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SCARP: Secure Congestion Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Ch.Radhika Rani,S.Nagendram,Subba Reddy Oota
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks sense various kinds of information, process them locally and communicate it to the outside world via satellite or Internet. In the near future, sensor networks will play a major role in collecting and disseminating information from the fields where ordinary networks are unreachable for various environmental and strategical reasons. Hence it is increasingly likely that sensorswill be shared by multiple applications and gather heterogeneous data of different priorities. With such concentration on wireless sensor networks, vital issues like security and congestion control are to be taken care of. We propose Secure Congestion Aware Routing protocol (SCARP), a protocol designed for mitigating congestion by dedicating a portion of network to forward high-priority traffic primarily andalso satisfies the major security properties like data authentication, data secrecy, replay protection, freshness with low energy consumption which are the major factors affecting the wireless sensor networks.
Mitigating Congestion Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
B. Pruthvi raj, O.Srinivasa Rao#2, Dr MHM Krishna Prasad*3
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: - Energy efficient protocol is very important in wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) because the nodes in WSNs are usually battery operated sensing devices with limited energy resources and replacing the batteries is usually not an option. We propose a class of algorithms that enforce differentiated routing based on the congested areas of a network and data priority. The basic protocol, called Congestion-Aware Routing (CAR), discovers the congested zone of the network that exists between highpriority data sources and the data sink and, using simple forwarding rules, dedicates this portion of the network to forwarding primarily high-priority traffic. Since CAR requires some overhead for establishing the high-priority routing zone, it is unsuitable for highly mobile data sources. Congestion occurrence in network nodes leads to increase packet loss and energy consumption. Another parameter which affects routing protocol efficiency is providing fairness in nodes energy consumption. When fairness is not considered in routing process, network will be partitioned very soon and then the network performance will be decreased. To overcome these issues, an Index Base Congestion aware Routing Protocol (ICRP) proposed. The proposed protocol is energy efficient routing protocols which try to control congestion and to provide fairness in network. The main goal in ICRP provides solution for better energy utilization of a node and better Quality of Services (QoS).
Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP) for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
R. Prema, R. Rangarajan
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.45019
Abstract: Several wireless sensor network applications ought to decide the intrinsic variance between energy efficient communication and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In order to address this challenge, we propose the Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions. Extensive simulation results prove that the proposed PARP attains better QoS and reduced power consumption.
Energy Aware GPSR Routing Protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network
S Nouh, Z Geta
Zede Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Energy is the scarce resource in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and it determines the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, WSN algorithms and routing protocols should be selected in a manner which fulfills these energy requirements. This paper presents a solution to increase the lifetime of WSNs by decreasing their energy consumption. The proposed solution is based on incorporating energy information into Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) Protocol. The proposed solution performs better in energy consumption, network lifetime and packet delivery ratio, with a performance gain of Network Lifetime 45.9% - 78.69%. However, the performance is comparatively low in average delay because of computational complexity. Key Words: Wireless Sensor Networks, GPSR protocol, Geographical routing protocol, `Energy aware routing protocol
Aware Diffusion: A Semi-Holistic Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Kamil Samara, Hossein Hosseini
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2016.83004
Abstract: Routing is a challenging task in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to the limitation in energy and hardware capabilities in WSN nodes. This challenge prompted researchers to develop routing protocols that satisfy WSNs needs. The main design objectives are reliable delivery, low energy consumption, and prolonging network lifetime. In WSNs, routing is based on local information among neighboring nodes. Routing decisions are made locally; each node will select the next hop without any clue about the other nodes on the path. Although a full knowledge about the network yields better routing, that is not feasible in WSNs due to memory limitation and to the high traffic needed to collect the needed data about all the nodes in the network. As an effort to try to overcome this disadvantage, we are proposing in this paper aware diffusion routing protocol. Aware diffusion follows a semi-holistic approach by collecting data about the available paths and uses these data to enforce healthier paths using machine learning. The data gathering is done by adding a new stage called data collection stage. In this stage, the protocol designer can determine which parameters to collect then use these parameters in enforcing the best path according to certain criteria. In our implementation of this paradigm, we are collecting total energy on the path, lowest energy level on the path, and hop count. Again, the data collected is designer and application specific. The collected data will be used to compare available paths using non-incremental learning, and the outcome will be preferring paths that meet the designer criteria. In our case, healthier and shorter paths are preferred, which will result in less power consumption, higher delivery rate, and longer network life since healthier and fewer nodes will be doing the work.
Tree Based Energy and Congestion Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Amir Hossein Mohajerzadeh, Mohammad Hossien Yaghmaee
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.22021
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have inherent and unique characteristics rather than traditional networks. They have many different constraints, such as computational power, storage capacity, energy supply and etc; of course the most important issue is their energy constraint. Energy aware routing protocol is very important in WSN, but routing protocol which only considers energy has not efficient performance. Therefore considering other parameters beside energy efficiency is crucial for protocols efficiency. Depending on sensor network application, different parameters can be considered for its protocols. Congestion management can affect routing protocol performance. Congestion occurrence in network nodes leads to increasing packet loss and energy consumption. Another parameter which affects routing protocol efficiency is providing fairness in nodes energy consumption. When fairness is not considered in routing process, network will be partitioned very soon and then the network performance will be decreased. In this paper a Tree based Energy and Congestion Aware Routing Protocol (TECARP) is proposed. The proposed protocol is an energy efficient routing protocol which tries to manage congestion and to provide fairness in network. Simulation results shown in this paper imply that the TECARP has achieved its goals.
Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks  [cached]
Mann Raminder P,Namuduri Kamesh R,Pendse Ravi
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2005,
Abstract: Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP) suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.
A Delay Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Bhaskar Bhuyan,Nityananda Sarma
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes which can be deployed for various operations such as agriculture and environmental sensing, wild life monitoring, health care, military surveillance, industrial control, home automation, security etc. Quality of Service (QoS) is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and providing QoS support in WSNs is an emerging area of research. Due to resource constraints nature of sensor networks like processing power, memory, bandwidth, energy etc. providing QoS support in WSNs is a challenging task. Delay is an important QoS parameter for forwarding data in a time constraint WSNs environment. In this paper we propose a delay aware routing protocol for transmission of time critical event information to the Sink of WSNs. The performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated by NS2 simulations under different scenarios.
An Indexed based Congestion Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
S.Janarathanan,M.Kumaran,V.Seedha Devi,,V.Balaji Vijayan
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: Energy efficient protocol is very important in wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) because the nodes in WSNs are usually battery operated sensing devices with limited energy resources and replacing the batteries is usually not an option. Thus energy efficiency is one of the most important issues in WSNs. Routing protocols which only consider energy as their parameter is not efficient. In addition to energy efficiency, using other parameters makes routing protocol more efficient. For different applications, different parameters should be considered. One of the most important parameter is congestion management. Congestion management can affect routing protocol performance. Congestion occurrence in network nodes leads to increase packet loss and energy consumption. Another parameter which affects routing protocol efficiency is providing fairness in nodes energy consumption. When fairness is not considered in routing process, network will be partitioned very soon and then the network performance will be decreased. To overcome these issues, an Index Base Congestion aware Routing Protocol (ICRP) proposed. The proposed protocol is energy efficient routing protocols which try to control congestion and to provide fairness in network. The main goal in ICRP provides solution for better energy utilization of a node and better Quality of Services (QoS).
Performance Comparison of a QoS Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Bhaskar Bhuyan, Nityananda Sarma
Communications and Network (CN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2016.81006
Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a challenging area of research because of the limited availability of resources in WSNs. The resources in WSNs are processing power, memory, bandwidth, energy, communication capacity, etc. Delay is an important QoS parameter for delivery of delay sensitive data in a time constraint sensor network environment. In this paper, an extended version of a delay aware routing protocol for WSNs is presented along with its performance comparison with different deployment scenarios of sensor nodes, taking IEEE802.15.4 as the underlying MAC protocol. The performance evaluation of the protocol is done by simulation using ns-2 simulator.
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