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Can larval lacewings Chrysoperla externa (Hagen): (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) be reared on pollen?
Oliveira, Simone Alves de;Souza, Brígida;Auad, Alexander Machado;Carvalho, Caio Antunes;
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0085-56262010000400024
Abstract: the aim of this study was to verify the viability of exclusive use of elephant grass pollen, pennisetum purpureum (schum), to feed larvae of the lacewing chrysoperla externa (hagen, 1861). the insects were kept at 24oc and the duration and survival rate of each instar and the larval and pupal phases were recorded. the diet provided complete development of the larvae. the average duration of the first and second instars was the same (6.9 days), while the third instar lasted an average of 10.0 days and the pupal phase 13.2 days. the average survival of the larvae was above 80% for the first, second and third instars, and 70.0% and 33.3% for the larval and pupal phase, respectively. these results indicate that the exclusive use of elephant grass pollen can provide complete development of the immature stages of this predator.
Seletividade de Inseticidas a Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
CARVALHO, GERALDO A.;CARVALHO, CéSAR F.;SOUZA, BRíGIDA;ULH?A, JO?O L.R.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2002000400015
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect the insecticides endosulfan (1.05 g a.i./l), esfenvalerate (0.075 g a.i./l), fenpropathrin (0.09 g a.i./l), trichlorfon (0.09 g a.i./l) and triflumuron (0.0375 g a.i./l), used to control alabama argillacea (hübner), on eggs and larvae of chrysoperla externa (hagen), under greenhouse conditions. egg viability, duration of the embryonic period and survival of first-instar larvae ecloded from treated eggs were evaluated. for first, second and third-instar larvae treated with the insecticides, subsequent survival of the larvae and pupae, as well as viability of the eggs produced by the emerged adults, were evaluated. the insecticides esfenvalerate and triflumuron caused a significant increase in the embryonic period of c. externa. endosulfan, fenpropathrin, trichlorfon and triflumuron were highly toxic to larvae, with mortality rates ranging from 71% to 100%. esfenvalerate caused only about 20% mortality of the first- and third-instar larvae and 38% of the second-instar larvae. besides causing low larval mortality, esfenvalerate did not affect pupae survival or the reproductive capacity of the adults in the studied period, thus showing good potential for use in integrated pest management in cotton crops.
Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pomares de pêssego a adultos do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Castilhos, Rodolfo Vargas;Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei;Nava, Dori Edson;Zotti, Moisés Jo?o;Siqueira, Paulo Ricardo Baier;
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-29452011005000042
Abstract: the selectivity of sixteen pesticides used in integrated and conventional peach production was evaluated on adults of chrysoperla externa (hagen,1861) (neuroptera: chrysopidae) under bioassays in laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±1oc, relative humidity 70±10% and 14 hours photophase), using the "international organization for biological control" (iobc) methodology. the pesticides (% active ingredient) azoxystrobin (0.016), captan (0.192), dodine (0.126), pholpet (0.200), mancozeb (0.256), mancozeb + cooper oxichloride (0.140 + 0.096), tebuconazole (0.320), abamectin (0.002), mineral oil 1 (2.420), mineral oil 2 (1.920), paraquat dichloride (0.300) and gliphosate (1.440) were harmless; deltametrin (0.002) was slightly harmful and dimetoate (0.160), phosmet (0.160) and malathion (0.240), were harmful to c. externa adults.
Development and consumption capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) fed with Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae) under three temperatures
Cardoso, Josiane T.;Lazzari, Sonia M. N.;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752003000400002
Abstract: the giant conifer aphids cinara pinivora (wilson, 1919) and cinara atlantica (wilson, 1919) (hemiptera: aphididae) are pests on pinus spp. (pinaceae) in the south and southeast regions of brazil. larvae of chrysoperla externa (hagen, 1861) (neuroptera, chrysopidae) were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. in order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars) and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars), maintained at 15oc, 20oc and 25oc, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% rh, and observed daily. the egg incubation period was nine days at 20oc and four days at 25oc. the mean larval development period for c. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15oc, 20oc and 25oc. the pupal stage last 23.2 at 20oc and 11.1 days at 25oc. unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15oc are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. the mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15oc, 20oc and 25oc, respectively. the average aphid consumption of each c. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15oc, 20oc and 25oc, respectively. about 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. although the development was faster and viability higher at 25oc than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15oc because the larval period was much longer. therefore, the larvae of c. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of southern brazil during some periods o the year.
Development and consumption capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) fed with Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae) under three temperatures
Cardoso Josiane T.,Lazzari Sonia M. N.
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2003,
Abstract: The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919) and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are pests on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae) in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. In order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. Ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars) and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars), maintained at 15oC, 20oC and 25oC, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% RH, and observed daily. The egg incubation period was nine days at 20oC and four days at 25oC. The mean larval development period for C. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15oC, 20oC and 25oC. The pupal stage last 23.2 at 20oC and 11.1 days at 25oC. Unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15oC are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. The mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15oC, 20oC and 25oC, respectively. The average aphid consumption of each C. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15oC, 20oC and 25oC, respectively. About 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. Although the development was faster and viability higher at 25oC than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15oC because the larval period was much longer. Therefore, the larvae of C. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of Cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of Southern Brazil during some periods o the year.
Seletividade de inseticidas usados na cultura da macieira a ovos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Ferreira, Ant?nio José;Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade;Botton, Marcos;Mendon?a, Lúcia Aparecida;Corrêa, Alan Rodrigo Batista;
Ciência Rural , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782005000400001
Abstract: the effect of some insecticides on eggs of two populations of chrysoperla externa (hagen, 1861) (neuroptera: chrysopidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions (25±2°c, rh of 70±10% and 12 hours-photophase). the compounds were used at commercial or research concentrations used to control oriental fruit moth, leaf roller and fruit fly on apple orchards. the products and rates (g ou ml of formulated product 100l-1 of water) evaluated were: phosmet (imidan 500 pm - 200), methoxyfenozide (intrepid 240 sc - 60), tebufenozide (mimic 240 sc - 60), emamectin benzoate (proclain 5 sg - 15), spinosad (tracer 480 sc - 20), etofenprox (trebon 100 sc - 150) and chlorpyrifos (lorsban 480 br - 150), using water as control. spraying of insecticides was on eggs (12 hours old) using the potter tower. survival and the period of the developmental stages were evaluated from treated eggs to the second-instar larvae, according to the iobc recommendations. both c. externa populations showed similar results for compounds applied. phosmet, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, emamectin benzoate, spinosad and etofenprox were harmless, whereas chlorpyrifos was slightly harmful to c. externa, killing 43,7% of the eggs and 20% of the first-instar larvae from the treated eggs.
Residual Effect of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production on Chrysoperlaexterna (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Larvae Efecto Residual de los Pesticidas utilizados en la Producción integrada de Manzanas en las Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)  [cached]
Alexandre P Moura,Geraldo A Carvalho,Marcos Botton
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2012,
Abstract: Temperate fruit crops are an important economic activity for growers in southern Brazil. However, several pest species are associated to apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) crops in Brazil. Pesticides are largely used to control them and one way to change this is to combine selective pesticides and predator insects. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of the abamectin, carbaryl, fenitrothion, methidathion, sulfur, and trichlorfon pesticides on the survival and stage length of larvae and pupae, adult oviposition from treated larvae, and hatched eggs of two Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) populations. The compounds were sprayed on glass plates in accordance with the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) recommendations. First- and second-instar larvae were exposed to pesticide residues. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of first- and second-instar larvae. Changes in the number of eggs laid by females from first- and second-instar larvae exposed to residues of abamectin and sulfur, or abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon, respectively, were not observed. Only abamectin reduced the number of hatched eggs laid by females in Bento Gon alves from treated first-instar larvae. Sulfur reduced the viability of C. externa eggs in Bento Gon alves and Vacaria females from treated second-instar larvae, whereas trichlorfon and abamectin reduced the viability of eggs in Vacaria females. In conclusion, carbaryl, fenitrothion and methidathion were harmful to C. externa. Trichlorfon was harmful to first-instar larvae and slightly harmful to second-instar larvae. Abamectin and sulfur were slightly harmful to first-instar larvae and harmless to second-instar larvae. El cultivo de frutas de clima templado es una actividad económica importante para agricultores del Sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, varias especies de plagas están asociadas al cultivo de la manzana (Malus domestica Borkh.) en Brasil. Los plaguicidas son muy utilizados para su control, y una manera de cambiar esto es la combinación de plaguicidas selectivos e insectos depredadores. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar los efectos de abamectina, carbaril, azufre, fenitrotion, metidation, y triclorfon en la supervivencia de larvas y pupas, en la ovipostura de adultos, y en la viabilidad de huevos de dos poblaciones de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Los tratamientos fueron aplicados en placas de vidrio, y las larvas fueron sometidas a contacto con los productos. Carbaril, fenitrotion, y metidation causa
Seletividade de inseticidas usados na cultura da macieira a duas popula??es de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Ferreira, Ant?nio José;Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade;Botton, Marcos;Lasmar, Olinto;
Ciência Rural , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782006000200004
Abstract: the effect of some insecticides on larvae of two populations of chrysoperla externa (hagen, 1861) (neuroptera: chrysopidae) from bento gon?alves and vacaria, rs were evaluated under laboratory conditions (25±2°c, rh of 70±10% and 12 hours-photophase). the compounds were used at commercial or research concentrations used to control oriental fruit moth, leaf roller and fruit fly on apple orchards. the products and rates (g ou ml of formulated product/100l of water) evaluated were: phosmet (imidan 500 pm - 200), methoxyfenozide (intrepid 240 sc - 60), tebufenozide (mimic 240 sc - 60), emamectin benzoate (proclain 5 sg - 15), spinosad (tracer 480 sc - 20), etofenprox (trebon 100 sc - 150) and chlorpyrifos (lorsban 480 br - 150), using water as control. spraying of insecticides was on first-instar larvae using the potter tower. the survival rate and duration, larval and pupal development time and, fecundity and fertility of survivor adults were evaluated. the toxic effect of each product was estimated by the total effect (e) according to the iobc recommendations. emamectin benzoate was classified as harmless (class 1) to first-instar larvae of c. externa from bento gon?alves. methoxyfenozide, etofenprox, tebufenozide, spinosad and phosmet were classified as slightly harmful (class 2), and chlorpyrifos was classified as harmful (class 4). emamectin benzoate was harmless; fosmet was moderately harmful (class 3), and chlorpyrifos was harmful to the c. externa from vacaria.
A??o de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Silva, Rogério Ant?nio;Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade;Carvalho, César Freire;Reis, Paulo Rebelles;Souza, Brígida;Pereira, Ant?nio Marcos Andrade Rezende;
Ciência Rural , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782006000100002
Abstract: it was evaluated the action of the pesticides endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, betacyfluthrin, sulphur, azocyclotin and copper oxychloride to pupae and adults of chrysoperla externa (hagen)(neuroptera: chrysopidae). the bioassays were carried out in the entomology department of the universidade federal de lavras - ufla, mg, brazil. the treatments in g i.a.l-1 of water, were: 1 - endosulfan (thiodan 350 ce - 1.75), 2 - chlorpyrifos (lorsban 480 ce - 1.2), 3 - betacyfluthrin (turbo 50 ce - 0.013), 4 - sulphur (kumulus 800 pm - 4.0), 5 - azocyclotin (peropal 250 pm - 0.31), 6 - copper oxychloride (cuprogarb 500 pm - 5.0) and 7 - control (water). the sprayings were accomplished directly on pupae and adults of green lacewing, using a potter's tower. the pupae were placed in glass tubes and the adults in pvc cages and maintained in climatic chambers at 25 ± 2°c, rh of 70 ± 10% and 12-hour photophase. the experimental design was completely randomized, with seven treatments and ten replicates. each plot was made up by either four pupae or one couple of c. externa. the pesticides were classified according recommendations of the iobc. chlorpyrifos was classified in the class 2 = slightly harmful (30£e£79%) for pupae, and the all the other products were selective and classified in the class 1 = harmless (e<30%). to adults, chlorpyrifos was toxic, being classified in class 4 = harmful (e>99%) and betacyfluthrin in class 3 = moderately harmful (80£e£99%). endosulfan, sulphur, azocyclotin and copper oxychloride were harmless to adults, being classified in class 1. the pesticides endosulfan, azocyclotin, sulphur and copper oxychloride can be recommended in coffee pest management programs in association with c. externa, based in the reduced toxicity presented in these products for this predator.
Efecto de dietas artificiales en la biología de adultos de chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (neuroptera: chrysopidae)
José Soto,José Iannacone
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2008,
Abstract: Se evaluó bajo condiciones de laboratorio el efecto de ocho dietas sobre la biología de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) con el fin de determinar una dieta artificial barata y efectiva. Una dieta estándar con levadura y siete constituidas por maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers), soya (Glycine max (Linnaeus) Merril) y kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus Linnaeus); en las siguientes combinaciones: levadura y maca; levadura y kiwicha; levadura y soya; levadura, maca y kiwicha; levadura, maca y soya; levadura, soya y kiwicha; y levadura, maca, soya y kiwicha fueron evaluadas con respecto a la biología de adultos de C. externa. Todas las dietas contenían miel de abejas, polen y agua. Se evaluó la influencia de las dietas de los adultos en la viabilidad de los huevos, capacidad de oviposición, ritmo de oviposición, periodo de pre-oviposición, periodo de oviposición, periodo de post-oviposición de las hembras y longevidad de hembras y machos, durante dos generaciones de C. externa. Las ocho dietas evaluadas obtuvieron una elevada viabilidad de huevos en condiciones de laboratorio. Sin embargo, las dietas estandarizada a base de levadura, levadura + kiwicha, y soya + kiwicha obtuvieron una más alta viabilidad de huevos. Las dietas a base de levadura, levadura + maca, levadura + kiwicha, y a base de maca y kiwicha fueron con las que se obtuvo la mayor capacidad de oviposición. En general, no existieron diferencias significativas entre los periodos de preoviposición, oviposición y post-oviposición bajo las ocho dietas artificiales para C. externa, con tendencia a ser más altos en la segunda generación. Las dietas de levadura con maca, levadura, maca, soya y kiwicha permitieron un aumento en la longevidad de las hembras y machos para la segunda generación.
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