the observed relationships for injuries and deaths from violent crimes in the context of a warming climate. To address these questions, we examined the relationship between daily ambient temperatures and daily incidents of violent crime in Dallas, Texas from 1993–1999.Methods: We analyzed the relationships between daily fluctuations in ambient temperature, other meteorological and temporal variables, and rates of daily violent crime using time series piece-wise regression and plots of daily data. Violent crimes, including aggravated assault, homicide, and sexualassault, were analyzed.Results: We found that daily mean ambient temperature is related in a curvilinear fashion to daily rates of violent crime with a positive and increasing relationship between temperature and aggravated crime that moderates beyond temperatures of 80 F and then turns negative beyond 90 F.Conclusion: While some have characterized the relationship between temperature and violent crime as a continually increasing linear function, leaving open the possibility that aggravated crime will increase in a warmer climate, we conclude that the relationship in Dallas is not linear, but moderatesand turns negative at high ambient temperatures. We posit that higher temperatures may encourage people to seek shelter in cooler indoor spaces, and that street crime and other crimes of opportunity are subsequently decreased. This finding suggests that the higher ambient temperatures expected with climate change may result in marginal shifts in violent crime in the short term, but are not likely to be accompanied by markedly higher rates of violent crime and associated increased incidence of injuryand death. Additional studies are indicated, across cities at varying latitudes that experience a range of daily ambient temperatures. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3):239–246.]
Impact of Hispanic Ethnic Concentration and Socioeconomic Status on Obesity Prevalence in Texas Counties  [PDF]
Jennifer J. Salinas,Elizabeth Rocha,Bassent E. Abdelbary,Jennifer Gay,Ken Sexton
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9041201
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the association of Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity varies by socioeconomic environment. Although little influence was observed for % poverty, the relationship between Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity differed by county-level educational attainment. High proportion of residents with a bachelor’s degree is associated with a low prevalence of obesity; counties with both high % Hispanic and high % with Bachelor’s degrees had the lowest prevalence of obesity. Our results suggest that promoting and improving education, perhaps including training on healthful living, may serve as an effective means of curbing current obesity trends and associated health problems in Hispanic and possibly other ethnic communities.
Torre Reunión , en Dallas Texas - EE. UU.  [cached]
Becket, Welton
Informes de la Construccion , 1980,
Abstract: The Reunion Tower, 50 stories and 170 m high, along with the adjacent 1,000 room hotel, constitutes the first phase of an urbanistic rehabilitation complex for a plot of 20 hectares, located in the South-West sector of the city's shopping centre. Due to its singular characteristics, the Tower has in fact already become a clear identifying mark in the city of Dallas. Right at the top, it ends in a geodesic dome, in three levels, that amount to over 2,300 m2 of the total area, and where there is a restaurant on rotating platform, a cocktail room of the same characteristics, an observation terrace and a radio station. The project has been given the award of the Reinforced Cement Institute, and that of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) corresponding to Los Angeles. La Torre Reunión , de 50 plantas y 170 m de altura constituye, junto con el hotel de 1.000 habitaciones adyacente, la primera fase de un complejo de rehabilitación urbanística para una parcela de 20 hectáreas situada en el sector suroeste del centro comercial de la ciudad. De hecho, por sus singulares características, la Torre se ha convertido ya en una clara se al de identidad de la ciudad de Dallas. En su extremo superior está rematada por una cúpula geodésica, con tres niveles que suman más de 2.300 m2 de superficie total, y en los que están distribuidos un restaurante sobre plataforma giratoria, una sala de cocktails de iguales características, una terraza de observación y una emisora de radio. El proyecto ha merecido el premio concedido por el Instituto del Cemento Armado, y el del Instituto Americano de Arquitectos (AIA), correspondiente a Los Angeles.
HIV/AIDS practice patterns, knowledge, and educational needs among Hispanic clinicians in Texas, USA, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico
Martinez,J. Louis; Licea Serrato,Juan de Dios; Jimenez,Richard; Grimes,Richard M.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891998000700003
Abstract: hispanic clinicians in texas, united states of america, and in the neighboring state of nuevo leon, mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of hiv/aids. two-thirds of the 74 texan and 22% of the 104 mexican physicians queried had seen at least one hiv/aids patient in the previous year. the majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1) were in private practice; 2) saw more than 1 000 patients per year; 3) had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4) provided some hiv prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5) rated their own knowledge of hiv/aids as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6) received most of their information about hiv/aids from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7) thought hispanic patients had special needs with regard to hiv/aids care; and 8) were willing to attend education programs to improve their hiv/aids management skills. the greatest barriers to caring for hiv patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. these results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the hiv/aids management skills of hispanic clinicians in texas and nuevo leon.
HIV/AIDS practice patterns, knowledge, and educational needs among Hispanic clinicians in Texas, USA, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico  [cached]
Martinez J. Louis,Licea Serrato Juan de Dios,Jimenez Richard,Grimes Richard M.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1998,
Abstract: Hispanic clinicians in Texas, United States of America, and in the neighboring state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of HIV/AIDS. Two-thirds of the 74 Texan and 22% of the 104 Mexican physicians queried had seen at least one HIV/AIDS patient in the previous year. The majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1) were in private practice; 2) saw more than 1 000 patients per year; 3) had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4) provided some HIV prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5) rated their own knowledge of HIV/AIDS as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6) received most of their information about HIV/AIDS from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7) thought Hispanic patients had special needs with regard to HIV/AIDS care; and 8) were willing to attend education programs to improve their HIV/AIDS management skills. The greatest barriers to caring for HIV patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. These results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the HIV/AIDS management skills of Hispanic clinicians in Texas and Nuevo Leon.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood from Pregnant Hispanic Women Living in Brownsville, Texas  [PDF]
Ken Sexton,Jennifer J. Salinas,Thomas J. McDonald,Rose M. Z. Gowen,Rebecca P. Miller,Joseph B. McCormick,Susan P. Fisher-Hoch
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8083365
Abstract: Venous blood was drawn from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, and matched cord blood was collected at birth. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure concentrations of 55 individual PAHs or groups of PAHs. Results indicate that these women and their fetuses were regularly exposed to multiple PAHs at comparatively low concentrations, with levels in cord blood generally exceeding levels in paired maternal blood. While the possibility of related adverse effects on the fetus is uncertain, these exposures in combination with socioeconomically-disadvantaged and environmentally-challenging living conditions raise legitimate public health concerns.
Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas  [PDF]
Ken Sexton,Jennifer J. Salinas,Thomas J. McDonald,Rose M. Z. Gowen,Rebecca P. Miller,Joseph B. McCormick,Susan P. Fisher-Hoch
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10010237
Abstract: Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes.
Recycling Attitudes and Behavior among a Clinic-Based Sample of Low-Income Hispanic Women in Southeast Texas  [PDF]
Heidi C. Pearson, Lauren N. Dawson, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034469
Abstract: We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18–55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (P<0.05), lower acculturation (P<0.01), knowing what to recycle (P<0.01), knowing that recycling saves landfill space (P<0.05), and disagreeing that recycling takes too much time (P<0.001). A Sobel test revealed that acculturation mediated the relationship between recycling knowledge and recycling behavior (P<0.05). We offer new information on recycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population.
Impact of comorbidities and drug therapy on development of renal impairment in a predominantly African American and Hispanic HIV clinic population
M Keith Rawlings, Jennifer Klein, Edna P Toubes Klingler, et al
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S13902
Abstract: ct of comorbidities and drug therapy on development of renal impairment in a predominantly African American and Hispanic HIV clinic population Original Research (3750) Total Article Views Authors: M Keith Rawlings, Jennifer Klein, Edna P Toubes Klingler, et al Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:3 Pages 1 - 8 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S13902 M Keith Rawlings1, Jennifer Klein1, Edna P Toubes Klingler1, Ejeanée Queen1, Lauren Rogers1, Linda H Yau2, Keith A Pappa2, Gary E Pakes2 1AIDS Arms Peabody Health Clinic, Dallas, Texas; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA Purpose: Renal impairment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients could potentially be caused by many factors. HIV-related renal impairment risks have been little studied in African Americans and Hispanics. We investigated the impact of HIV itself, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), comorbidities, and non-HIV-related drug treatment on glomerular filtration rate in a predominantly African American/Hispanic HIV-infected population who had received HAART for at least one year. This study was a retrospective electronic medical record database evaluation of renal impairment risks in a largely African American/Hispanic HIV population obtaining medical care at an HIV clinic in Dallas, Texas. Methods: Proportional hazards models were used to investigate an association between an estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease >25% from baseline (ie, renal impairment) and demographics, antiretroviral/nonantiretroviral medications, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection, hepatitis B virus [HBV] infection), CD4+ counts, viral load, and duration patients were monitored at the clinic (time on study). Results: In total, 323 patients were evaluated: 82% males; 61% African American/12% Hispanic/19% Caucasian; mean age 37.9 years (standard deviation [SD] 8.5); 6% HBV-positive; 34% HCV-positive; 29% hypertensive; 3% diabetic; 52% tenofovir-treated; mean weight 75.4 kg (SD, 15.4); mean estimated glomerular filtration 114.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD, 36.7) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) calculation method; mean creatinine clearance (from which estimated glomerular filtration was extrapolated) by the Cockcroft-Gault calculation method 120.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD, 41.2); mean time on study 2.7 years (SD, 1.0 year). An estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease of . >25% from baseline was significantly associated with time on study (P = 0.0017; hazards ratio [HR] = 0.999) and hypertension (HR = 1.706; P = 0.0158) by the MDRD method, and with age (HR = 1.039; P = 0.0077), weight (HR = 0.987; P = 0.0023), and time on study (HR = 0.999; P = 0.0043) by extrapolation of Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance calculation. No specific HAART agent was associated with significant renal impairment risk by the definition used in this study. Conclusion: This retrospective database study showed time on stud
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