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The Potential Impact of Incentives on Managed Lane Travel  [PDF]
Namoo A. Han, Mark W. Burris
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2018.84014
Abstract: The use of managed lanes to control and maximize freeway throughput is increasing. One way of encouraging more managed lane use is through the implementation of incentives. In the Dallas-Fort Worth area, a managed lane is being added to the I-30 (Tom Landry freeway) and incentives to maximize the use of this lane were planned. Since the managed lanes were not yet open and the incentives were hypothetical, a stated preference survey was used to gauge the potential impact of the incentives on traveler behavior. The stated preference questions were designed using Db-efficient and random adaptive designs. The incentives were chosen by looking at other programs around the country and through discussion with transportation experts. Once ready, the survey was administered online to travelers in the area and a total of 898 usable responses were gathered. From the responses, a mixed-logit model was developed to describe and predict traveler behavior. From the model, elasticities were calculated to predict the impact of the incentives on mode choice. The model found that incentives with discounts and free trips (a transit fare discount, express bus service to downtown, a free trip for every X number of paid trips, and a discount offered to select businesses) were more effective at encouraging managed lane use. The other incentives (gift card worth $5 for every X number of trips and $5 in credit for every X number of trips taken by transit) had less of an impact.
Optimal pricing and lot sizing vendor managed inventory
Mohsen Ziaee,J. L. Bouquard
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations , 2010,
Abstract: Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is one of the effective techniques for managing theinventory in supply chain. VMI models have been proven to reduce the cost of inventorycompared with traditional economic order quantity method under some conditions such asconstant demand and production expenditure. However, the modeling of the VMI problem hasnever been studied under some realistic assumptions such as price dependent demand. In thispaper, three problem formulations are proposed. In the first problem formulation, we study aVMI problem with one buyer and one supplier when demand is considered to be a function ofprice and price elasticity to demand, and production cost is also a function of demand. Theproposed model is formulated and solved in a form of geometric programming. For the secondand the third models, we consider VMI problem with two buyers and two suppliers assumingthat each buyer centre is relatively close to the other buyer centre. Each supplier has only oneproduct which is different from the product of the other supplier. Two suppliers cooperate incustomer relationship management and two buyers cooperate in supplier relationshipmanagement as well, so the suppliers send the orders of two buyers by one vehicle,simultaneously. For the third model, an additional assumption which is practically applicableand reasonable is considered. For all the proposed models, the optimal solution is comparedwith the traditional one. We demonstrate the implementation of our proposed models usingsome numerical examples.
User driven applications - new design paradigm  [PDF]
Sergey Andreyev
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: Programs for complicated engineering and scientific tasks always have to deal with a problem of showing numerous graphical results. The limits of the screen space and often opposite requirements from different users are the cause of the infinite discussions between designers and users, but the source of this ongoing conflict is not in the level of interface design, but in the basic principle of current graphical output: user may change some views and details, but in general the output view is absolutely defined and fixed by the developer. Author was working for several years on the algorithm that will allow eliminating this problem thus allowing stepping from designer-driven applications to user-driven. Such type of applications in which user is deciding what, when and how to show on the screen, is the dream of scientists and engineers working on the analysis of the most complicated tasks. The new paradigm is based on movable and resizable graphics, and such type of graphics can be widely used not only for scientific and engineering applications.
Distributed Pricing-Based User Association for Downlink Heterogeneous Cellular Networks  [PDF]
Kaiming Shen,Wei Yu
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: This paper considers the optimization of the user and base-station (BS) association in a wireless downlink heterogeneous cellular network under the proportional fairness criterion. We first consider the case where each BS has a single antenna and transmits at fixed power, and propose a distributed price update strategy for a pricing-based user association scheme, in which the users are assigned to the BS based on the value of a utility function minus a price. The proposed price update algorithm is based on a coordinate descent method for solving the dual of the network utility maximization problem, and it has a rigorous performance guarantee. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm as compared to the existing subgradient method for price update is that the proposed algorithm is independent of parameter choices and can be implemented asynchronously. Further, this paper considers the joint user association and BS power control problem, and proposes an iterative dual coordinate descent and the power optimization algorithm that significantly outperforms existing approaches. Finally, this paper considers the joint user association and BS beamforming problem for the case where the BSs are equipped with multiple antennas and spatially multiplex multiple users. We incorporate dual coordinate descent with the weighted minimum mean-squared error (WMMSE) algorithm, and show that it achieves nearly the same performance as a computationally more complex benchmark algorithm (which applies the WMMSE algorithm on the entire network for BS association), while avoiding excessive BS handover.
A User Identity Management Protocol for Cloud Computing Paradigm  [PDF]
Safiriyu Eludiora, Olatunde Abiona, Ayodeji Oluwatope, Adeniran Oluwaranti, Clement Onime, Lawrence Kehinde
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.43019
Abstract: Cloud computing paradigm is a service oriented system that delivers services to the customer at low cost. Cloud computing needs to address three main security issues: confidentiality, integrity and availability. In this paper, we propose user identity management protocol for cloud computing customers and cloud service providers. This protocol will authenticate and authorize customers/providers in other to achieve global security networks. The protocol will be developed to achieve the set global security objectives in cloud computing environments. Confidentiality, integrity and availability are the key challenges of web services’ or utility providers. A layered protocol design is proposed for cloud computing systems, the physical, networks and application layer. However, each layer will integrate existing security features such as firewalls, NIDS, NIPS, Anti-DDOS and others to prevent security threats and attacks. System vulnerability is critical to the cloud computing facilities; the proposed protocol will address this as part of measures to secure data at all levels. The protocol will protect customers/cloud service providers’ infrastructure by preventing unauthorized users to gain access to the service/facility.
Evaluating User Response to In-Car Haptic Feedback Touchscreens Using the Lane Change Test  [PDF]
Matthew J. Pitts,Lee Skrypchuk,Tom Wellings,Alex Attridge,Mark A. Williams
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/598739
Abstract: Touchscreen interfaces are widely used in modern technology, from mobile devices to in-car infotainment systems. However, touchscreens impose significant visual workload demands on the user which have safety implications for use in cars. Previous studies indicate that the application of haptic feedback can improve both performance of and affective response to user interfaces. This paper reports on and extends the findings of a 2009 study conducted to evaluate the effects of different combinations of touchscreen visual, audible, and haptic feedback on driving and task performance, affective response, and subjective workload; the initial findings of which were originally published in (M. J. Pitts et al., 2009). A total of 48 non-expert users completed the study. A dual-task approach was applied, using the Lane Change Test as the driving task and realistic automotive use case touchscreen tasks. Results indicated that, while feedback type had no effect on driving or task performance, preference was expressed for multimodal feedback over visual alone. Issues relating to workload and cross-modal interaction were also identified. 1. Introduction The touchscreen interface is synonymous with ubiquitous computing, being found in an ever-widening array of devices. This is due in part to the ease-of-use of the interface, with co-location of the input and display; and an interaction mode familiar to even novice users [1]. Having become established as the de facto standard interface for today’s multi-function smartphones [2], the emergence of the tablet computer has led to further entrenchment of the technology in the consumer market [3]. Touchscreens are also widely used in cars, where the flexibility of the interface also allows designers to create cleaner cockpit layouts free from the clutter of multiple pushbutton controls. It is the direct nature of touchscreen interaction however that poses the largest challenge to automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI) designers. As visual attention must be directed to the touchscreen during use, the interface imposes significant levels of visual workload upon the user; over 70% of the time taken to complete an in-vehicle touchscreen task can be spent looking away from the road [4]. This has implications for safety: accident risk is correlated to both the duration and frequency of glances away from the forward roadway [5], and large-scale studies have found that up to 60% of crashes, near-crashes, and incidents can be attributed to visual distraction from the primary driving task [6]. This problem is exacerbated the lack of
Context-Awareness via Ubiquitous User Profiling: An Implementation Paradigm
Software Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.se.20120203.05
Abstract: The diversity of service access contexts and the co-existence of different technologies that characterizes the forthcoming 4G systems lead to the heterogeneity of the networks and systems that support end-user applications’ provision. This creates the requirement for applications to be optimally delivered and executed over a large diversity of infrastructures and configurations, as well as for dynamic adaptability of services to changing conditions and contexts. The present paper focuses on context-awareness in service provisioning over PLMN and proposes a flexible and innovative model for user profiling. The innovation is based on the enrichment of common user profiling architectures to include location and other contextual attributes, so that enhanced adaptability and personalization is achieved. Moreover, an intelligent distributed middleware framework that capitalizes the enhanced user profiles and deals with context information is introduced. The framework compiles context information and user profiles and can enhance with contextual characteristics even context unaware services.
Power Allocation and Pricing in Multi-User Relay Networks Using Stackelberg and Bargaining Games  [PDF]
Qian Cao,H. Vicky Zhao,Yindi Jing
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: This paper considers a multi-user single-relay wireless network, where the relay gets paid for helping the users forward signals, and the users pay to receive the relay service. We study the relay power allocation and pricing problems, and model the interaction between the users and the relay as a two-level Stackelberg game. In this game, the relay, modeled as the service provider and the leader of the game, sets the relay price to maximize its revenue; while the users are modeled as customers and the followers who buy power from the relay for higher transmission rates. We use a bargaining game to model the negotiation among users to achieve a fair allocation of the relay power. Based on the proposed fair relay power allocation rule, the optimal relay power price that maximizes the relay revenue is derived analytically. Simulation shows that the proposed power allocation scheme achieves higher network sum-rate and relay revenue than the even power allocation. Furthermore, compared with the sum-rate-optimal solution, simulation shows that the proposed scheme achieves better fairness with comparable network sum-rate for a wide range of network scenarios. The proposed pricing and power allocation solutions are also shown to be consistent with the laws of supply and demand.
Breaking Out of the Cell: On The Benefits of a New Spreadsheet User-Interaction Paradigm  [PDF]
Ziv Hellman
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Contemporary spreadsheets are plagued by a profusion of errors, auditing difficulties, lack of uniform development methodologies, and barriers to easy comprehension of the underlying business models they represent. This paper presents a case that most of these difficulties stem from the fact that the standard spreadsheet user-interaction paradigm - the 'cell-matrix' approach - is appropriate for spreadsheet data presentation but has significant drawbacks with respect to spreadsheet creation, maintenance and comprehension when workbooks pass a minimal threshold of complexity. An alternative paradigm for the automated generation of spreadsheets directly from plain-language business model descriptions is presented along with its potential benefits. Sunsight Modeller (TM), a working software system implementing the suggested paradigm, is briefly described.
Smart Data Pricing Models for Internet-of-Things (IoT): A Bundling Strategy Approach  [PDF]
Dusit Niyato,Dinh Thai Hoang,Nguyen Cong Luong,Ping Wang,Dong In Kim,Zhu Han
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Internet of things (IoT) has emerged as a new paradigm for the future Internet. In IoT, enormous devices are connected to the Internet and thereby being a huge data source for numerous applications. In this article, we focus on addressing data management in IoT through using a smart data pricing (SDP) approach. With SDP, data can be managed flexibly and efficiently through intelligent and adaptive incentive mechanisms. Moreover, it is a major source of revenue for providers and partners. We propose a new pricing scheme for IoT service providers to determine the sensing data buying price and IoT service subscription fee offered to sensor owners and service users, respectively. Additionally, we adopt the bundling strategy that allows multiple providers to form a coalition and bid their services as a bundle, attracting more users and achieving higher revenue. Finally, we outline some important open research issues for SDP and IoT.
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