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Glycerine levels for crossbred heifers growing in pasture: performance, feed intake, feed eficiency and digestibility Níveis de glicerina para novilhas suplementadas em pastagens: desempenho, ingest o, eficiência alimentar e digestibilidade  [cached]
Mariana de Souza Farias,Ivanor Nunes Prado,Maribel Velandia Valero,Fernando Zawadzki
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: This work was carried out to study the effect of levels different addition of glycerine on animal performance, feed efficiency and digestibility of heifers supplemented in Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu pasture. The experimental period was 102 days. The first 14 days was the period of adaptation of heifers to experimental diets and management. It was used 36 crossbred heifers with an average initial weight of 226 + 12 kg and 13 months old. The heifers were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replicates: control = G00, G2.8 = 2.8%, G6.1 = 6.1% and G9.9 = 9.9% of glycerine in dry matter of diet. The heifers were weighed every 28 days for evaluation of average daily gain (ADG). The dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated from fecal output, recorded with the aid of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as an external and indigestible dry matter (DMi) as marker internal. The total and partial apparent digestibility was estimated from fecal output determined by chromic oxide. The addition of glycerine in the diet caused a linear reduction (P < 0.05) in final weight (FLW) and average daily gain (ADG) of heifers. The daily intake of dry matter (kg/day) of supplementation, pasture and total was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments. The intake of ether extract increased linearly (P < 0.05) as there was an increase of glycerol in the diet. Carbohydrate intake decreased linearly (P < 0.05) depending on the levels of glycerine to diets. The inclusion of glycerine had no effect (P > 0.05) on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates and carbohydrates total. Moreover, the inclusion of glycerine in the diets increased linearly (P < 0.05) the digestibility of ether extract. The inclusion of low-purity glycerine is not recommended because it provides a reduction in animal performance. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inclus o de glicerina sobre o desempenho animal, eficiência alimentar e digestibilidade em novilhas suplementadas em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cultivar Marandu. O período experimental foi de 102 dias, sendo os primeiros 14 destinados á adapta o às dietas e às condi es experimentais. Foram utilizadas 36 novilhas mesti as com peso inicial médio de 226 + 12 kg e 13 meses de idade distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e nove repeti es: G00 = controle; G2,8 = 3,8%; G6,1 = 6,1% e G9,0 = 9,0% de glicerina na matéria seca (MS) total na dieta. As novilhas foram pesadas a cada 28 dias para avalia o do ganho médio
Anaerobic co-digestion of crude glycerin and starch industry effluent Codigest o anaeróbia de glicerina bruta e efluente de fecularia  [cached]
Andrea C. Larsen,Benedito M. Gomes,Simone D. Gomes,Dilcemara C. Zenatti
Engenharia Agrícola , 2013,
Abstract: The Brazil's Biodiesel Production and Use Program introduces biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix, bringing along the perspective of a growth of the glycerin offer, co-product generated in the proportion of 10 kg for each 100 L of biodiesel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of crude glycerin in the anaerobic digestion of cassava starch industry effluent (cassava wastewater), in a horizontal semi-continuous flow reactor of one phase in laboratory scale. It was used a reactor with a 8.77 L of useful volume, a medium support for corrugated conduit of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), temperature of 261 oC, fed with cassava wastewater and glycerin, with hydraulic detention times of 4 and 5 days and increasing volumetric organic load of 3.05; 9.32; 14.83 and 13.59 g COD L-1 d-1, obtained with the addition of glycerin at 0; 2; 3 and 2% (v/v), respectively. The average removal efficiencies of TS and TVS were decreasing from the addition of glycerin to the cassava wastewater, averaging 81.19 to 55.58% for TS and 90.21 to 61.45% for TVS. The addition of glycerin at 2% increased the biogas production compared to the control treatment, reaching 1.979 L L-1 d-1. The biogas production as a function of the consumed COD was higher for the control treatment than for the treatments with addition of glycerin, which indicates lower conversion of organic matter into biogas. O Programa Nacional de Produ o e Uso do Biodiesel introduziu o biodiesel na matriz energética brasileira, trazendo a perspectiva de aumento da oferta de glicerina, coproduto gerado na propor o de 10 kg para cada 100 L de biodiesel. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a adi o de glicerina bruta na digest o anaeróbia de efluente de indústria de fécula de mandioca (manipueira), em reator de fluxo semicontínuo horizontal de uma fase, em escala de laboratório. Foi utilizado um reator com volume útil de 8,77 L, meio suporte em eletroduto corrugado de policloreto de vinila (PVC), temperatura de 261 oC, alimentado com manipueira e glicerina, aplicando-se tempos de deten o hidráulica de 4 e 5, dias e cargas organicas volumétricas crescentes de 3,05; 9,32; 14,83 e 13,59 g COD L-1 d-1, obtidas com a adi o de glicerina aos níveis de 0; 2; 3 e 2% (v/v), respectivamente. As eficiências de remo o média de ST e STV foram decrescendo a partir da adi o de glicerina à manipueira, com médias de 81,19 a 55,58 % para ST e 90,21 a 61,45% para STV. A adi o de glicerina em 2% aumentou a produ o de biogás em rela o ao tratamento-controle, chegando a 1,979 L L-1 d-1. A produ o de biogás em fun
Non-limited emissions during glycerine combustion  [cached]
Patsch Marek,Pilát Peter
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20122501068
Abstract: The glycerine combustion is very problematic and difficult realizable because of its bad physical and chemical properties. The aim of article is measuring and evaluation of concentration of non-limited harmful pollutants during glycerine combustion in experimental burner. The main dangerous emissions which were measured were concentrations of acrolein and formaldehyde.
Carcass and meat characteristics of different cattle categories fed diets containing crude glycerin Características de carca a e da carne de diferentes categorias de bovinos alimentados com dietas contendo glicerina bruta  [cached]
Jean Pacheco Le?o,Jose Neuman Miranda Neiva,Jo?o Restle,Regis Luis Míssio
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2013,
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to assess the carcass and meat characteristics of cows and castrated crossbred steer from dairy breeds fed in a feedlot with different levels of crude glycerin in the diet. Twenty-four animals were used, 12 cows with 467 ± 15 kg initial bodyweight and 12 steer 347 ± 17 kg initial bodyweight. A complete randomized design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (four crude glycerin levels and two animal categories) was used. The crude glycerin levels were 0, 60, 120 and 240 g/kg in dry matter diet, formulated with 800 g concentrate/kg dry matter. Including crude glycerin in the diet did not alter carcass weight and yield, backfat thickness and meat qualitative characteristics. Cows presented heavier hot carcass (279.4 versus 231.8 kg) with greater backfat thickness (3.8 versus 5.2 mm) than steer. Crude glycerin in quantities from 0 and 120 g/kg dry matter diet resulted in less muscle and greater fat participation in the cow carcass compared to the steer carcass. The cow meat was darker in coloring and had a higher degree of marbling than the steer. There was no difference for tenderness or total liquid losses during meat thawing and cooking between cows and steer. Crude glycerin can be added up to 240 g/kg diet dry matter for cows and steer from dairy breeds, because it does not decrease the quality of the carcass or the meat produced. Objetivou-se avaliar as características de carca a e carne de vacas de descarte e novilhos castrados mesti os de ra as de aptid o leiteira alimentados em confinamento com diferentes níveis de glicerina bruta na dieta. Foram utilizados 24 animais, sendo 12 vacas de descarte com peso corporal inicial de 467 ± 15 kg e 12 novilhos com peso corporal inicial de 347 ± 17 kg. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 4x2 (quatro níveis de glicerina bruta e duas categorias animal). Os níveis de glicerina testados foram de 0, 60, 120 e 240 g/kg de matéria seca de dietas formuladas com 800 g de concentrado/kg de matéria seca. A inclus o de glicerina bruta na dieta n o alterou o peso e o rendimento de carca a, a espessura de gordura subcutanea e as características qualitativas da carne. Vacas apresentaram carca as quentes mais pesadas (279,4 vs. 231,8 kg) e com maior espessura de gordura subcutanea (13,8 vs. 5,2 mm) que novilhos. A glicerina em quantidades de 0 e 120 g/kg de matéria seca da dieta proporcionou menor participa o de músculos e maior de gordura na carca a de vacas em rela o à carca a de novilhos. A carne das vacas apresentou colora
Níveis dietéticos de proteína bruta para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 e 22 a 42 dias de idade  [cached]
Costa Fernando Guilherme Perazzo,Rostagno Horacio Santiago,Albino Luiz Fernando Teixeira,Gomes Paulo Cezar
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2001,
Abstract: Foram realizados dois experimentos para determinar o nível ideal de proteína bruta para frangos de corte Ross de ambos os sexos, nas fases inicial (1 a 21) e crescimento (22 a 42 dias de idade). Foram avaliados: o ganho de peso (GP), consumo de ra o (CR), convers o alimentar (CA) e características de carca a. Para cada fase, o delineamento experimental foi em blocos inteiramente casualisados. Na fase inicial, utilizou-se um fatorial 2x6, constituído de dois sexos e seis níveis de proteína bruta (20,00; 20,50; 21,00; 21,50; 22,00 e 22,50%), seis repeti es e um total de 1440 aves. Na fase de crescimento, utilizou-se um fatorial 2x5, constituído de dois sexos e cinco níveis de proteína bruta (17,50; 18,00; 18,50; 19,00 e 19,50%), seis repeti es e um total de 1200 aves. Os níveis de lisina total utilizados foram 1,27% e 1,16%, respectivamente para as fases inicial e de crescimento. Foram mantidas as rela es lisina: metionina+cistina, treonina, triptofano e arginina, levando em considera o o perfil da proteína ideal. Com base nos resultados de desempenho, a exigência de proteína bruta estimada para machos, na fase de 1 a 21 dias foi de 22,42% PB, enquanto que para fêmeas, observou-se efeito linear para GP e CA. Na fase de crescimento, os machos responderam linearmente aos níveis de proteína para CR, CA, rendimento de peito e gordura abdominal, tendo estes resultados melhorados à medida que se aumentava o nível de proteína bruta da ra o. Para as fêmeas, verificou-se efeito quadrático do nível dietético de proteína para GP e efeito linear para CA e gordura abdominal. Os níveis de proteína bruta estimados foram: na fase inicial 22,4 e 22,5% e na fase de crescimento 19,5 e 18,5% de PB, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas.
Evaluation of Glycerine from Biodiesel Production as a Feed Ingredient for Broilers  [PDF]
S. Cerrate,F. Yan,Z. Wang,C. Coto
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2006,
Abstract: Glycerine from biodiesel production was used as a pure energy source in broiler diets formulated to meet typical commercial standards. In the first experiment, glycerine was added at 0, 5, and 10% of the diet while in the second experiment glycerine was added at 0, 2.5, and 5%. Glycerine was assigned a metabolizable energy value of 3527 ME kcal/kg in formulating the diets. In each experiment the various treatments were assigned to eight replicate pens of 60 male broilers each. In the first experiment, birds fed diets with 5% glycerine did not differ significantly in performance from birds fed the control diet with no glycerine. Birds fed diets with 10% glycerine consumed significantly less feed than did those fed diets with 0 or 5% glycerine and consequently had significantly reduced body weight. It is felt that this was due in large part to reduced flow rate in the feeders used in this study as previous researchers have shown acceptance of higher levels of glycerine. In the second study, birds fed diets with 2.5 or 5% glycerine had growth rate and feed conversion that did not differ significantly from that of birds fed the diet with no glycerine. Breast yield as a percent of the dressed carcass was significantly greater for birds fed diets with 2.5 or 5% glycerine as compared to those fed the diet with no glycerine. These data indicate that glycerine from biodiesel can be a useful energy source for use in broiler diets. Concerns remain regarding acceptable levels of residual methanol resulting from separation of the fatty acids in biodiesel production.
Glicerina bruta na dieta de cordeiros terminados em confinamento
Lage, Josiane Fonseca;Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues;Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro;Valadares Filho, Sebasti?o de Campos;Oliveira, André Soares de;Detmann, Edenio;Souza, Natália Krish de Paiva;Lima, Jéssika Carolina Moutinho;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2010000900011
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin (cg) inclusion, with 36.20% of glicerol, on finishing lamb diets on intake, nutrients digestibility, and productive and economical performance. thirty-five intact male lambs (santa inês), with 20±2.27 kg of initial average body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments, with six replicates. the treatments consisted of increasing crude glycerin levels on the diet: 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% of diet dry matter. after ten days of adaptation, five animals were slaughtered to determine initial carcass dressing. after the adaptation period, 30 animals were housed in individual pens. when the group reached average body weight of 35 kg, animals were slaughtered. the cg levels had a negative linear effect on dry matter intake and average daily weight gain, and a quadratic effect on neutral fiber detergent digestibility corrected for ash and protein. crude glycerin levels had also a quadratic effect on body weight at slaughter and feed-to-gain ratio (fgr). crude glycerin with 36.20% of glycerol can be included in the diet of finishing lambs up to 6% of dry matter, optimizing the fgr and promoting economic benefits.
Níveis dietéticos de proteína bruta para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 e 22 a 42 dias de idade
Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo;Rostagno, Horacio Santiago;Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira;Gomes, Paulo Cezar;Toledo, Rodrigo Santana;Vargas Junior, José Geraldo de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982001000600017
Abstract: two experiments were carried out to determine the ideal levels of crude protein (cp) for ross broiler chickens from one to 21 and 22 to 42 days of age, of both sexes. the parameters evaluated were weight gain (wg), feed intake (fi), feed:gain ratio (f/g) and carcass evaluation (cv). in the starting phase (1 to 21 days of age), different protein levels (20.00; 20.50; 21.00; 21.50; 22.00 and 22.50%) were used in diets containing 1.27% total lysine. in growing phase (22 to 42 days of age), the dietary protein levels were 17.50; 18.00; 18.50; 19.00 and 19.50% with 1.16% total lysine. in both experiments, were maintained ratio lysine: methionine+cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine, considering the ideal protein profile. in both experiments, a completely randomized block experimental design, in a 2x6 and 2x5 (two sexes and six or five dietary lysine levels) factorial arrangement, was used, with six replicates, using a total of 1440 and 1200 birds, respectively. considering bird performance, the dietary cp requirement estimate from 1 to 21 days, for the males was 22.42% cp, while the females showed linear effect for wg and f/g. in the growing phase (22 to 42 days of age), the protein levels affected linearly males fi, f/g, breast yield and abdominal fat. females showed quadratic effect for wg and linear effect for f/g and abdominal fat. the requirements of the crude protein estimates for male and female, respectively were: 22.4 and 22.5% cp for starting phase and 19.5 and 18.5% cp growing phase.
Acción fundente de cenizas de glicerina de biodiésel en pastas cerámicas  [cached]
Iglesias, I.,Aineto, M.,Soriano, R.,Acosta, A.
Boletín de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Cerámica y Vidrio , 2009,
Abstract: Biodiesel glycerin ashes are residual ashes generated in the combustion of glycerine that is produced as a by-product in the manufacture of biodiesel. The aim of this work is to check their flux action in ceramic fabrics. In order to do so, both mineralogical and chemical characterisation of these ashes and some ceramic pastes, used in stoneware, has been performed, as well as an assessment of its thermal behaviour. Different mixtures of biodiesel ceramics adding ashes to a paste in a ceramic 5, 7 and 10% by weight have been used. Such mixtures have been studied with a hot stage microscope and it can be concluded that the ash acts as a flux of the ceramic paste reducing its sintering temperature in more than 100 oC, which in an industrial process would result in energy savings in the firing process and valorisation of waste it as a secondary raw material, in addition to obtaining an environmental benefit reusing waste products and preventing its dumping. Las cenizas de glicerina de biodiésel son unas cenizas residuales generadas en la combustión de la glicerina que se obtiene como subproducto en la fabricación de biodiésel. El objetivo de este trabajo es comprobar su acción fundente en pastas cerámicas. Para ello se ha realizado la caracterización mineralógica y química de dichas cenizas y de unas pastas cerámicas destinadas a la fabricación de gres, así como el estudio de su comportamiento térmico. Se han formulado diferentes mezclas adicionando cenizas de glicerina a la pasta cerámica en un 5, 7 y 10 % en peso. Estas mezclas se han estudiado con el microscopio de calefacción de manera comparada y se concluye que la ceniza actúa como fundente de la pasta cerámica reduciendo su temperatura de sinterización en más de 100oC, lo cual en un proceso industrial se traduciría en un ahorro energético en la cocción y en la valorización de un residuo al considerarlo como una materia prima secundaria, además de obtener un beneficio medioambiental al reutilizar un residuo evitando su vertido.
OBTENCIóN DE MONOGLICéRIDOS DE ACEITE DE RICINO EMPLEANDO GLICERINA REFINADA Y CRUDA: ESTUDIO DE LAS PRINCIPALES VARIABLES DEL PROCESO PRODUCTION OF MONOGLYCERIDES FROM CASTOR OIL USING CRUDE AND REFINED GLYCERIN: STUDY OF THE MAIN VARIABLES OF THE PROCESS  [cached]
Sandra M CARDONA V,Rodrigo GONZáLEZ C,Alexander FRANCO C,Fernando CARDE?O L
Vitae , 2010,
Abstract: Los monoglicéridos son ampliamente usados como emulsionantes en las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y cosmética. En este estudio se reportó la producción de monoglicéridos de aceite de ricino por reacciones de glicerólisis usando glicerina USP y la glicerina cruda, subproducto del proceso de producción del biodiesel de palma. Se emplearon catalizadores básicos como hidróxidos metálicos y óxido de plomo, y ácidos como acetato de plomo. Los resultados se alan que los catalizadores basados en plomo proporcionaron mayores conversiones hacia los monoglicéridos que los basados en sodio, potasio y calcio. Se encontró que una alta relación molar de aceite/glicerina fue una variable determinante que favorece altas concentraciones de monoglicéridos. Finalmente, se demostró que el uso de glicerina cruda para la producción de monoglicéridos es factible, aunque en este caso la concentración de monoglicéridos obtenidos se disminuye aproximadamente en un 20% debido, probablemente, al envenenamiento de los catalizadores. Monoglycerides are widely used as emulsifiers in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this article was reported the production of monoglycerides from castor oil, by glicerolysis reactions, using USP glycerine and crude glycerol derived from a palm-biodiesel production process. Metalic hydroxides and lead oxide were used as basic catalysts, while lead acetate was used as acid catalyst. Results showed that the lead-based catalysts exhibited higher conversions to monoglycerides respect to those based on sodium, potassium and calcium. We found that a high molar ratio oil/glycerol was a determinant variable that favors high concentrations of monoglycerides. Ultimatelly, it was shown that it is feasible to use crude glycerol for the production of monoglycerides, although in this case the concentration of monoglycerides is reduced 20% due to the poisoning of the catalysts.
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