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Maternal and infant health in urban and rural areas in Morocco: Analysis of the preliminary results of the National Survey on Population and Family Health (EPSF 2011)  [PDF]
Abdesslam Boutayeb, Wiam Boutayeb, Mohamed E. N. Lamlili
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48086
Abstract: Background: The last Moroccan population and family health survey (EPSF 2011) was carried out between November 2010 and March 2011. The final report and the whole database are not yet accessible while a preliminary report was released early March 2012. The information given so far does not allow for a complete evaluation of the present health situation in Morocco. However, a partial equity analysis can be devoted to the comparison of health indicators in terms of gender and urban-rural gaps. Method: 1) Questionnaires: a household questionnaire dealt with household characteristics, general health, housing condition and anthropometric data for children less than six years of age. A second questionnaire was devoted specifically to ever married women and dealt with their resources, marriage, reproductive health, family planning, AIDS/SIDA, healthcare and nutrition. 2) Data collection: data were collected through the national survey using a three-stage stratified sampling design to select 640 clusters covering the 16 Moroccan regions. A total of 15,577 households were randomly drawn, providing a sample of 75,061 individuals (51.1% females and 48.9% males) for investigation. 3) Analysis: in this short report, we relied only on partial data released by the Ministry of Health in a preliminary report. We used absolute differences and relative ratios to study the evolution of gender and urban-rural gaps on the basis of socioeconomic indicators. Results and Discussion: The Moroccan population seems to be in the last phase of its demographic transition. The total fertility rate decreased from 5.6 children per woman in 1980 to 2.5 in 2011. The mean age of first marriage went from 24 years for men and 17.5 years for women in 1960 to 31.5 years and 26.3 in 2011 for men and women respectively. The age structure is showing a trend of ageing population. Generally, health indicators related to reproductive and women’s health improved noticeably and consequently, maternal and infant mortality also decreased. However, while these achievements are praiseworthy as national averages, they remain insufficient in terms of equitable healthcare and access to health services since there is still a long way to go in order to reduce the huge gender gaps and rural-urban disparities. Conclusion: In this short report, we showed that, as averages, health indicators improved noticeably during the last decade but gender inequality and urban-rural disparities are still challenging health decision makers. Moroccan health decision makers are urged to adopt an equitable health strategy,
Human Leptospirosis in Morocco 2011  [PDF]
Haraji Mohammed,Cohen Nozha,Karib Hakim,Barkia Abdelaziz
Current Research in Bacteriology , 2012,
Abstract: Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the family of leptospires. This bacteria is carried by many mammals, mainly rodents. Leptospirosis may occur as small outbreaks. It represents a real public health problem in developing countries. Leptospirosis is fundamentally linked to conditions of poverty and health education activities, urbanization and social integration are the basis of its control. It is a globally important zoonotic disease that affects humans on all continents but its social distribution is uneven. Leptospirosis is more common in rural populations, especially in developing countries. It can also occur in urban populations where there is an actual increase in incidence. Its impact on public health is often difficult to determine, sometimes because of low clinical suspicion, or, as is more common, difficulty in laboratory diagnosis. Although real progress diagnostics are ongoing, the disease remains difficult to diagnose early.
ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS  [PDF]
Gidiu Valeria,Toader Valentin
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural) and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010), Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007), Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008), Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008) or Sahn and Stifel (2002) are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data series are too short may affect the results we have obtained. Also, the economic gaps analyzed represent an average for the whole country, what means that in some regions these differences may be even higher.
Trabalho infantil: persistência intergeracional e decomposi??o da incidência entre 1992 e 2004 no Brasil rural e urbano
Aquino, Juliana Maria;Fernandes, Maurício Machado;Pazello, Elaine Toldo;Scorzafave, Luiz Guilherme;
Revista de Economia Contemporanea , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-98482010000100004
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to investigate if there is child labor intergenerational persistence, using separating probit models for urban and rural areas of brazil. moreover, we decompose the child labor variation between 1992 and 2004 in order to understand the factors responsible for child labor decrease in the period. the results show that if the parents were child workers in the past, this increases the probability of child labor of their children and this is true in brazilian urban and rural areas. however, the impact is stronger in rural areas. moreover, an important factor explaining the fall of child labor in the period was the increase of parents' schooling.
Iron Deficiency and Anaemia in Rural School Children in a Coastal Area of Morocco  [PDF]
Mohamed El Hioui,Ahmed Omar Touhami Ahami,Youssef Aboussaleh,Stephane Rusinek
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: Iron deficiency anaemia is the major public health problem encountered in the world. In Children, this trouble has deleterious consequences on the global health and weak cognitive development. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and its association with socio-economic and anthropometric parameters of the Schoolchildren in a rural coastal region of Morocco. 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study sample. The level of Haemoglobin was measured in a sub group of 280 school children. The iron status was determined by ferritin level in serum. A questionnaire was developed to collect information on the socio-economic and demographic status of the family such as the size of household, the working status of parents and their level of education. The mean haemoglobin concentration was 12.41 g/dl in boys and 12, 5 g/dl in girls, whereas the mean seric ferritin level was 26, 7 μg/l in boys and 27, 9 μg/l in girls. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 12, 2 % and iron deficiency was found in 20.4 %. Serum ferritin (SF), serum iron concentrations and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were significantly correlated with Hemoglobin There was an inversely significant relationship between education of the mother and anaemia in children (p=0.01) but not with gender, nor parents` employment. It is concluded that anaemia is relatively less prevalent in this study population. Further studies are needed to explore the dietary determinants of this situation.
Pesticide Use Pattern among Farmers in a Rural District of Meknes: Morocco
Berni Imane, Atassi Mariam, Nejjari Chakib, Zidouh Ahmed, El Jaafari Samir, El Rhazi Karima
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103125
Abstract:
Background: Pesticides in Morocco are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risks to human health phytosanitary practices of rural farmers in the region of Meknes. Methods: This study was based on a transversal survey dealt with 402 farming households in 15 rural communes. The results of the survey have undergone statistical analysis. Results: A sample of 402 individuals were included in this survey; it was found that the age of the farmers surveyed is between 18 and 72 years. The potato vine crops and orchards record the most important use pesticides. The survey found that 74 commercial preparations are used, 14 insecticides, 23 fungicides, 26 herbicides, 3 insecticide-acaricide and 1 nematicide. Some of these substances are classified as to its carcinogenicity risk in group 1, 2A and 2B according to IARC monograph (International Center for Research on Cancer). The farmers use carcinogens products: 47.3% are already exposed to tobacco, and very few of these producers are confronted with the health rules for the phytosanitary treatment. Most reported that they have skin irritation after application of pesticides, a cold and hot flushes and other health problems such as respiratory problems including “allergies”. No significant correlation was found between the declaration of these health problems and the level of education. Among the farmers who reported these problems, 3.73% reported having headaches, and eleven having respiratory problems. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco to a certain degree had a strong correlation with the return of these health problems (p = 0.0057 and p = 0.052). Conclusions: This study shows that farmers in Meknes region are frequently exposed to dangerous and restricted pesticides, practicing their agricultural activities within adequate protection. The study establishes a diagnosis of farmers’ exposure to carcinogenic chemicals and is an important basis for the definition of preventive measures against the risk factors linked to cancer in the farms.
Epidemiological profile of snakebites in Morocco
Arfaoui, A;Hmimou, R;Ouammi, L;Soulaymani, A;Mokhtari, A;Chafiq, F;Soulaymani-Bencheikh, R;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992009000400005
Abstract: the present work aims to find the epidemiological profile of snakebites in morocco through a retrospective study of 1,423 snakebite cases that occurred between 1992 and 2007. data were obtained from medical charts of envenomation at the poison control and pharmacovigilance center of morocco. results revealed that 86% of the snakebites had occurred in rural areas and that males were significantly more affected than females at a sex ratio of 23:20. furthermore, 35% of the bites happened during the summer, with a peak of 215 cases in june (15.1%). we also discovered that 67.3% of the patients were bitten during the day. the age group that comprised the most agriculturally active persons, from 20 to 44 years old, was the most affected by snakebites (551 cases). in terms of evolution, patients who were at least 60 years of age (8.89%) as well as those who were less than 10 years old (7.50%) presented higher mortality. according to clinical severity grades, the data revealed a 70% predominance of grade 2 cases (430). deaths had occurred only in patients with grades 3 and 4. furthermore, grade 4 patients presented 100% mortality whereas grade 3 registered 10.7%. the distribution of snakebites according to administrative regions in morocco showed a predominance of the souss-massa-daraa region both in terms of frequency (32%) and mortality (72.1%). our study clearly displayed the severity and extent of the snakebite problem in the country, thus revealing that public health authorities should give more attention to this serious situation.
Social inequalities and health inequity in Morocco
Abdesslam Boutayeb
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-5-1
Abstract: Our study was based mainly on annual reports and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organisation (WHO), The Moroccan Health Ministry and related papers published in international journals.As indicated by the last Arab Human Development Reports (AHDR 2002, AHDR 2003, AHDR 2004) and implicitly confirmed by the "National Initiative for Human Development" (NIHD) launched in May 2005 by the King of Morocco, many districts and shanty towns, urban or peri-urban, and a multitude of rural communes live in situations characterized by difficult access to basic social services of which education and health are examples.Recent evidence showed that improved health is more than a consequence of development. It is a central input into economic and social development and poverty reduction. Serious initiatives for human development should consider the reduction of social inequalities and health inequities as a first priority. Otherwise, the eventual development achieved cannot be sustained.According to the last census, Morocco has a population approaching 30 million people, experiencing a transition on different levels. In 2005, 55% of the population is living in urban areas, compared to 43% in 1982 and 29% in 1960. The Moroccan population is young, with 38% under the age of 14 years, and life expectancy at birth has increased from 65 in 1980 to 68.5 in 2004. The country has made good progress in the control of preventable childhood diseases but social inequalities and health inequities remain the major problems for the third millennium.Despite the diverse resources (agriculture, phosphates, fishing, potentialities for tourism, etc...) and the progress achieved during the last decade, the country still ranks 125th according to the Human Development Index (HDI) (UNDP, 2004)[1]. This unpleasant position is mainly explained by low income, high adult illiteracy, lack of generalized education, and health indi
Dietary determination of stunting and anaemia among pre-adolescents in Morocco
Y Aboussaleh, A Ahami
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Morocco is undergoing nutrition transition with more than one third of women and children presenting anaemia while about 20% of children under the age of 15 years have stunted growth. Meanwhile the prevalence of obesity is increasing yearly by 0.5 to 1 point among women. Many nutritional strategies have been proposed but none has been implemented. Nutrition education and food based strategies are by far the most sustainable. Dietary diversity is used for the assessment of diet quality and food security. Morocco is still suffering from a heavy burden of many micronutrient deficiencies and child stunting. The purpose of the study was to assess dietary diversity by comparing a dietary diversity score (DDS) and a weekly food frequency score (WFFS) and study their relationship to anaemia and stunting in school-age children in the province of Kenitra (Morocco). A stratified random sample of 263 pupils with average age of 12.9 ± 0.9 years including one-third from rural schools were administered a weekly food frequency questionnaire. A health team assessed the anthropometric status and blood haemoglobin levels. Dietary diversity was appraised with two types of indices: a dietary diversity score (DDS) based on the number of food categories consumed over a week, and a weekly food frequency score (WFFS) which also takes into account the frequency of food intake. The DDS was significantly higher in rural than in urban children, whereas the WFFS was lower, in rural children owing primarily to less frequent intake of fruits and vegetables than in the urban children. Maternal level of instruction was also positively associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables and milk, and with a higher WFFS. Both indices were significantly associated with stunting but not with anaemia. In conclusion, these results suggest that diet quality is associated with height status and food diversity indices that take food frequency into account may provide a better reflection of diet quality.
Variability and trends in Laptev Sea ice outflow between 1992–2011  [PDF]
T. Krumpen,M. Janout,K. I. Hodges,R. Gerdes
The Cryosphere , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/tc-7-349-2013
Abstract: Variability and trends in seasonal and interannual ice area export out of the Laptev Sea between 1992 and 2011 are investigated using satellite-based sea ice drift and concentration data. We found an average total winter (October to May) ice area transport across the northern and eastern Laptev Sea boundaries (NB and EB) of 3.48 × 105 km2. The average transport across the NB (2.87 × 105 km2) is thereby higher than across the EB (0.61 × 105 km2), with a less pronounced seasonal cycle. The total Laptev Sea ice area flux significantly increased over the last decades (0.85 × 105 km2 decade 1, p > 0.95), dominated by increasing export through the EB (0.55 × 105 km2 decade 1, p > 0.90), while the increase in export across the NB is smaller (0.3 × 105 km2 decade 1) and statistically not significant. The strong coupling between across-boundary SLP gradient and ice drift velocity indicates that monthly variations in ice area flux are primarily controlled by changes in geostrophic wind velocities, although the Laptev Sea ice circulation shows no clear relationship with large-scale atmospheric indices. Also there is no evidence of increasing wind velocities that could explain the overall positive trends in ice export. The increased transport rates are rather the consequence of a changing ice cover such as thinning and/or a decrease in concentration. The use of a back-propagation method revealed that most of the ice that is incorporated into the Transpolar Drift is formed during freeze-up and originates from the central and western part of the Laptev Sea, while the exchange with the East Siberian Sea is dominated by ice coming from the central and southeastern Laptev Sea. Furthermore, our results imply that years of high ice export in late winter (February to May) have a thinning effect on the ice cover, which in turn preconditions the occurence of negative sea ice extent anomalies in summer.
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